Open Innovation Definition/Characteristics
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LinkOpen source thinking in the innovation processReciprocal exchange of ideas and innovations in formal and informal sectorsLeveraging the discoveries of unobvious others as input for the innovation process through formal and informal relationshipsKnowledge sharingVoluntary knowledge disclosure from participantsContinuous and dynamic interactions among participantsCreation of creative commonsOpen access to the elements used in the innovation processOpen knowledgeOpen functional platforms to captures ideas from wide communitiesNetwork modelAcross organizational boundariesUse of unused ideas by other companiesOpen up business modelCrowdsourcingUser innovationFocus on value creation and not value capturePositive spillovers effectInternal Sources of innovation (incl. keywords like internal knowledge, ideas )External sources of innovation (incl. keywords like external knowledge, ideas )Exploration for sources of innovation (incl. knowledge exploration)Exploitation of innovation opportunities through multiple channels (incl. knowledge exploitation)Purposively managed knowledge flows (incl. inflow and outflow of knowledge)Respect and responsibility between actorsKnowledge retentionExternal and internal paths to marketAdvancement of technologyAcceleration of internal innovationExpand the markets for external use of innovationGeneration of IPChange in the use, management, and employment of IP
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Ulrich Lichtenthaler, Open Innovation: Past Research, Current Debates, and Future Directions (2011)Open innovation is defined as systematically performing knowledge exploration, retention, and exploitation inside and outside an organization's boundaries throughout the innovation processhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/23045037111111
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Henry Chesbrough, Open Innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology (2003)Open Innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as the firms look to advance their technology. Open Innovation combines internal and external ideas into architectures and systems whose requirements are defined by a business model.http://openinnovation.net/about-2/open-innovation-definition/1111
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Henry Chesbrough, Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm (2006)Open innovation is the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively. [This paradigm] assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as they look to advance their technology.http://openinnovation.net/about-2/open-innovation-definition/1111111
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Henry Chesbrough, New frontiers in Open Innovation (2014)A distributed innovation process based on purposively managed knowledge flows across organisational boundaries, using pecuniary and non-pecuniary mechanisms in line with the organisation’s business model to guide and motivate knowledge sharing.111
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Henry Chesbrough, Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape, Harvard Business Press, Boston (2006)Open innovation means that companies should make much greater use of external ideas and technologies in their own business, while letting their unused ideas be used by other companies. This requires each company to open up its business model to let more external ideas and technologies flow in from the outside and let more internal knowledge flow to the outside.goo.gl/tJMo3R111111
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Joel West and Scott Gallagher: "Challenges of Open Innovation: The Paradox of Firms' Investment in Open Source Software", R&D Management (2006), Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 319-331We define open innovation as systematically encouraging and exploring a wide range of internal and external sources for innovation opportunities, consciously integrating that exploration with firm capabilities and resources, and broadly exploiting those opportunities through multiple channels (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990). Therefore, the open innovation paradigm goes beyond just utilizing external sources of innovation such as customers, rivals, and universities (e.g. von Hippel, 1988) and is as much a change in the use, management, and employment of IP as it is in the technical and research driven generation of IP. http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=org_mgmt_pub111111
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Dey, Gupta and Singh, Open Innovation at Different Levels for Higher Climate Risk Resilience (2017)A reciprocal exchange of ideas and innovations among actors (individuals, institutions or organisations) in formal and informal sectors with different degree of respect and responsibility towards each other.11
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Jacqueline Vallat, Intellectual Property and Legal Issues in Open Innovation in Services (2009)In our definition, openness is an underlying principle attached to the key elements of Open Innovation. It implies a form of Open Source thinking in the innovation process, and is essential in order to optimise the benefits of sharing and collaborating. This leads to a revised definition of Open Innovation, which focuses on the following fundamental element: (1) Extensive networking between all actors involved in the innovation process (including industries,universities and research organisations,public entities, end-users and end-user communities) to enable the creation of creative commons and the development of positive spill-over effects within the ecosystem. This is wider than Chesbrough's vision,since many forms of collaboration are possible, between more actors, with the focus on total value creation, rather than value capture by the firms; (2) User involvement and user centricity, to associate the user throughout innovation since he is both the starting point (technological needs) and the ultimate aim (service convergence) of innovation.This reflects a "service pull" model of innovation, where the role of the user is critical. Innovation thus becomes a co-creative collaborative procedure between the industry or service provider and the user. Related to this is a form of crowdsourcing, to capture valuable ideas produced by communities, and essential to make the best use of the societal capital at hand. These are the elements which will fuel the innovation ecosystem and make it successful; (3) To enable the above,open functional platforms are a must.They make it possible to capture ideas from wide communities in a costless and effective way.They also allow the interaction between users and service providers. These platforms are increasingly becoming central to the way service-providers view service-provision in the future:as a way for the user to orchestrate between the different services he needs and personalise them completely. In more general terms,Open Innovation here requires open access to the elements used in the innovation process. This is the necessary counterpart of user-centricity. 111111111
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Hrastinski and Kviselius (2010)Open networks of innovating organizations, customers and users, commonly supported by information technologies10.1109/HICSS.2010.2911
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Frank Piller, Christoph Ihl and Alexander Vossen (2010)We define open innovation as the formal discipline and practice of leveraging the discoveries of unobvious others as input for the innovation process through formal and informal relationships1
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Julian Penin (2008)We propose here a new definition of open innovation, which is close to what Allen (1983) and other authors refer to as being collective invention. According to us, open innovation must encompass three constitutive elements: (i) Voluntary knowledge disclosure from “participants”; (ii) knowledge being open (which is equivalent to say that “spillovers are not controllable”, West and Gallagher, 2006, p. 94); and (iii) continuous and dynamic interactions among “participants” (I put participants in inverted commas since, open innovation being by definition open, it means that anybody can participate and is therefore potentially a participant)111
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