Governance of minerals used in low carbon technologies
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Aluminum Smelter Production and Capacity, 2015 (thousand metric tons)
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Production
Capacity
% of total production
% of total capacity
Row number
Total score
Good (>=75)
Satisfactory (60-74)
Weak (45-59)
Poor (30-44)
Failing (<30)
Other
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China32,00036,00055%52%185500%00%152%00%00%00%
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Russia3,5004,1806%6%664500%00%16%00%00%00%
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Canada2,0003,2703%5%157515%00%00%00%00%00%
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India2,3503,8504%6%367000%16%00%00%00%00%
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United Arab Emirates2,3402,4004%3%814200%00%00%13%00%00%
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Australia1,6501,7203%3%57100%13%00%00%00%00%
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United States1,6002,0003%3%837400%13%00%00%00%00%
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Norway1,3201,5502%2%608612%00%00%00%00%00%
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Bahrain9609702%1%73900%00%00%11%00%00%
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Iceland8208401%1%11%
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Brazil7801,6001%2%117100%12%00%00%00%00%
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Saudi Arabia7407401%1%673600%00%00%11%00%00%
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South Africa6907151%1%695700%00%11%00%00%00%
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Qatar6406401%1%654300%00%00%11%00%00%
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Other countries2,3402,4004%3%13%
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Total 58,30068,800100%100%7%13%59%7%0%5%
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World resources: Global resources are estimated to be between 55 billion and 75 billion
tons and are sufficient to meet world demand for metal well into the future.
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Alumina Refinery Production, 2015 (thousand metric tons)
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Refinery production
% of total production
Row number
Total score
Good (>=75)
Satisfactory (60-74)
Weak (45-59)
Poor (30-44)
Failing (<30)
Other
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China57,00048%185500%00%148%00%00%00%
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Australia20,20017%57100%117%00%00%00%00%
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Brazil10,3009%117100%19%00%00%00%00%
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India5,4705%367000%15%00%00%00%00%
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United States4,0003%837400%13%00%00%00%00%
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Russia2,5802%664500%00%12%00%00%00%
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Jamaica1,9502%12%
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Kazakhstan1,6001%415600%00%11%00%00%00%
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Suriname9701%11%
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Greece8001%11%
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Venezuela7801%853300%00%00%11%00%00%
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Vietnam5000%864800%00%10%00%00%00%
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Other countries11,40010%110%
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Total 118,000100%0%34%52%1%0%13%
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Bauxite Production and Reserves, 2015 (thousand metric tons)
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Mine production
Reserves
% of total production
% of total reserves
Row number
Total score
Good (>=75)
Satisfactory (60-74)
Weak (45-59)
Poor (30-44)
Failing (<30)
Other
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Guinea17,7007,400,0006%26%353800%00%00%126%00%00%
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Australia80,0006,200,00029%22%57100%122%00%00%00%00%
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Brazil2,0002,600,0001%9%117100%19%00%00%00%00%
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Vietnam1,1002,100,0000%8%864800%00%18%00%00%00%
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Jamaica10,7002,000,0004%7%17%
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Indonesia1,0001,000,0000%4%376800%14%00%00%00%00%
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Guyana1,700850,0001%3%13%
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China60,000830,00022%3%185500%00%13%00%00%00%
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India19,200590,0007%2%367000%12%00%00%00%00%
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Suriname2,200580,0001%2%12%
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Venezuela1,500320,0001%1%853300%00%00%11%00%00%
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Greece6,600250,0002%1%11%
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Russia6,600200,0002%1%664500%00%11%00%00%00%
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Kazakhstan5,200160,0002%1%415600%00%11%00%00%00%
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Malaysia21,20040,0008%0%485600%00%10%00%00%00%
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United StatesN/A 20,000N/A0%837400%10%00%00%00%00%
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Other countries 8,5002,400,0003%9%19%
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Total 274,00028,000,000100%100%0%37%12%28%0%22%
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World resources: Bauxite resources are estimated to be between 55 billion and 75 billion
tons: Africa (32 percent), Oceania (23 percent), South America and the Caribbean
(21 percent), Asia (18 percent), and elsewhere (6 percent).
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Cadmium Production, 2015, (metric tons)
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Production
Reserves
% of total production
% of total reserves
Row number
Total score
Good (>=75)
Satisfactory (60-74)
Weak (45-59)
Poor (30-44)
Failing (<30)
Other
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China8,090N/A33%N/A18550#VALUE!0#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Republic of Korea4,250 N/A18% N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A
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Japan1,970N/A8%N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A
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Canada1,480N/A6%N/A15751#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Mexico1,460 N/A6% N/A51600#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Kazakhstan1,190N/A5%N/A41560#VALUE!0#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Russia1,170 N/A5% N/A66450#VALUE!0#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Peru850N/A4%N/A63620#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Netherlands640 N/A3% N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A
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Poland640N/A3%N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A
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India460N/A2%N/A36700#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Australia380N/A2%N/A5710#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Bulgaria340 N/A1% N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A#N/A
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United States N/A N/AN/AN/A83740#VALUE!1#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!0#VALUE!
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Other countries1,130N/A5%N/A
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Total24,200 N/A100% N/A#VALUE!#VALUE!#VALUE!#VALUE!#VALUE!#VALUE!
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World resources: Cadmium is generally recovered from zinc ores and concentrates.
Sphalerite, the most economically significant zinc mineral, commonly contains minor
amounts of cadmium, which shares certain similar chemical properties with zinc and often
substitutes for zinc in the sphalerite crystal lattice. The cadmium mineral greenockite is
frequently associated with weathered sphalerite and wurtzite. Zinc-bearing coals of the
central United States and Carboniferous-age coals of other countries also contain large
subeconomic resources of cadmium.
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Chromium Production and Reserves, 2015 (thousand metric tons)
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Production
Reserves
% of total production
% of total reserves
Row number
Total score
Good (>=75)
Satisfactory (60-74)
Weak (45-59)
Poor (30-44)
Failing (<30)
Other
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Kazakhstan3,800230,00012%48%415600%00%148%00%00%00%
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South Africa15,000200,00049%42%695700%00%142%00%00%00%
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India3,50054,00011%11%367000%111%00%00%00%00%
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Turkey3,600N/A12%10%
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United States N/A N/AN/A83740100000%
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Other countries4,600N/A15%10%
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Total30,500
~ 480,000
100%100%0%11%90%0%0%0%
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World resources: World resources are greater than 12 billion tons of shipping-grade chromite,
sufficient to meet conceivable demand for centuries. About 95 percent of the world’s
chromium resources are geographically concentrated in Kazakhstan and southern Africa.
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Minerals data
Governance of mineral reserves averages
RGI data