ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAAAB
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MODERN NASHAN GRAMMAR: 2000AR-2075AR
PhonologyRomanization
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Nashan 2000ARBilabialLa.D.AlveolarPost-AlveolarPalatalVelarUvularGlottalNashan 2000ARBilabialLa.D.AlveolarPost-AlveolarPalatalVelarUvularGlottal
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Syllable Structure:Plosivep pʷ b bʷt tʷ d dʷk kʷ g gʷPlosivep pw b bwt tw d dwk kw g gw
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(C)(F)V(V)(/l/)(F)(C)
Fricativef vs zʃ ʒxχ ʁhFricativef vs zś źxq rh
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Approximantwj(w)Approximantwjw
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Word Order:NasalmnɲŋɴNasalmnŋŋ̃
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SVO for statements
LaterallʎLaterallɫ
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SO(particle)V for negative statements
AffricatestsAffricatesc
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non-configurational w/ particle for questions
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VowelsFrontMidBack(short) Nasal VowelsFrontMidBackVowelsFrontMidBack
(short) Nasal Vowels
FrontMidBack
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PronounsSubj.Obj. (-n)Gen. (-wr)Inst. (-lə)All. (-ś)Emphatic/Disjunctive (-*m)Closei ɪ yʊ uCloseį ɪ̨ y̨ʊ̨ ųClosei ɪ yʊ uCloseį ɪ̨ y̨ʊ̨ ų
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1S from PSC "βo"wąrwąnāwrwą̄ləwą̄śwæ̀mClose-Mide ɛʌ oClose-Midę ɛ̨ə̨~n̩ʌ̨ ǫClose-Mide ɛʌ oClose-Midę ɛ̨ə̨~n̩ʌ̨ ǫ
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1Pwalɔ̨̄nwɔ̨̄wrɔ̨̄ləwalśɔ̨̄mOpen-MidɔOpen-Midɔ̨Open-MidɔOpen-Midɔ̨
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2S from PSC "ʁy"ŋęrŋęŋęŋŋęləŋęśŋęmOpenæaOpenæ̨OpenæaOpenæ̨
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2PŋelŋenŋewrŋeləŋeśŋemLong VowelsFrontMidBackLong Nasal VowelsFrontMidBackLong VowelsFrontMidBack
Long Nasal Vowels
FrontMidBack
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3SAd from PSC "ɟə"dųrdųndųwrdųlədųśdųmCloseī ɪ̄ ȳʊ̄ ūCloseį̄ ɪ̨̄ ȳ̨ʊ̨̄ ų̄Closeī ɪ̄ ȳʊ̄ ūCloseį̄ ɪ̨̄ ȳ̨ʊ̨̄ ų̄
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3PAddulųnudrduləduśdumClose-Midē ɛ̄ʌ̄ ōClose-Midę̄ ɛ̨̄ʌ̨̄ ǭClose-Midē ɛ̄ʌ̄ ōClose-Midę̄ ɛ̨̄ʌ̨̄ ǭ
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3SCh from PSC "pə"hʌ̨rhʌ̨nʌ̨wrhʌ̨ləhʌ̨śhʌ̨mOpen-Midɔ̄Open-Midɔ̨̄Open-Midɔ̄Open-Midɔ̨̄
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3PChʌɫʌllʌnʌɫʌwrʌləlʌślʌmOpenǣOpenǣ̨ą̄OpenǣOpenǣ̨ą̄
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3SOb from PSC "lo"jįrjįniwjįljįśimShort VowelsFrontMidBack(nasal vowels not marked as "long" are short by default)There are approximately 61 distinct vowel sounds in Nashan by this logicnasals are represented with ogoneks because the nasal diacritic would interfere with the long vowel diacriticShort VowelsFrontMidBack(nasal vowels not marked as "long" are short by default)There are approximately 61 distinct vowel sounds in Nashan by this logicnasals are represented with ogoneks because the nasal diacritic would interfere with the long vowel diacritic
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3POb from PSC "myn"ʌlnʌlnlʌwrnʌləʌśʌlmCloseì ɪ̀ ỳʊ̀ ùCloseì ɪ̀ ỳʊ̀ ù
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3Col from PSC "ful"voxvonvowvolvośvomClose-Midè ɛ̀əʌ̀ òClose-Midè ɛ̀'ʌ̀ ò
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*Adjectives are created with the genitive case
Open-Midɔ̀Open-Midɔ̀
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Openæ̀Openæ̀
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PrepositionsReferentialsTime Particles
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for (para)rỳthistonyesterday (PRET)ñʊc
Cases/Numbers/Genders
+: geminate/lengthen
Verbs
*= deletes preceding /j/ /w/ /r/ /h/
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for (por)ɛ̀thatsonrecently (PRET)jo1st DeclensionExample:n̩ʒʁaDefinition:beast of burdenPSC:rølh "animal"
Arodjun: caxau "animal"
1st Conjugation (Plosive/Fricative-Initial)
IntransitiveTransitiveDitransitive"when" Converbŋʊl ( ) -*r
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withqʌ̀onePast Imperfect (IMP)ɛ̀nvowel#Singular AdultPlural AdultSingular ChildPlural Child
Singular Object
Plural Object
Collective/Uncountable
1S from PSC "βo"rỳ-rỳ- -*wỳrỳ- -*ŋ"why" Converbɔ̨̄ ( ) -*r
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duringlolsomeilisoon (FUT)ŋ̃ʌ̀Subjective--r-rɔ̀-nɪ̀r--rɪ̨n-m1Prà-rà- -*wàrà- -*ŋ"who" Converbvrʌ̨̄ ( ) -*r
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beforeitwùtomorrow (FUT)ɫiąObjective (-n)-n-nɪ̨-nɔ̀-nɔ̀r-n-jɪ̨n-m2S from PSC "ʁy"ŋỳ-ŋỳ- -*wỳŋỳ- -*ŋ"what" Converbtof ( ) -*r
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currently (CONT/IMP)ŋʊlɫęrGenitive (-w)-w-ñɪ̨-wʌ̀-wɪ̀r-w-wɪ̨n-wɔ̀m2Pŋè-ŋè- -*wèŋè- -*ŋ"where" Converbtɛś ( ) -*r
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just (PERF)zɛ̀Instrumental (-l)-l-ɫɛ̀-ɫʌ̀-lɪ̀r-l-lɪ̨n-lm3SAd from PSC "ɟə"dỳ-dỳ- -*wỳdỳ- -*ŋ"how" Converbn̩drà ( ) -*r
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Allative (-ś)-ś-sɛ̀s-śɔ̀-śɪ̀s-śir-śɪ̨n-mɔ̀ś3PAddù-dù- -*wùdù- -*ŋNominalizedtę̄l- ( )
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*Delete last sound of root
3SCh from PSC "pə"pỳ-pỳ- -*wỳpỳ- -*ŋAdverbializedbwą̄j ( )
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not, nogwʊ̀2nd DeclensionExample:ŋęwDefinition:province/districtPSC:udv "tribe"
Arodjun: audi "roving group"
3PChlʌ̀-lʌ̀- -*wʌ̀lʌ̀- -*ŋ
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andhollabial#Singular AdultPlural AdultSingular ChildPlural Child
Singular Object
Plural Object
Collective/Uncountable
3SOb from PSC "lo"ỳ-ỳ- -*wỳỳ- -*ŋ
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Subjective--r-rɔ̀-nɪ̀r--rɪ̨n-m3POb from PSC "myn"lʌ̀-lʌ̀- -*wʌ̀lʌ̀- -*ŋ
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Hello:łæn(is)Objective-n-nɪ̨-nɔ̀-nɔ̀r-n-jɪ̨n-m3Col from PSC "ful"vỳ-vỳ- -*wỳvỳ- -*ŋ
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Welcome: śynyGenitive-w-ñɪ̨-wʌ̀-wɪ̀r-w-wɪ̨n-wɔ̀m
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Instrumental-l-ɫɛ̀-ɫʌ̀-lɪ̀r-l-lɪ̨n-lm
2nd Conjugation (Vowel-Initial)
IntransitiveTransitiveDitransitive"when" Converb
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Allative-ś-sɛ̀s-śɔ̀-śɪ̀s-śir-śɪ̨n-mɔ̀ś1S from PSC "βo"rỳh-rỳh- -*wỳrỳh- -*ŋ"why" Converb
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1Pràh-ràh- -*wàràh- -*ŋ"who" Converb
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3rd DeclensionExample:bʷąnDefinition:reigns, controllerPSC:bil "brain"
Arodjun: binixau "mind"
2S from PSC "ʁy"ŋỳh-ŋỳh- -*wỳŋỳh- -*ŋ"what" Converb
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nasal#, plosive#Singular AdultPlural AdultSingular ChildPlural Child
Singular Object
Plural Object
Collective/Uncountable
2Pŋèh-ŋèh- -*wèŋèh- -*ŋ"where" Converb
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Subjective--ɪ̀r-rɔ̀-ɪ̀r--rɪ̨n-ɪ̨m3SAd from PSC "ɟə"dỳʒ-dỳʒ- -*wỳdỳʒ- -*ŋ"how" Converb
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Objective--ɪ̨n-nɔ̀-ɪ̨n--jɪ̨n-ɪ̨m3PAddùʒ-dùʒ- -*wùdùʒ- -*ŋNominalized
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Genitive-ɪ̀w-ɪ̨ñ-wʌ̀-wɪ̀r-ɪ̨w-wɪ̨n-wɔ̀m3SCh from PSC "pə"pỳʒ-pỳʒ- -*wỳpỳʒ- -*ŋAdverbialized
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Instrumental-ɪ̀l-ɪ̨ɫ-ɫʌ̀-lɪ̀r-ɪ̨lɪ̨-lɪ̨n-ɪ̨lm3PChlʌ̀ʒ-lʌ̀ʒ- -*wʌ̀lʌ̀ʒ--*ŋ
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Allative-ɪ̀ś-ɛ̀s-śɔ̀-śɪ̀s-śɪ̨r-śɪ̨n-ɔ̀ś3SOb from PSC "lo"ỳʒ-ỳʒ- -*wỳỳʒ- -*ŋ
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^: voice last sound if unvoiced, affricate to fricative if applicable
3POb from PSC "myn"lʌ̀ʒ-lʌ̀ʒ- -*wʌ̀lʌ̀ʒ- -*ŋ
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4th DeclensionExample:vʊtʃDefinition:meat, sausagePSC:fos "entrails"
Arodjun: axxau "internal organs"
3Col from PSC "ful"vỳʒ-vỳʒ- -*wỳvỳʒ- -*ŋ
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fricative#Singular AdultPlural AdultSingular ChildPlural Child
Singular Object
Plural Object
Collective/Uncountable
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Subjective--^ɪ̨ŋ-^rɔ̀-^nɪ̀--^rɪ̀-
3rd Conjugation (Nasal/Lateral-Initial)
IntransitiveTransitiveDitransitive"when" Converb
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Objective--^ɪ̨n-^rɔ̀-^ɪ̀n-ɪ̨n-^ɪ̀n-1S from PSC "βo"rɪ̨-rɪ̨- -*wỳrɪ̨- -*ŋ"why" Converb
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Genitive-^-^ɪ̨ñɪ̨-^rʌ̀-^ɪ̀-^wɪ̀-ɪ̀n-ɔ̀m1Pràr-ràr- -*wàràr- -*ŋ"who" Converb
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Instrumental-^ɪ̀-^ɪ̨l-^ʌ̀-^lɪ̀-^lɪ̀r-^lɪ̀n-^ɪ̀lm2S from PSC "ʁy"ŋɪ̨-ŋɪ̨- -*wỳŋɪ̨- -*ŋ"what" Converb
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Allative-^ɪ̀ś-^ɪ̀s-^ɔ̀ś-^ɪ̀s-^ɪ̀r-^iśɪ̀n-ɔ̀ś2Pŋèr-ŋèr- -*wèŋèr- -*ŋ"where" Converb
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3SAd from PSC "ɟə"dɪ̨-dɪ̨- -*wỳdɪ̨- -*ŋ"how" Converb
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3PAddùʒ-dùʒ- -*wùdùʒ- -*ŋNominalized
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3SCh from PSC "pə"pɪ̨-pɪ̨- -*wỳpɪ̨- -*ŋAdverbialized
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3PChlʌ̀ʒ-lʌ̀ʒ- -*wʌ̀lʌ̀ʒ--*ŋ
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3SOb from PSC "lo"ỳʒ-ỳʒ- -*wỳỳʒ- -*ŋ
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3POb from PSC "myn"lʌ̀ʒ-lʌ̀ʒ- -*wʌ̀lʌ̀ʒ- -*ŋ
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3Col from PSC "ful"vỳʒ-vỳʒ- -*wỳvỳʒ- -*ŋ
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