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evidence (1 low, 3 conflicting, 6 high)effective for?categoryone to watch?typepopularitysourceurl2urlsource abstract#
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acai0plant / herb1.01PubMed#
aloe vera3diabetesdiabetesplant / herb1.6PubMed suggest that oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness.

Vogler BK, Ernst E.
^ Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O. (1996) Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine 3: 245–248.^ Nassiff HA, Fajardo F, Velez F. (1993) Effecto del aloe sobre la hiperlipidemia en pacientes refractarios a la dieta. Rev Cuba Med Gen Integr 9:43–515000 angina patients adding the 'Husk of Isabgol' and 'aloe vera' to their diet had reduced total serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, fasting and post prandial blood sugar level in diabetic patients, total lipids and also increased HDL Agarwal 1985
andro-graphis1.5respiratory tract infectionanti-viralOTWplant / herb0.085 of 3 trials (433 patients) found Andrographis paniculata extract alone or in combination with Acanthopanax senticosus was more effective than placebo & may be an effective treatment of uncomplicated acute upper respiratory tract infection. Poolsup 2004Andrographis paniculata (N.) extract SHA-10 fixed combination, Kan Jang, shows a positive effect in 95 individuals in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections and also relieves the inflammatory symptoms of sinusitis and the drug was well tolerated. Gabrielian 2002#
anti-oxidants1don't workanti-viral, general healthcompound0.085PubMed"randomised primary and secondary intervention trials have failed to show any consistent benefit from the use of antioxidant supplements on cardiovascular disease or cancer risk, with some trials even suggesting possible harm in certain subgroups. " Stanner SA, Hughes J, Kelly CN, Buttriss J (2004). "A review of the epidemiological evidence for the 'antioxidant hypothesis'". Public Health Nutr 7 (3): 407–22."To date, however, the published results of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of supplements containing antioxidant nutrients have not provided clear evidence of a beneficial effect." Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, Bertrais S, Mennen L, Malvy D, Roussel AM, Favier A, Briancon S (2004). "The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals". Arch Intern Med 164 (21): 2335–42.#
arginine2migrainemigraineOTWcompound1.08NIH studies suggest that adding arginine to ibuprofen (e.g., Motrin® or Advil®) therapy may decrease migraine headache pain. #
arginine2cardiocardioOTWcompound1.08NIH evidence from several studies suggests that arginine taken by mouth or by injection may improve exercise tolerance and blood flow in arteries of the heart. Benefits have been shown in some patients with coronary artery disease and chest pain (called angina). However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to develop safe and effective doses.#
aspartic acid0compound0.289n/a#
astax-anthin1general healthOTWcompound0.152PubMed have been at least eight clinical studies conducted in over 180 humans using astaxanthin to assess its safety, bioavailability and clinical aspects relevant to oxidative stress, inflammation or the cardiovascular system. There have been no adverse outcomes reported. Studies have demonstrated reduced markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and improved blood rheology.
astragalus0OTWplant / herb0.385n/a#
beta-carotene0compound1.03PubMed beta-carotene supplementation appears to increase the risk of lung cancer among current smokers. Although beta-carotene was prevalent in multivitamins, high-dose beta-carotene was observed among multivitamin formulas sold to promote visual health. Tanvetyanon T, Bepler G. PMID: 18429004risk of lung cancer#
beta-glucan3cancercancerOTWcompound0.261PubMed results suggest that LNT in combination with anticancer drugs prolong the survival time of patients with advanced gastric and colorectal cancer. It is suggested that Laminaria may play a role in preventing either the initiation of breast cancer or its promotion by endogenous physiological factors. # ^ Teas, J (1983). "The dietary intake of Laminarin, a brown seaweed, and breast cancer prevention". Nutrition and cancer (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) 4 (3): 217–222. ISSN 0163-5581. PMID 6302638. # ^ DiLuzio, NR; Williams DL, McNamee RB, Malshet VG (1980). "Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan". Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer (Germany: Springer Verlag) 75: 165–172. ISSN 0080-0015. PMID 7232829. Chihara, G (1992). "Recent progress in immunopharmacology and therapeutic effects of polysaccharides". Developments in biological standardization (Switzerland: Karger) 77: 191–197. ISSN 0301-5149. PMID 1426662. #
bilberry1.5eye healtheyesplant / herb0.418PubMed AZh, Gesarevich OG, Gonchar AM, Trofimova NA, Kolosova NG. Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevents macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats. Adv Gerontol. 2005;16:76-9. (Article in Russian)Abstract.#
bitter melon0diabetesdiabetesplant / herb0.126PubMedNO HUMAN STUDIES#
bitter orange0plant / herb0.118no evidence#
black cohosh1menopausegynoplant / herb0.386 isopropanolic aqueous extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (40 mg/day) was found to be a valid alternative to low-dose transdermal estradiol in the management of climacteric complaints in 64 postmenopausal women who cannot be treated with or who refuse conventional strategies. Nappi 2005#
black tea1.5heart disease, stressmental health, cardioplant / herb0.395 on early research, black tea may reduce stress and help patients feel more relaxed. More research is needed to confirm these findings. It should be noted that high doses of caffeine have been linked to anxiety.There is conflicting evidence from a small number of studies examining the relationship of tea intake with the risk of heart attack. Tea may reduce the risk of platelet aggregation or endothelial dysfunction, proposed to be beneficial against blocked arteries in the heart. The long-term effects of tea consumption on cardiovascular risk factors, such as cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis, are not fully understood. Other research suggests that drinking black tea regularly does not affect plasma homocysteine levels or blood pressure. Black tea may increase heart rate.#
black tea1cancercancerplant / herb0.395 studies have explored a possible association between regular consumption of black tea and rates of cancer in populations. This research has yielded conflicting results, with some studies suggesting benefits, and others reporting no effects. Laboratory and animal studies report that components of tea, such as polyphenols, have antioxidant properties and effects against tumors. However, effects in humans remain unclear, and these components may be more common in green tea rather than in black tea.Some animal and laboratory research suggests that components of black tea may be carcinogenic, although effects in humans are not clear. Overall, the relationship of black tea consumption and human cancer remains undetermined.#
borage1.5rheumatismarthritisplant / herb0.362 g/d GLA reduced the number of tender joints by 36% for 37 rheumatism patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week trial Leventhal 1993#
boron1menopausegynomineral0.667deadlinkNeilsen FH, Hunt CE, Mullen LM & Hunt JR: Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASED J 1987;1:394-397not properly understood yet - "Boron". PDRhealth. #
Bromelain1.5painpainenzyme0.44PubMed ^ Kleef R, Delohery T, Bovbjerg D (1996). "Selective modulation of cell adhesion molecules on lymphocytes by bromelain protease 5". Pathobiology 64 (6): 339–46. doi:10.1159/000164070. PMID 9159029.#
Bromelain3arthritisarthritisenzyme0.44 Brien S, Lewith G, Walker A (2004). "Bromelain as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis: a Review of Clinical Studies". Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM. 1 (3): 251–257. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh035. PMID 15841258.
calcium4colorectal cancercancermineral0.638 # Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al (1999). "Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prevention Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (2): 101–7. # ^ Bonithon-Kopp C, Kronborg O, Giacosa A, Räth U, Faivre J (2000). "Calcium and fibre supplementation in prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence: a randomised intervention trial. European Cancer Prevention Organisation Study Group". Lancet 356 (9238): 1300–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02813-0. PMID 11073017. # for abstract see PMID 17556697# ^ Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, Recker RR, Heaney RP (2007). "Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 85 (6): 1586–91. PMID 17556697. # ^ Lin J, Manson JE, Lee IM, Cook NR, Buring JE, Zhang SM (2007). "Intakes of calcium and vitamin d and breast cancer risk in women". Arch. Intern. Med. 167 (10): 1050–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.167.10.1050. PMID 17533208.#
calcium2osteoporosisarthritismineral0.638PubMed Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J (2005). "Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyps and calcium metabolisism disorder.". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD003548. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003548.pub3. PMID 16034903.
doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055218. PMID 16481635.

# ^ Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, et al (2006). "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (7): 669–83. # ^ Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al (2005). "Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial". Lancet 365 (9471): 1621–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63013-9. PMID doi:10.1056/NEJM199901143400204. PMID 9887161. #
capsaicin0nonenoneplant / herb0.18no evidencen/a#
carnitine1diabetes, impotencediabetes, sexcompound2.9PubMed Mingrone, Aldo V. Greco, Esmeralda Capristo, Giuseppe Benedetti, Annalisa Giancaterini, Andrea De Gaetano, and Giovanni Gasbarrini (1999). "L-Carnitine Improves Glucose Disposal in Type 2 Diabetic Patients". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 18 (1): 77–82. PMID 10067662Lenzi A, Lombardo F, Sgro P, Salacone P, Caponecchia L, Dondero F, Gandini L. "Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial.". Fertility and Sterility (2003), Volume 79 , Issue 2 , Pages 292 - 300. PMID 12569937#
cats claw2cancer, viruses, immune systemgeneral healthplant / herb0.044PubMed, M.E., Neto, C.C., Winiarz, E., Vaisberg, A.J. & Hammon, G.B. (2005). Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Uncaria (Rubiaceae). Phytochemistry, 66(1), 5-29. PMID 15649507#
chamomile0bowel disordersdigestionplant / herb0.398no evidence#
chaste-berry0plant / herb0.053no evidence#
chrond-roitin0arthritisarthritiscompound1.01no evidence#
cinammon4diabetesdiabetesplant / herb1.15^ Taher, Muhammad et al.. "A proanthocyanidin from Cinnamomum zeylanicum stimulates phosphorylation of insullin receptor in 3T3-L1 adipocyties" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-05-11.^ Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan MM, Khattak KN, Anderson RA (December 2003). "Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes". Diabetes Care 26 (12): 3215–8. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.12.3215. PMID 14633804.^ Verspohl, Eugen J. et al. (2005). "Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum In vivo and In vitro". Phytotherapy Research 19 (3): 203–206. doi:10.1002/ptr.1643.#
cocoa4heart, blood pressurecardioOTWplant / herb1.15Nature The meta-analysis confirms the BP-lowering capacity of flavanol-rich cocoa products in a larger set of trials than previously reported. However, significant statistical heterogeneity across studies could be found, and questions such as the most appropriate dose and the long-term side effect profile warrant further investigation before cocoa products can be recommended as a treatment option in hypertension.Collectively, our data demonstrate that the human ingestion of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin is, at least in part, causally linked to the reported vascular effects observed after the consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa. -)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Current randomized dietary studies indicate that consumption of foods rich in cocoa may reduce blood pressure, while tea intake appears to have no effect. Effect of cocoa and tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis.
collagen0compound0.271no evidence#
copper 0mineral2.41no evidence #
CoQ101heart diseasecardioCompound0.377American Family Physician evidence is too inconsistent to recommend use of coenzyme Q10 in symptomatic treatment of congestive heart failure." #
CoQ102migrainemigraineCompound0.377PubMed of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prophylaxis: a randomized controlled trial. CoQ10 was superior to placebo for attack-frequency, headache-days and days-with-nausea in the third treatment month and well tolerated;#
CoQ103blood pressurecardioCompound0.377Human Hypertension conclude that coenzyme Q10 has the potential in hypertensive patients to lower systolic blood pressure by up to 17 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by up to 10 mm Hg without significant side effects.#
CoQ100diabetesdiabetesCompound0.377American Family Physician are insufficient to recommend use of coenzyme Q10 for improved glycemic control in diabetes mellitus.#
cranberry5urinary infectionurinaryplant / herb1.02 of 153 women (avg age 78) given 10 oz. cranberry juice or placebo found urine bacteria in 15% of cranberry group compared to 28% of placebo group Avorn 1996^ Jepson RG, Craig JC (June 2007). "A systematic review of the evidence for cranberries and blueberries in UTI prevention". Mol Nutr Food Res 51 (6): 738–45. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200600275. PMID 17492798.
cranberry1.5kidney stones, gum diseaseplant / herb1.02 of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation.
McHarg T. CONCLUSION: Cranberry juice has antilithogenic properties and, as such, deserves consideration as a conservative therapeutic protocol in managing calcium oxalate urolithiasis.
creatine4enhances cognitionmental healthcompound0.283PubMed Rae, C., Digney, A .L., McEwan, S.R. and Bates, T.C. (September 2003) Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves cognitive performance; a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Biological Sciences.^ McMorris, T., Mielcarz, G., Harris, R. C., Swain, J. P., & Howard, A. (2007). Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 14, 517-528. doi: 10.1080/13825580600788100#
dandelion0plant / herb0.571n/a#
devil's claw4pain reliefarthritis, painplant / herb0.1 results of an open clinical study in 75 patients suggest that this Devil's claw extract has a clinically beneficial effect in the treatment of arthrosis of the hip or knee.#
DHEA2diabetes, cardiodiabetes, cardiocompound0.122PubMed dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration and carotid atherosclerosis in men with type 2 diabetes.
Fukui M, Kitagawa Y, Nakamura N, Kadono M, Yoshida M, Hirata C, Wada K, Hasegawa G, Yoshikawa T.
Boggs, Will. "DHEA Restores Oxidative Balance in Type 2 Diabetes". Medscape. #
echinacea2coldsanti-viralplant / herb1.09 282 subjects aged 18-65 years with a history of 2 or more colds, a total of 128 subjects contracted a common cold (59 used echinacea, 69 placebo) & the total daily symptom scores were found to be 23.1% lower in the echinacea group than in placebo. Goel 2004In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, Echinaceae purpureae herba (Echinacin, EC31J0) was well tolerated and clinically effective in alleviating symptoms more rapidly than placebo in patients with a common cold. Schulten 2001#
elder0plant / herb0.1#
evening primrose oil0PMSgynoplant / herb0.389PubMed systematic literature search of clinical trials of evening primrose oil (EPO) for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was carried out with a view to performing a meta-analysis. Only seven placebo-controlled trials were found but only in five trials was randomization clearly indicated. Inconsistent scoring and response criteria made statistical pooling and hence a rigorous meta-analysis inappropriate. The two most well-controlled studies failed to show any beneficial effects for EPO, although because the trials were relatively small modest effects cannot be excluded. Nonetheless, on current evidence EPO is of little value in the management of premenstrual syndrome.The therapeutic effectiveness of evening primrose oil (Efamol, Vita-Glow) in the relief of 10 symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as well as menstrual symptoms was studied in 38 women. The prospective trial was randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled and was crossed-over after three cycles. Although the results showed an improvement in symptoms of PMS during the trial, no significant differences in the scoring between the active and placebo groups were found over six cycles. No "carry-over" effect of active medication was observed; the beneficial effect on all symptoms (psychological, fluid retention, breast) was rapid, the scores decreasing in the first cycle but increasing slightly at the change-over period after the third cycle, irrespective of whether the active or placebo medication was next given. These findings indicate that the improvement experienced by these women with moderate PMS was solely a placebo effect.#
fenugreek0cancer prevention, diabetescancer, diabetesplant / herb0.309n/a#
feverfew2migrainemigraineplant / herb0.169PubMed efficacy and tolerability of a CO(2)-extract of feverfew (MIG-99, 6.25 mg t.i.d.) for migraine prevention were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, parallel-group study. MIG-99 was found effective and shows a favourable benefit-risk ratio. Diener 2005A randomized, blinded trial with 72 patients found a reduction in number and severity of migraines while duration was unchanged. There were no serious side effects Murphy 1988#
fish oil3behaviour, general healthmental health, general healthother4PubMed CB, Hammond SM, Hampson SE, Eves A, Crowder MJ (2002). "Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry : the journal of mental science 181: 22–8. doi:10.1192/bjp.181.1.22. PMID 12091259. Huan M, Hamazaki K, Sun Y, Itomura M, Liu H, Kang W, Watanabe S, Terasawa K, Hamazaki T. (2004). "Suicide attempt and n-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cells: a case control study in China". Biological psychiatry 56 (7): 490–6. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.06.028. PMID 1540784. M. Bousquet, M. Saint-Pierre, C. Julien, N. Salem Jr., F. Cicchetti, and F. Calon (2007). "Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced neuronal degeneration in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease". The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22: 1213. doi:10.1096/fj.07-9677com. PMID 18032633. Augustsson K, Michaud DS, Rimm EB, et al (January 2003). "A prospective study of intake of fish and marine fatty acids and prostate cancer". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 12 (1): 64–7. PMID 12540506. De Deckere, EA (July 1999). "Possible beneficial effect of fish and fish n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast and colorectal cancer". European Journal of Cancer Prevention 8 (3): 213–21. PMID 10443950. Caygill, C.P.; Hill, MJ (August 1995). "Fish, n−3 fatty acids and human colorectal and breast cancer mortality". European Journal of Cancer Prevention 4 (4): 329–32. PMID Berquin IM, Min Y, Wu R, et al (July 2007). "Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids". J Clin Invest. 117 (7): 1866–75. doi:10.1172/JCI31494. PMID 17607361.7549825. Valeria Pala, Vittorio Krogh, Paola Muti, Véronique Chajès, Elio Riboli, Andrea Micheli, Mitra Saadatian, Sabina Sieri, Franco Berrino (2001). "Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acids and Subsequent Breast Cancer: a Prospective Italian Study". JNCL 93. PMID 11459870.Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids. American Heart Association. Retrieved on 2007-02-09.#
fish oil6high blood pressure, secondary heart diseasecardioother4PubMed, BMJ"Dietary supplementation with n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial.". Lancet 354: 447–455. 1999. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)07072-5. PMID 10465168Fish oil supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in deaths from cardiac causes #
flaxseed oil1cancer, stresscancer, mental healthplant / herb0.571 of effects of dietary flaxseed on tumor biological markers and urinary lignan excretion in postmenopausal patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, showed that it has the potential to reduce tumor growth. Thompson 2005#
Folic Acid5certain birth defectsgynovitamin10.5PubMed GM, Schaffer D, Velie EM, Morland K, Harris JA (1995). "Periconceptional vitamin use, dietary folate, and the occurrence of neural tube defects". Epidemiology 6 (3): 219–226. doi:10.1097/00001648-199505000-00005. PMID 7619926. Mulinare J, Cordero JF, Erickson JD, Berry RJ (1988). "Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects". Journal of the American Medical Association 260 (21): 3141–3145. doi:10.1001/jama.260.21.3141. PMID 3184392. ilunsky A, Jick H, Jick SS, Bruell CL, MacLaughlin DS, Rothman KJ, Willett W (1989). "Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects". Journal of the American Medical Association 262 (20): 2847–2852. doi:10.1001/jama.262.20.2847. PMID 2478730.#
garlic1cancer, cardiocancerplant / herb1 a randomized double-blind trial, administration of aged garlic extract to 50 patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system improved natural-killer cell activity, but caused no improvement in quality of life. Ishikawa 2006Double blind placebo-controlled study of 167 patients with hyperlipidemia free of IHD found allicor (long-acting garlic drug) is effective in reducing multifactorial risk of cardiovascular diseases. [Article in Russian] Sobenin 2005Evaluation of the clinical effects of garlic plaster on recurrent oral ulcer in 30 patients found the complete effective rate was 83.3%, the partial effective rate was 16.7%, and the total effective rate was 100%. [Article in Chinese] Xie 2004#
ginger root3nauseadigestionplant / herb2.07"In summary, we found that ginger is a promising anti-emetic herbal remdy, but the clinical data to date are insufficient to draw firm conclusions. Further rigorous studies are needed to estbalish whether ginger is efficiacious for clinical nausea and vomiting." Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2000; 84(3): 367-7 - From the presented data, ginger is as effective as dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy and has fewer side effects. Ginger provides no additional benefit for reduction of the prevalence or severity of acute or delayed CINV (chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting) when given with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and/or aprepitant.
gingko biloba1dementiamental healthplant / herb0.712 Compared with placebo, the use of G. biloba, 120 mg twice daily, did not result in less cognitive decline in older adults with normal cognition or with mild cognitive impairmenThe effect of ginkgo extract was observed on 45 patients pulmonary interstitial fibrosis showed that occurrence of pulmonary infection was less in ginkgo treated group than that in the control group Ginkgo is effective in treating pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. [Article in Chinese] He 2005A randomized double-blind, monocenter study with 66 healthy elderly subjects was carried out to investigate the short-term effect of special ginkgo extract EGb 761 & the results suggest a positive effect of EGb 761 on subjective emotional well-being of healthy elderly persons. [Article in German] Cieza 2003A double-blind study with placebo and Ginkgo biloba in 48 men aged 60 -70 showed a reduction in blood viscosity, improved cerebral perfusion in specific areas and improved global cognitive functioning. Santos 2003Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial with 40 moderate dementia patients found that Ginkgo EGb 4 days per week for 4 weeks improved condition (p <0.05)[Article in German] Haase 1996#
ginseng1.5cognitive performancemental healthplant / herb2.12 ginseng improved performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity in 30 healthy young adults and this effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract. Reay 2005In a double-blind study cognitive & mood effects of 75 mg of extract of guarana (12% caffeine), 200 mg of Panax ginseng (G115), & their combination (75 mg/200 mg), were assessed in 28 healthy volunteers which showed that both ginseng & ginseng/guarana combination enhanced speed of memory task. Kennedy 2004Right cerebral blood flow, TCD and CT improved in 96% of 202 patients given Nao Li Shen (ginseng, gastrodia tuber, chuanxiong rhizome and red sage root) Lu 1997Antibody titre after flu vaccination was increased from 171 to 272 and number of flu cases dropped from 42 to 15 in the group taking 100 mg Ginsana for 12 weeks in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind investigation of 227 people Scaglione 1996Exercise work load and maximal oxygen consumption were increased by ginseng in a double-blind, crossover study with 50 men taking, for 6 weeks, a preparation of ginseng extract, dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements Pieralisi 1991#
gluco-samine2arthritis, mild painarthritis, pain compound0.213Cochrane TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al (2005). "Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD002946. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002946.pub2. PMID 15846645. Cochrane entry#
glutathione2cancercancercompound0.684 GK, Dabur R, Fraser D. (Nov-Dec 2004). "The role of glutathione in cancer". Cell Biochem Funct 22 (6): 343-52. PMID 15386533#
goji (wolfberry)1general health general healthplant / herb1.72 CY, Chung WY, Szeto YT, Benzie IF.#
grape skin1blood pressure, cholesterolcardioOTWplant / herb0.1,_Wines,_Resveratrol,_and_Heart_Health.2.aspxno human studies#
green tea5cholesterolcardioplant / herb26.1PubMed of green tea was associated with lower serum concentration of total cholesterol in Japanese healthy workers age 40-69 years#
green tea3cancercancerplant / herb26.1cochrane evidence that the consumption of green tea might reduce the risk of cancer was conflicting. #
green tea1breast & prostate cancer, weight losscancerplant / herb3.1cochrane evidence that the consumption of green tea might reduce the risk of cancer was conflicting. #
hawthorn4blood pressurecardioplant / herb0.442PubMed Herz-Kreislauf-Tropfen, a herbal drug containing D-camphor (2.5 %) & fresh hawthorn berries extract (97.3%), was found effective & safe in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension for all age groups (11-102 yrs) in 490 patients & independent of initial blood pressures. [Article in German] Hempel 2005Administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus curvisepala in total of 92 men and women with primary mild hypertension, aged 40-60 years, 3 times daily for more than 4 months showed a decrease in both systolic and diastolic BP after 3 months. Asgary 2004A placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre trial in 143 patients with cardiac failure NYHA class II, showed the efficacy and safety of a standardised extract of fresh berries of Crataegus oxyacantha L. & monogyna under long term therapy. Degenring 2003In a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study of Crataegus extract WS 1442, standardised to 18.75% oligomeric procyanidines, on 40 outpatients suffering from congestive heart failure NYHA class II revealed that it was clinically effective, safe and well tolerated. Zapfe jun 2001Treatment of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in 1,011 patients with cardiac insufficiency stage NYHA II, showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms like reduced performance in the exercise tolerance test, fatigue, palpitation & exercise dyspnea, ankle edema & nocturia by 83%. [Article in German] Tauchert 1999#
Hyaluronic Acid1arthritis (only when injected)arthritiscompoundJohn Hopkins Arthritis Centre Trials of [INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTED] Hyaluronic Acid Reflect Significant Publication Bias "Conclusions: The pooled effect size of acceptably designed available clinical trials of hyaluronic acid for the treatment of knee OA demonstrate a modest effect on knee pain at 2 to 3 months post-treatment. Clinical trials of hyaluronic acid reflect significant publication bias and most clinical trials involve industry sponsorship."COCHRANE LINK FOR HYALURONIC ACID INJECTIONS:
iodine1.5general healthgeneral healthother0.204PubMed L (June 2008). "Iodine: deficiency and therapeutic considerations". Altern Med Rev 13 (2): 116–27. PMID 18590348#
iron0mineral0.514sometimes needed as a supplement if you're deficient - otherwise, no evidence#
krill oil3general health, PMSgeneral health, gynoother0.079PuMed F, Bunea R, Pelland MF, Kowalski O, Duguet N, Dupuis S (May 2003). "Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea" (PDF). Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic 8 (2): 171–9. PMID 12777162.
L-Lysine2herpessexOTWCompound0.474PubMed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of forty-one patients we found that oral ingestion of 1,248 mg a day of L-Lysine monohydrochloride shows evidence of decreasing the recurrence rate of herpes simplex attacks in nonimmunocompromised hosts. A dose of 624 mg a day was not effective. L-Lysine may also be capable of decreasing the severity of symptoms associated with recurrences. Neither dosage showed any evidence of shortening the healing time compared to placebo.A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial of oral L-lysine monohydrochloride for the prevention and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex (HSV) infection was conducted. The treatment group was given L-Lysine monohydrochloride tablets (1,000 mg L-lysine per dose) 3 times a day for 6 months....L-Lysine appears to be an effective agent for reduction of occurrence, severity and healing time for recurrent HSV infection. appears to suppress the clinical manifestations of herpesvirus infection. 45 patients with frequently recurring herpes infection were given 312-1,200 mg of lysine daily in single or multiple doses. The clinical results demonstrated a beneficial effect from supplementary lysine in accelerating recovery from herpes simplex infection and suppressing recurrence.
lavender0sleep, relaxationmental healthplant / herb1.65no studies#
lavender2depressionmental healthplant / herb1.65PubMed 4 week double-blind, randomized trial with forty-five adult outpatients shows the combination of imipramine and lavandula tincture was more effective than imipramine alone in the management of mild to moderate depression. Akhondzadeh 2003#
Lecithin1livercompound0.83PubMed Iwata T, Kimura Y, Tsutsumi K, Furukawa Y, Kimura S (February 1993). "The effect of various phospholipids on plasma lipoproteins and liver lipids in hypercholesterolemic rats". J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 39 (1): 63–71. PMID 8509902.
# ^ Jimenez MA, Scarino ML, Vignolini F, Mengheri E (July 1990). "Evidence that polyunsaturated lecithin induces a reduction in plasma cholesterol level and favorable changes in lipoprotein composition in hypercholesterolemic rats". J. Nutr. 120 (7): 659–67. PMID 2366101.
licorice root5coughsanti-viralplant / herb0.211PubMed 60 patients diagnosed with functional dyspepsia, the commercially available herbal preparation STW-5 and its modified dispense STW-5-S, both of which contains licorice root, tested improved dyspeptic symptoms significantly better than placebo. [Article in German]. Madisch 200184 hepatitis C patients treated with SNMC (glycyrrhizin, L-cystein, aminoacetic acid, and sodium sulfite), 100 mL/d for 8 weeks, then 2-7 times a week for 2-16 years, had half the rate of hepatocellular carcinoma as 109 untreated patients Arase 1997Gastric ulcer responded better to 4-6 weeks of carbenoxolone than to placebo in a trial with 40 patients Schwamberger 1980#
lingzhi (reishi)4immune system, tumorsgeneral healthplant / herb0.22 anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma Lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Sheng-Yuan Wang. The present study was to ascertain the immunomodulating and anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma
lipoic acid1alzheimers, parkinsonsmental healthcompound0.756 Aliev, J. Liu, J. C. Shenk, K. Fischbach, G. J. Pacheco, S. G. Chen, M. E. Obrenovich, W. F. Ward, A. G. Richardson, M. A. Smith, E. Gasimov, G. Perry, B. N. Ames (2008). "Neuronal mitochondrial amelioration by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to aged rats". J. Cell. Mol. Med. Epub ahead of print: 080329002216155. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00324.x#
lutein3eye healtheyescompound0.576PubMd Johnson, E.J., et al., Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71(6): 1555-62. PubMed Free text# ^ Richer, S., ARMD--pilot (case series) environmental intervention data. J Am Optom Assoc, 1999. 70(1): p. 24-36. PubMed# ^ Image:Free text.png Aleman, T.S., et al., Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Jul; 42(8): 1873-81. PubMed Free textBerendschot, T.T., et al., Influence of lutein supplementation on macular pigment, assessed with two objective techniques. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Oct. 41(11): 3322-6; PubMed Free text# ^ Duncan, J.L., et al., Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in choroideremia. Exp Eye Res, 2002. 74(3): p. 371-81. PubMed#
lycopene1.5heart disease, general healthgeneral healthcompound0.584PubMed H (1997). "The potential role of lycopene for human health". J Am Coll Nutr 16 (2): 109–26. PMID 9100211#
Magnesium1DiabetesDiabetesmineral0.37Acta Pædiatrica Serum concentrations of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium were determined in 27 Swedish children with well controlled diabetes without longterm diabetic complications. Thirteen of the diabetic children had age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Significantly lower serum magnesium concentrations were found in the diabetic children than in the matched healthy controls (p <0.01). The levels of iron, copper and zinc did not differ in the diabetic children from those in the controls. A negative correlation between serum magnesium level and duration of diabetes was found (p <0.05). This is seemingly the first report of hypomagnesemia in diabetic children.#
Magnesium2HypertensionCardioMineral0.37Nutrition in Clinical Practice plays a role in a number of chronic, disease-related conditions....A major role for magnesium is in the regulation of blood pressure. While data are not entirely consistent, it does appear that an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and blood pressure is strongest for magnesium obtained from food rather than that obtained via supplements. Hypertension associated with preeclampsia appears to be alleviated when magnesium is administered; in addition, women with adequate intakes of magnesium are less likely to be affected by preeclampsia than those with an inadequate intake. #
melatonin3migrainemigrainecompound0.149PubMed Dodick D, Capobianco D (2001). "Treatment and management of cluster headache". Curr Pain Headache Rep 5 (1): 83 – 91. doi:10.1007/s11916-001-0015-0. PMID 11252143.
# ^ Gagnier J (2001). "The therapeutic potential of melatonin in migraines and other headache types". Altern Med Rev 6 (4): 383–9. PMID 11578254.#
milk thistle1diabetesdiabetesplant / herb1 mg/d silymarin decreased fasting blood glucose levels, mean daily blood glucose levels, daily glucosuria and HbA1c levels after 4 months in a trial with 60 insulin-treated diabetics with alcoholic cirrhosis Velussi 1997#
milk thistle2hepatitisplant / herb0.547 of a standardized silybin and soy phosphatidylcholine complex serum marker of iron status on 37 patients with chronic hepatitis C and Batts-Ludwig fibrosis stage II, III, or IV was associated with reduced body iron stores, especially among patients with advanced fibrosis stage. Bares 2008Legalon showd benefit in a double-blind trial with 180 hepatitis patients for 40 days Tanasescu 1988#
MSM2arthritis arthritiscompound0.15PubMed LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF. Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006;14(3):286–94. PMID 16309928#
NAC4mental healthmental healthOTWother0.34PubMed appears a safe and effective augmentation strategy for depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder.These data suggest that adjunctive NAC has potential as a safe and moderately effective augmentation strategy for chronic schizophrenia.#
NAC1eye healtheyesother0.34PubMed MA, Deyev AI, Yermakova VN et al. (2002). "Efficacy of N-acetylcarnosine in the treatment of cataracts". Drugs R D 3 (2): 87–103. doi:10.2165/00126839-200203020-00004Babizhayev MA (Oct 2008). "Ocular drug metabolism of the bioactivating antioxidant N-acetylcarnosine for vision in ophthalmic prodrug and codrug design and delivery". Drug Dev Ind Pharm 34 (10): 1071–89. doi:10.1080/03639040801958413.#
nettle3urinary infectionsurinaryplant / herb0.335PubMed with Urtica dioica for symptomatic relief of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia in 620 patients showed beneficial effects. Safarinejad 2005#
noni0OTWplant / herb1.15n/a#
olive leaf5blood pressurecardioplant / herb0.224Wiley, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA®943 in humans.Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves, L. I. Somova. All three isolates, in a dose 60 mg/kg b.w. for 6 weeks treatment, prevented the development of severe hypertension and atherosclerosis and improved the insulin resistance of the experimental animals. GO, OA and CT isolates could provide an effective and cheap treatment of this particular, most common type of salt-sensitive hypertension in the African population.#
olive leaf 1anti-viralanti-viralplant / herb0.224Science direct, we propose that O. europaea could be used as a potential source of promising natural antivirals, which have demonstrated to lack impact on health and environment. In addition, Ole could be used to design other related antiviral agents.#
Omega 30Arrythmias, CardioCardioCompound0.25BMJ Data synthesis 12 studies totalling 32 779 patientsmet the
inclusion criteria.. The dose-response relation for DHA and EPA on
reduction indeaths fromcardiac causeswas not significant. Conclusions Fish oil supplementation was associated
with a significant reduction in deaths from cardiac causes
but had no effect on arrhythmias or all cause mortality.
Evidence to recommend an optimal formulation of EPA or
DHA to reduce these outcomes is insufficient. Fish oils are
a heterogeneous product, and the optimal formulations
for DHA and EPA remain unclear.
Omega 32Heart health, CancerCardio, CancerCompound4BMJ, Cochrane To review systematically the evidence for an effect of long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fatty acids on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cancer.....Results Of 15 159 titles and abstracts assessed, 48 RCTs (36 913 participants) and 41 cohort studies were analysed...When data from the subgroup of studies of long chain omega 3 fats were analysed separately, total mortality (0.86, 0.70 to 1.04; 138 events) and cardiovascular events (0.93, 0.79 to 1.11) were not clearly reduced...Conclusion Long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fats do not have a clear effect on total mortality, combined cardiovascular events, or cancer.There is not enough evidence to say that people should stop taking rich sources of omega 3 fats, but further high quality trials are needed to confirm the previously suggested protective effect of omega 3 fats for those at increased cardiovascular risk - authors concluded that the overall evidence suggests that increasing consumption of omega-3 fatty acids as DHA/EPA from fish or fish oil, but not ALA , significantly reduces the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiac and sudden death, and possibly stroke. They also observed from their overall analyses of the relevant published literature that evidence for beneficial effects of fish oil is much stronger in secondary settings (i.e., in those with a previous history of cardiovascular disease), as compared to those in primary-prevention settings (populations with no history of cardiovascular disease) - the present review, the authors outline results from the three large controlled trials on 32,000 participants overall who were randomized to received either placebo (control) supplementation or supplements providing DHA+EPA. These trials showed overall reductions in cardiovascular events of 19-45 % which the current authors considered to be the most compelling evidence for the cardiovascular benefit provided by omega-3 fatty acids., Y.-T., Q. Chen, et al. (2009). "Prevention of sudden cardiac death with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." Annals of Medicine 99999(1): 1 - 10. ".CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with MI, but may have adverse effects in angina patients."
omega 33cholesterolcardiocompound4Cochrane review shows that although some types of fat in the blood are reduced through omega-3 supplementation, others including LDL cholesterol (which may promote heart disease) were increased. Kris-Etherton, P.; Eckel, R.H.; Howard, B.V.; St Jeor, S.; Bazzarre, T.L. (April 2001). "AHA Science Advisory: Lyon Diet Heart Study. Benefits of a Mediterranean-style, National Cholesterol Education Program/American Heart Association Step I dietary pattern on cardiovascular disease". Circulation 103 (13): 1823–1825. PMID 11282918Modest dosing with DHA (1000mg/day) over 8 weeks has been found to significantly decrease fasting triglyceride levels by an average of 22% in some reports. In the present review of the many studies published using algal DHA supplementation, the average dose (all studies combined) was 2092 mg DHA /day which provided an average lowering of fasting triglyceride levels of 17% along with a 6.4% rise in HDL-cholesterol levels.
omega 32blood pressurecardiocompound2PubMed Morris, Martha C.; Sacks, Frank; Rosner, Bernard (August 1993). "Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials". Circulation (American Heart Association) 88 (2): 523–533. PMID 8339414.Yokoyama, Mitsuhiro; Origasa, Hideki; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Saito, Yasushi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Oikawa, Shinichi; Sasaki, Jun; Hishida, Hitoshi; Itakura, Hiroshige; Kita, Toru; Kitabatake, Akira; Nakaya, Noriaki; Sakata, Toshiie; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Shirato, Kunio (March 2007). "Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis". Lancet 369 (9567): 1090–1098. PMID 17398308.A moderate but statistically-significant reduction was found in the diastolic blood pressure by (3.3 mm HG) in the DHA-treated group as compared to controls.
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