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Poster DaySubmission IDAuthorTitleAbstract
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T-0128Mansour Mohammadi DinaniWater resource management and conflict laws: case study of IranIrrigation land-base water tariff fixation, as an agricultural protection policy, is one of the main causes of inefficient water usage, financial instability of irrigation networks, unfair tariffs among agricultural water users and treats water resource management and sustainability. Current water challenges such as huge ground water diminish, inefficiency water usage, dust storms, water quality degradation, wetlands and rivers drying are somehow due to weak agricultural water tariff. In the paper irrigation water flat tariff structure is discussed and inconsistency of water tariff fixation Act (WTFA) with water management policies and objectives, sustainable development and equity principles is provided. To achieve water tariff objectives, an increasing volumetric water tariff is suggested. Measures such as time, region, extra water usage and quality of water are incorporated in the proposed water tariff to fulfill different sustainable agricultural water management goals.
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T-0256Hennie GroblerDevelopment and evaluation of a toolkit for sustainable Revitalization of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes: Free State Province, South Africa.The "complex of activities" (Denison and Manona, 2007) involved in smallholder irrigation schemes has led to the collapse (Monokoane, 2015) of three such schemes in the Free State Province, South Africa. This has happened over the past two decades although best practice and guidelines for sustainable operation and revitalization of smallholder irrigation schemes have been well studied and documented. This study intend to find out why best practice is not followed and then to provide a toolkit to allow smallholders to take charge of their own destiny (Fetterman, 2001) and thereby ensuring an equal base between developers and the "to be developed". Together with a strong mandate provided by government to establish smallholder schemes (New Growth Path, 2010) the proposed toolkit will create a much better chance for smallholder irrigation schemes to be sustainable. This toolkit will be based on Government programmes represented by the "Passport" which will be supported by community systems represented by the "Visa". The toolkit will provide a road map where the community can take charge and follow the progress of the revitalization process.
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T-0355Suraj LamichhaneUtilization of Augmented flow for Irrigation, Hydro power and Flood Control a case study of “Budi Gandaki Hydroelectric Storage Project”This paper makes an analysis of the principle of downstream benefit from augmented flow of reservoir operation of Budigandaki Hydroelectricity Storage Project within national boundary of Nepal. Besides, this paper deals with the potential downstream benefits like hydropower, irrigation, water supply, flood control, water transport etc. The augmented flow of the Project in dry seasons and reduced flow during wet seasons can be a utilized by implementation of suitable water utilities projects. The optimum combinations among proposed water utilities project need to be identified. The best optimal alternatives are suggested not only on the basis of monetary benefits and cost but are also based on the assessment of the socioeconomic impacts, trend of facility demand and possibility of future development of the projects. The Budhi Gandaki Storage Project presents a unique opportunity for implementing the new paradigm of cooperation for joint trans - boundary water resources development between Nepal and India.
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T-04260Abdoulrahman Abdullahi OgogleSocioeconomic Value of Irrigation: Case study of Bakalori irrigation scheme in NigeriaThe Paper critically examines the Socio-economic value of Irrigation in Nigeria taking the Bakalori Irrigation Scheme in Zamfara State (North-West Nigeria as the case study. The Bakalori Irrigation Project (BIP), in the Sokoto-Rima River Basin was completed in 1983 with original command area of 23,000ha of which approximately 8,000ha was developed for surface irrigation and 15,000ha for sprinkler Irrigation. The scheme is one of the success story of an operational large public irrigation scheme but now in deer need of complete rehabilitation due to poor operation and maintenance. The World Bank Assisted Transforming Irrigation Management in Nigeria (TRIMING) Project is currently rehabilitating the gravity section and converting the sprinkler area to gravity due to the failure of the electro-mechanical components required by the sprinkler operational cost.

The first baseline survey and Ex-Ante Evaluation was recently concluded in 2017 under the TRIMING intervention. This provided some socio-economic data for monitoring, a divergent social issues of pre-construction of the project over 3 decades ago and comparing with the present TRIMING project intervention, while it took the intervention of armed security operatives to ensure the construction of the BIP due to strong resistance by the locals leading to loss of lives and properties in the pre-construction era, now same communities are lobbying to be included in the rehabilitations while others are surprisingly against it. Suggested efforts are currently ongoing in ensuring a win-win situation for target beneficiaries. A well developed Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) with all the necessary world bank safeguards frameworks are currently dealing with all emerging social issues of the project

The TRIMING Project is a seven year collaborative effort of the Federal Government of Nigeria with the World Bank to diversify the economy and create significant welfare improvements for the Nigerian citizens, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) desires to achieve sustainable growth in agricultural production and productivity. In this regard, the development of irrigation infrastructure is regarded as a prerequisite, given the global growing competitiveness of irrigated agriculture in achieving higher output as well as raising incomes sustainably for the agricultural labour force with the overall gains of attaining food security and reducing the number of people living below the poverty line. The Project Development Objective (PDO) of the program is to support and improve access to irrigation and drainage services and to strengthen institutional arrangements for integrated water resources management, with the overall aim to support agricultural productivity improvement including value chains with active involvement of the stakeholders in selected large-scale public schemes in Northern Nigeria. (Project cost: USD 560.30 million).

The TRIMING Project is part of a balanced portfolio which will directly support key cross-cutting priorities in the water and agricultural sectors that are identified in the World Bank Groups Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). These include promoting reforms and increasing agricultural productivity, where the CPS places a strong emphasis on innovative approaches and on strengthening of systems. The CPS also notes that emphasis will be placed on strengthening water-related institutions, building state and national capacity for management of irrigation systems, as well as decentralized irrigation management.

The project is implemented under four major components namely: (i) Component 1- Water Resource Management and Dam Improvement; (ii) Component 2 - Irrigation Development and Management; (iii) Component 3 – Enhancing Agricultural Productivity and Support to Value Chains Development; (iv) Component 4 – Institutional Development and Project Management;
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T-05264Yawen ChiuehThe Demand said analysis of transferring agricultural water to industrial water in Changhua and YunlinWater resources are the kind of replenish able but depletable resources. The developing economy and society accompany with changing climate, increasingly the scarcity of water resources. Under this situation, water management policy must have detailed planning and management in order to obtain sustainability development in Economics, Environmental, and Social. Changhua and Yunlin is located in the central Taiwan, the groundwater resources important for the domestic area, is also the important agricultural production area, but the area also have many and large industrial areas, coupled with the impact of the recent global climate change, the frequency of occurrence of hydrological extremes and the extent of both increasing trend, moreover also facing a severe test of the subsidence, agricultural water use in times of drought or water shortage during the deployment has been widely discussed. In this study, Changhua and Yunlin area will be select as the case study areas. In this study, the demand function for the transferring agricultural water to industrial water in Changhua and Yunlin was estimated, and the water usage statistics derived from the short-term water charge agreements, regarding the charging of water management fees and water usage fees from the irrigation associations, were applied to the estimation in the empirical model. This study hoping to help build a fair and efficient water management mechanism to maintain food security, water resources, economic development, and the subject of environmental conservation among the deployment of water transfer management policy in Taiwan.
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T-06305Shivaji SangleSocio-Economic Value of Irrigation: Bulk Water Rates for Irrigation in Maharashtra State, IndiaMaharashtra is a pioneer state in India to have Water Resources Regulatory Act (2005) and established Maharashtra Water Resources Regulatory Authority (MWRRA) to regulate water resources; facilitate and ensure judicious, equitable and sustainable management; allocation and utilization of water resources as well as fix the rates for use of water for all purposes and matter connected therewith and incidental thereto. MWRRA fixes the rates for use of water for agriculture, industrial, domestic and other purposes in such a way that the water charges shall reflect the recovery of full cost of irrigation management, administration and maintenance of water resource project. In this paper an attempt is made to study the mechanism followed by MWRRA for determination of bulk water rates for irrigation. Water used for irrigation purpose has both characteristics of public/ social goods as well as private/economic goods. Therefore, pure market mechanism fails to determine water rates for irrigation. MWRRA have used modified form of contingency valuation method for determination of water rates for different uses in the state of Maharashtra (India). MWRRA prepared draft tariff proposal which has given wide publicity through newspapers, website, and local concerned offices. MWRRA, after due consideration of comments and suggestion received from various departments, field officers, experts, Non-government organizations, water users associations , beneficiaries, etc., has finalized the bulk water tariff for various water users. Volumetric rates for flow irrigation for individuals beneficiaries are 4.50, 9.00 and 13.50 Paise per Cum respectively for rainy season (Kharif), winter season (rabi) and summer season (hot weather). Further, these water rates are low in case of Water Users Associations (WUA). The MWRRA, through consultations with experts and stakeholders had evolved the criteria for sharing of estimated cost of water resource project among the three main water use sectors as domestic (22%), industry (59%) and agriculture (19%). However proposed uses of water resources among these sectors are respectively domestic (15%), industry (10%) and agriculture (75%).
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T-07328Shivaji SangleClimate Change and Management of Risk and Uncertainty in Indian AgricultureClimate change is one of the most crucial global phenomenon which affects natural ecosystem of the world. Indian agriculture depends on monsoon and climatic conditions which vary from region to region and state to state. Further climate change phenomenon creates uncertainty in agricultural productivity. Therefore, there is a great need to reduce risk and uncertainty caused by climate change and weather fluctuations in agriculture. For resilient , there is need to provide economic support to the farmers and induce them to invest in agriculture. Government of India (GOI) has taken various steps for bringing stability in agriculture sector and introduced several crop insurance schemes over the last three decades to insure the farming community against various risks like natural calamities, pest and diseases that lead to partial or full failure of crops. In this paper an attempt is made to study management of risk and uncertainty in Indian agriculture caused by climate change & weather fluctuations and take review of the various crop insurance schemes implemented in India. The crop insurance schemes are framed to provide insurance cover to the farming community against yield losses resulting from incidence of adverse condition of weather parameters like rainfall, temperature, forts, humidity etc. GOI introduced the Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme (CCIS) in 1985, which was replaced by National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) from Rabi season 1989-2000. Further Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and modification NAIS are merged into an umbrella, National Crop Insurance Programme (NCIP) forms Rabi Season 2013-2014. Now GOI introduced the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) and re-structured WBCIS by replacing NAIS and NCIP form Kharif Season 2016. These Schemes are helped a lot to the farming community for bringing them back on developing path due to loss of crop failure caused by weather fluctuations and climate change.
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T-08364Alireza MoridnejadSocioeconomic Impacts of Khodaafarin irrigation Network Project on Moqan Plain, Iran
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T-09220Attila NagyIntegrated method for identification of irrigable sites in the transnational Tisza river basin in Central Eastern EuropeThe Tisza river basin is a transnational catchment shared by 5 countries (Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia). Together with its tributaries, the Tisza River drains the largest catchment area in the Carpathian Mountains before flowing through the Great Hungarian Plain and joining the Danube River, and by far the most important crop producing region in the Carpathian basin, and even in Central Eastern Europe. (In Hungary, the rate of the agricultural sites is about 60%, which is by far higher than the global average.) Though, since the Carpathian basin is one of the most isolated basin in Europe and even globally, the average water shortage of the agriculture is about 200-300 mm/year in the basin. Further more, based on climate scenarios, the climate will be warmer and is getting more and more arid in the Tisza valley, especially in summer, when the probability of the heatwaves will highly increase as well. Thus the occurance of the drought risk situation will increase in July and August (and in June) and the effect of agricultural drought will become more permanent and significant in agricultural production as well. In contrary to the high risks, only a few agricultural sites are is irrigated (2% of the agricultural sites, in Hungary). However, one of the mitigation possibilities is the irrigation. In this study authors present the method for identification of possible irrigable sites as the partial results of the development of the Integrated Tisza River Basin Management Plant as the part of JOINTISZA project. In this study a model process was developed, which provides information for estimating the relevant sites for most effective irrigation.
The results ensure better embedding of flood and drought risk management planning into the RBM planning process and will also encourage the involvement of relevant sectors (such as flood risk management, water resource management, urban hydrology management, drought management) and interested stakeholders. In long term the project results initiate the change of better contribution to the implementation of the Flood Risk Directive and Water Framework Directive. The International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR) serves as the platform for coordination in the implementation.
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T-10157Eunhee ChoiPreliminary Application Experiment of Water Saving irrigation techniques at the Paddy Field for the Water-Energy-Food Nexus ApproachIntroduction
Global resource security crisis is emerging as the demand for essential resources such as water, energy and food increases due to climate change, population growth, urbanization and resource depletion, and the supply and demand of these resources are becoming unbalanced, Therefore sustainable securing and utilization of limited resources is necessary to cope with such future environmental changes. However, not only in Southeast Asian countries including Korea, but also in the world, over 70% of the world's water supply is consumed by agriculture and about 15% is consumed by energy generation. In Europe and the United States, 43% and 50% of the world's population is in use and the disparity in water, food and energy supply and demand is intensifying and mutual crisis is amplifying (World Economic Forum 2011).
So far, the world has been conscious of water, energy, and food as separate resources, and has produced and consumed them. However, these three resources, which are absolutely necessary for human life, are linked together and mutual crisis can be amplified. In recent years, interest in the water-energy-food nexus approach has been growing as a way to overcome the limitations of individual resource management and to manage resources in an integrated manner (Hoff 2011; FAO 2014; Daher and Mohtar, 2015).
The aim of sustainable water management through the W-E-F Nexus is to increase the sustainability of available water through balanced water use between water, food and energy. However if the water-food-energy relationship is not clearly analyzed, it would use a large amount of water for production from the available water resources. But if the water-food-energy relationship is revealed and analyzed, the use of available water resources is reduced and sustainability can be ensured.
The purpose of this study is to establish a linkage analysis system for the integrated management of water, energy and food by agricultural type in Korea. First, field experiment was conducted to derive the data for the paddy - farm - based model development.
The results of this study are as follows:
1. Monitoring of test site operation and meteorological hydrological environment
2. Analysis of effect on water saving technique such as water balance analysis
The results of this study will be used as basic data for the study of 'Establishment of linkage analysis system for integrated management of water - energy - food in paddy field'

Materials and Methods
1. Location of Experimental Field
The experimental field was selected for the rice paddy(Beodeul Reservoir area) located in Sangpori, Jangan -myeon, Hwaseong City, Gyeonggi do, ROK.
To apply the water saving technique for each of the three scenarios, a hydrological monitoring system was installed in the control (duplicate) and 2 treatments (duplicate respectively). The experiment was conducted for two years from 2016 to 2017.

2. Soil characteristics of paddy field used in the study
Before six plots were analyzed physico-chemically seizing soil characteristics at Experimental Field, soil characteristics were surveyed in the Soil Information System of Rural Development Administration(http://soil.rda.go.kr) (June, 2016 search).
The soil was classified as Bogcheon series by searching the soil information system of Rural Development Administration. The Bogcheon series are members of the fine silty, mixed, nonacid, mesic family of Typic Endoaquepts [Gleyic Hydragric Anthrosols (Eutric Siltic) classified by WRB]. These soils have thin; dark gray silt loam with yellowish red mottled A horizons and thick very dark gray silt loam cambic B horizons with yellowish red mottles. C horizons are olive gray silt loam. These soils are on fluvio-marine plains.

3. Experimental design and operation
The water-saving irrigation experiment was conducted to save water without growth stress when water supply is needed (at the rice growing stage) and also we considered water-saving irrigation even in low-impact season.
There were total 6 paddy field plots: two duplicates of each three water-saving technique scenarios (conventional irrigation sections: P1&P2, absolute intermittent irrigation sections: P3&P4, intermittent irrigation sections: P5&P6).
At the conventional irrigation sections, the irrigation water maintained at the height of the water from 20 mm to 80 mm during the entire stages except for ripening and maturing stages. At the ripening and maturing stages, the height of the water maintained from 0 mm to 20 mm.
At the Absolute intermittent irrigation sections, the irrigation water maintained at the height of the water from 0 mm to 20 mm during the entire stages. At the revealed crack at the paddy surface, the irrigation water supplied again.

Results and Discussion
As results of test bed operation in 2016, the mean outflow of P1 and P2 in the conventional irrigation sections was 1,839.1㎜ (rainfall 25.3%, irrigation 74.7%) and the average discharge was 1,879.4㎜ (infiltration 13.0%, evapotranspiration 36.0%, surface drainage 51.0%). Absolute intermittent irrigation group P3 and P4 showed an average inflow of 1,432.1㎜ (rainfall 32.5%, irrigation 67.5%) and the mean runoff was 1,377.5㎜ (infiltration 17.6%, evapotranspiration 49.0%, and surface drainage 33.4%). The average flow in intermittent irrigation group P5 and P6 was 1,690.1㎜ (rainfall 27.6%, irrigation 72.4%), and average discharge was 1,690.1㎜ (infiltration 14.2%, evapotranspiration 39.9%, surface drainage 45.9%).
As results of test bed operation in 2017, the mean outflow of P1 and P2 in the conventional irrigation sections was 1,265.2㎜ (rainfall 65.4%, irrigation 34.6%) and the average discharge was 1,347.9㎜ (infiltration 10.1%, evapotranspiration 45.3%, surface drainage 44.6%). The average flow rate of P3 and P4 in the water - saving treatment area A was 1,179.4 ㎜ (rainfall 70.2%, irrigation 29.8%). The mean discharge was 1,221.0 ㎜ (infiltration 14.7%, evapotranspiration 49.7%, and surface drainage 35.6%). The average flow of P5 and P6 in the water - saving treatment area B was 1,191.2 ㎜ (rainfall 69.5%, irrigation 30.5%). The mean discharge was 1,219.6 ㎜ (infiltration 10.2%, evapotranspiration 50.0%, and surface drainage 39.8%).
As a result of the water saving test, the water saving effect was verified, but it is considered that long-term monitoring should be maintained because the variation of annual rainfall pattern is large due to the unusual weather.
In addition, we need comprehensive analysis in conjunction with data accumulation and crop production, and based on these results, construction of a nexus system combining water conservation model and crop model will be carried out in the next step.

Reference
Daher, B. T. & Mohtar, R.H.,(2015) Water–energy–food (WEF) Nexus Tool 2.0: guiding
integrative resource planning and decision-making, Water International, Vol. 40(5-6), 748-771
Hoff, H. (2011). Understanding the nexus: background paper for the Bonn211 Nexus Conference: The Water, Energy, and Food Security Nexus. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
FAO (2014). Walking the nexus talk: Assessing the water–energy–food nexus in the context of the sustainable energy for all initiative. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3959e.pdf
World Economic Forum (2011). Water security: The water-energy-food-climate nexus. Retrieved from http://www.weforum.org/reports/water-security-water-energy-food-climate-nexus

Acknowledgement
This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No: PJ01343505)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
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T-11189Harold Yih-Chi TanA Case Study of Food-Water-Energy Nexus During Drought in Taoyuan City, TaiwanTaoyuan City is the sixth special municipality of Taiwan since 2014, and was the satellite city of Taipei Metropolitan City. A population boost of 25% for the last two decades made Taoyuan City total residents of 2.2 million. The water supply mainly comes from Shihman Reservoir, which was built in 1964. The reservoir initially provides 90% of water for agriculture, 5% hydropower and 5% for other purpose. Now, due to urbanization, the water supply is for 56.4% for domestic and public service, 42.1% for agriculture, and the rest for power generation, industry, and other purposes. Although the water demand from agriculture has vastly decreased and water supply for agriculture is now better due to 285 farm ponds distributed among Taoyuan City, a water supply gap projection of 5.7% by 2021 and further increase to 8.6% by 2031 is estimated. The elevated water demand is mainly comprised of the population increase, industry growth and the Aero-space Project, an ongoing expansion project of the existing Taoyuan International Airport. In addition, periodic drought and water turbidity increase after typhoons are also water management issues of Taoyuan City left to be improved. This study will develop a system dynamic model to investigate the water supply for present and during extreme drought events, and discuss possible impact to the energy and food sectors.
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T-12314Sylvester MpandeliWater-Energy-Food Nexus: Climate Risks and Opportunities for Irrigation Expansion in Southern AfricaThe challenges brought about by multi stresses such as high climatic variability and climate change, threatens our freshwater resources, diminishing crop yields, recurrence of extreme weather events and limited hydropower generation capacity are exacerbating the vulnerabilities of southern Africa. These already evident challenges are dominating discourses on development in southern, centred on improving livelihoods, building resilience, adaptive capacity and regional integration. About 60% of the population in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) live in rural areas relying mainly on rainfed agriculture, lacking access to clean water and energy, yet the region is endowed with vast natural resources. The water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is a conceptual framework that presents opportunities for greater resource mobilisation & coordination, management and policy convergence across sectors. This is particularly relevant in the SADC region as resources are transboundary and supports efforts linked to regional integration and inclusive socio-economic development and security. Irrigation expansion is one area earmarked to ease the vulnerability of the region and resilience building as expressed in regional policies and frameworks such as the SADC Agriculture Policy, the Regional Strategic Action Plan IV (RSAP IV), the Africa-wide Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP) that promotes the doubling of irrigated area from 3.5 to 7% by 2025, and national developments plans. Irrigation expansion will increase the demand for water and energy resources, further exerting pressure on already scarce resources. Therefore, irrigation expansion requires proper integrated resource management. We conducted an appraisal of WEF related policies and institutions in SADC and identified linkages among them to stimulate development, improve the livelihoods of the majority of the rural people and ensure resilience in the advent of climate change. The present ‘silo’ approach in resource management and allocation, often done at national level, imbalances development and contributes to the region’s failure to meet its development targets. The lack of coordination of WEF nexus synergies and trade-offs in planning often threatens sustainability of development initiatives, and it creates unnecessary tensions amongst countries in the region. We highlighted the importance of the WEF nexus to sustainably address sectoral coordination of resources through harmonised institutions and policies, as well as setting targets and indicators to direct and monitor nexus developments. We illustrate the significance of the nexus in promoting inclusive development and transforming vulnerable communities into resilient societies. The WEF approach offers more than a co-ordinated approach to development, it offers the possibility of resource optimisation, facilitates easier mobilisation of investment as well as promises the fruits of the multiplier effect – of single investments yielding several gains. The study proposes a set of integrated assessment models to monitor and evaluate the implementation of WEF nexus targets. Going forward, we propose adoption of a regional WEF nexus framework.
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T-13341Kyung-Sook ChoiWater footprint and food production: Exploring food losses and waste in Water-Food-Energy nexusIncreasing population and over-exploitation of resources for food production will undoubtedly continue to have a serious impact on the food security. Sixty-two percent of the total water withdrawal in Korea is used for agriculture. Furthermore, food supply largely depends on importation with a relatively small cultivated area, characterized by low efficiency and high production cost. The situation is expected to be more challenging with the FAO estimation that requires doubling of food production by 2050. Efficient utilization of resource in the food supply chain can close the gap between the food production and food demand without recourse to unfeasible agricultural intensification. To this end, this study examines the historical trends (1961 to 2013) of the food supply, population growth, and food waste across the food supply chain from agricultural production through to consumption using the mass flow model of global food waste and losses. Food production consumes a substantial amount of water, accordingly virtual water inherent in food are lost to food wastage. The loss of water resources to food waste was calculated using the estimated water footprint of food production in Korea. The average food waste generated during the period of estimation is 498 million tonnes with a 12.35 tonnes/capita/year including the import and excluding the export quantities. Of the total food waste in the food supply chain, food waste at upstream such as production, and postharvest and storage accounted for 36% while the downstream stages including processing and packaging, distribution, and consumption were 64%. Also, using an estimate of the water footprint of representative in each food group, the results indicate that in the year 2013, the loss of water resources embedded in the food waste is 9.56 Km3 with 65.8% of plant-based food waste. This study, therefore, shows that the self-sufficiency of food production in Korea can be achieved through food waste reduction and efficient management of water resources. Additionally, it also provides a clue of where the food waste reduction intervention should be targeted at along the food supply chain.
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T-14351Chia-Jen YuThe Water-Food-Energy Nexus in TaiwanThe water, food, and energy are key factors to achieving environmentally sustainable development. With limited natural resources and the effects of climate change, Taiwan faces the challenge of providing enough water, food, and energy. The aims of this study is to explore the current situation in Taiwan, in order to firm up the water-food-energy nexus framework. A series of systematic studies focused on water usage, rice yield, and power usage over the past decade, and interrelationship between water, food, and energy. The additional analysis on new policy of water resource, potential energy policy, crops land usage, and the agricultural development with resource management. Thus attempts to analyze how it influences situations in different issues, and in further to build a WFE framework. The results of this study showed that highest change of water usage is irrigation during last decade, the high correlation between power usage and water usage of livelihood, and the irrigation water has great effect on rice yield. There is a very interesting result which reveals that inverse correlation between power usage and rice yield. In terms of environmental sustainability, although individual factors may not affect greatly, when water, food, and energy in an area is taken into account, significant differences could be made with better framework from the viewpoint of environmentally sustainable development.
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T-15380Jin-Yong ChoiWater-Energy-Food Nexus Investigation for Resources Intensive Farming in KoreaSince 17 SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) were announced as an agenda for the international development guidelines by United Nations, it is internationally adopted as worldwide goals for the next generations and most industries have been related with these subjects in terms of secure resources and sustainable development. Of many industries around the globe, the agriculture is acknowledged as one of the most complexly connected sectors with SDGs and agriculture is facing up to sustainable achievement s. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus provides analyzing approaches the relationships on the linkages of three resources comprehensively. In this study, WEF Nexus approach was applied to greenhouse farming which is regarded as a resource-intensive farming. SDI (Sustainable development Index) was selected to evaluate the sustainability of greenhouse farming and data for the evaluation including water and energy use were collected. From the results, SDI and Nexus approach was supposed as an appropriate tool for understanding the water-energy-food relationships under the condition of resource trade-offs.
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T-16393Maxi Mbidde SsenyondoBoosting crop productivity through irrigation water systemsRationale: A vital agricultural resource such as, irrigation water is important for the productivity of crops as a livelihood. With a common belief in the importance of irrigation in agricultural development, Uganda has promoted irrigation development over recent decades. This study aims to empower water users with information on agricultural wastewater.
Findings: Through these benefits, irrigation water is linked to poverty alleviation, both directly and indirectly. This study examined agricultural intensification through the practice of irrigation as a strategy for poverty reduction.
Conclusions: These efforts have sought to achieve such broad objectives as economic growth, rural and agricultural development, food security, and protection against adverse drought conditions, with all of these goals expected to contribute to improved social outcomes.
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T-1712Karunakar GhimireImpact of climate on Nepal economy and Way forwardNepal is a land-locked country located between big nations India and China. More than 70 percent of total 27 million people in Nepal are directly or indirectly dependent on land as their basic means of livelihood. However, lack of farm commercialization has limited the contribution of agriculture at one-third of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. One of the many more challenges in macroeconomic field /area facing by our country is land management at a current political unrest situation. Due to the political liquid and translational period, neither our country has been able to increase GDP as the government expected nor, Government has made progress in agriculture business, tourism sector, industrial situation, monetary policy and investment policy.

The scarce land in Nepal has been threatened from different phenomenon. Issue of land has been always a political issue in Nepal as more than 50,000-100,000 people are still landless and different political parties are using them as a ‘vote bank’ in every election for parliaments to local bodies.
On the other hand increasing population, land slide, soil erosion and rapidly growing urbanization across the country have posed a huge challenge to the management of land in the tiny Himalayan nation-- Nepal. Land in the hilly remote areas are increasingly becoming fallow and deserted due to rapid migration to urban areas where land is also under growing pressure of overpopulation which has ultimately led to the encroachment of public land to shrinkage of arable land on the back of increasing urbanization and development of development infrastructure.

Squeezing volume of land due to above mentioned reasons has emerged as the threats to not only land management but also the food security in Nepal which , despite the agricultural country, is still dependent on import of food from neighboring India to fulfill supply deficit amid growing demands for food.

Increasing migration of youths from rural farm land to urban areas within the countries and international labor destinations is another challenge in managing the land for agriculture commercialization in the country. Despite the fact, there were rafts of measures were taken through polices and laws to ensure the proper land management in Nepal, scientific land use is still far cry.
Problems of today, such as drought, forest fires, and flooding, will only be magnified by climate change. In Nepal, changes in monsoon patterns will greatly exacerbate the situation of unacceptable presence of poverty and inequalities of opportunities in the country. While many Nepalese people are coping autonomously to current stresses, the state must design and implement effective strategies to adapt to climate change impact to achieve economic and social progress. Adapting to long and short term climate-related problems need creative engagement among government, market actors and the civic movement.
Climate change has been labeled a "wicked problem", one that is characterized by many underlying strata of nested, intractable and unforeseen predicaments. As the inter-linkages among these many predicaments are non-linear and complex, the solution to this problem falls outside the comfort zone of our conventional knowledge systems. We need interdisciplinary understanding of the challenges faced and the solutions sought, mediated through plural institutional approaches.
Nowhere is the challenge of responding to the varied impacts of climate change more daunting than in the Hindukush-Himalaya region. IPCC's 2007 Fourth Assessment Report designated this region a "white spot" because of the limited number of scientific studies conducted in this region, including Nepal. This paper discusses the physical, climatic and social variability of Nepal. It summarizes climate change scenario results from a recent modeling exercise. While temperature is likely to go up in the region, precipitation will be more erratic in the future implying increasing uncertainty. The paper suggests that increasing uncertainty does not imply no vulnerability and no adaptation. It then goes on to discuss two types of disasters - rapid and slow onset. Floods and landslides are considered rapid onset disasters while drought, forest fires, snow melt
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T-18160Emilly Tumuheirwe Kakooko NdyomugyenyiThe Effect of Climate Change Adaptation on Rural Community LivelihoodsBackground: Dependence on rain fed crop production means the impact of stresses and shocks are felt keenly by rural poor people, who depend directly on food system outcomes for their survival, with profound implications for the security of their livelihoods and welfare. However, such stresses and shocks will not necessarily lead to negative impacts, as risks and uncertainties, often associated with seasonality, are embedded in the practice of agriculture and there is considerable experience of coping and risk management strategies among people working in this sector. This study explores the opportunities for linking social protection, CCA and DRR in the context of rain fed crop production, establishing whether these three approaches would help enhance resilience to shocks and stresses in rain fed crop production areas.

Methods: The study reviewed the conceptual and policy-related similarities and differences between the three disciplines. Case studies where climate change and resilient social protection approaches were collected and an adaptive social protection framework that highlighted opportunities was developed.

Results: With climate change, the magnitude and frequency of stresses and shocks is changing and approaches such as social protection, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) will be needed to bolster local resilience and supplement people’s experience. Social protection and DRR measures designed to limit damages from shocks and stresses may not be sufficient in the longer term. For social protection to be resilient to climate change impacts, it will need to consider how reducing dependence on climate sensitive livelihood activities can be part of adaptive strategies.

Conclusion: Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction cannot effectively address the root causes of poverty and vulnerability without taking a differentiated view of poverty, integration with social protection can solve the problem.
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T-19179Lia PervinPotential impact of climate change to the regional climate and irrigation water demand in futureClimate change has its global impacts, where different parts of the world might undergo different experiences of this changing climate. The Global Circulation Models (GCMs) provide us with the future climate data which are coarse in resolution and are incapable of capturing the local phenomenon precisely. So, fine resolution regional climate projection is required to estimate the effect of climate change in a certain region. In this paper the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was used to simulate the local climate of the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) for the historical period 1979 to 2005, and using this calibrated and validated model the future climate of MRB was down scaled using the CanESM2 RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 data for the period of 2041 to 2070.The down scaled climate data from WRF model are 30 km by 30 km in horizontal resolution, where the GCMs data are 275 km by 275 km in horizontal resolution. The future 2m air temperature data shows a strong sign of climate change. Comparing with the base period, the RCP 4.5 climate scenarios generally project a 2 to 4 ° C warming during the summer season (May, June, July, August, September, October) over the MRB, particularly over the North and Western side; while rainfall is projected to increase by about 75 mm for the same period. As expected, under RCP 8.5 climate scenarios, more pronounced warming is projected than RCP 4.5, with a 2 to 5° C rise in temperature in 2050s and the rainfall is projected to increase by about 85 mm during the summer. Therefore, wetter and warmer climate are expected by 2050s from the WRF simulation for both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. As temperature and precipitation are projected to change in future, the irrigation water demand will also change. The spatial and temporal distribution of these temperature and rainfall anomaly is not same all over the basin. The non-uniform distribution of temperature and rainfall anomaly could lead a greater uncertainty in future irrigation water supply in some parts of the basin. Since the temperature is projected to increase in summer the crop evapotranspiration is expected to rise. This increased crop water demand could offset by the projected increase of rainfall but the temporal distribution of the rainfall will be critical. Having no rain or very little rain at the peak growing season could affect the cop yields, whereas excess rain without proper drainage system will also adversely affect the crop growth. So, extensive studies are required to address these uncertainties. This study provides quantitative estimation of climate change which is the basic for analysis and projection of future irrigation demand; this study is an important resource for modeling of future irrigation management system.
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T-20208Zongho KomPotential climatic shocks on small-scale farming and adaptation strategies in Vhembe District, South Africa.Household farmers faces major challenges to sustained agricultural growth leading to extended low yield for rain-fed agriculture in semi-arid regions in Sub-Sahara Africa. Smallholder farmers in the rural South Africa are typical considered to be particularly vulnerable to households climate variability and change. This study investigated and assessed the smallholder farmers determinants to climate change adaptation strategies drawn from various case studies conducted in the Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. Few studies have been conducted on how vulnerable smallholder farmers copy and adapt from area to be or provinces to provinces. Primary data were collected from a randomly selected 200 smallholder farmers through a semi-structure questionnaire, key informants and focus group discussion. Whereas, secondary data were collected from meteorological weather stations and literatures. Data collected was employed to derive smallholder farmers perception as well as coping and adaptation strategies to combat climate change. The study findings revealed that smallholder farmers perceived prolonged dry spell as the major impact stressing crop production. Dry spells often lead to low yield production, poor quality products or produce which lead to poor harvest. In response to the prevailing local climate conditions different coping and adaptation strategies were adopted by smallholder farmers in different irrigation across the Vhembe district, some of the coping and adaptation strategies used by smallholder farmers in the district include changing planting dates, crop diversification, plant early crop varieties and also use high breed seeds. The aims of this paper are: (a) Assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural practices by small-holder farmers in Vhembe district. (b) Analyze the current agricultural practices and strategies used by smallholder farmers during high climatic variability and change in the Vhembe
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T-21215Kateryna ShatkovskaImprovement of Adaptive Ability of the Drainage Systems in the Irpin's and Zdvyzh's Rivers Vasins to Climate ChangesOver the past decades, climate changes have been transformed into the one of the most pointed problems of humanity development that threatens the global economy and international security. From the list of the most important basic signs of global climate changes, one can distinguish the increasing of the average annual temperature of air and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events: droughts, storms, floods, floods, etc.
In the Ukraine, climate changes are characterized by higher, in comparison with the global, growth rates of average annual air temperature. According to meteorological observations in 1991-2016, the average annual air temperature in Ukraine has already exceeded the norm at 1.0 0С, and in 2017 - at 1.8 0С.
The greatest warming has recently been observed in the Chernigiv, Sumy, Zhytomyr and Kyiv regions. Within them there is an increase in the climate’s aridity, in the duration of water deficit periods, in the intensity of precipitation and the frequency of natural hydrometeorological phenomena, the formation of negative climatic water balance, also the reduction of river water content and the capacity of groundwater horizons, which threatens to increase the risk of the formation of unfavorable, especially arid conditions, for the cultivation of agricultural crops.
Existing hydro-reclamation (drainage, irrigation and combined irrigation-drainage) systems are essential to ensure favorable conditions for farming, adaptation of agrarian production to climate changes, protection of agricultural lands from flooding in the mentioned regions of the country.
Climate change significantly transforms the role of drainage systems in the Polissya: from the performing of the functions of excess water’s removal at the spring period to improvement of soil’s moisture provision throughout the growing season for effective agriculture on drained lands.
The directions for improvement of water regulation on the drained areas analyzed on the example of drainage and drainage-moistening systems of the Irpin and Zdvyzh river basins located within the Kyiv region, which is characterized by a significant increasing in air temperature (Fig. 1).
Now, in the basins of the river Irpin and river Zdvyzh three drainage-irrigation systems (DIS) are functioning: Irpinska, "Zdvyzh" and "Buchanka" and also a number of drainage systems. The area of drained lands in the basin of Irpin river is about 15,2 thousand hectares, 14,6 thousand hectares of which are agricultural areas. The total area of drained lands of the DIS "Zdvyzh" exceeds 7,5 thousand hectares. Cereals and oilseeds are predominantly grown on arable lands, also is widespread horticulture. Significant areas are occupied by hayfields and pastures.
Recently, in the Irpin’s river basin, the phenomenon of the building development of the areas of reclamation systems has become widespread: building activity is under way on the Irpin’s DIS, on the DIS “Buchanka”, on the drainage systems “Kopylovo”, “Kolonschyna” and other systems on the areas not less than 200 hectares. This requires an improvement in the level of protection of built-up areas from flooding.


Figure 1 - Deviation of the average monthly air temperatures (2014-2018) from the norms by the data of Kyiv meteorological station, ° С
The growth of the quantity, frequency and areas of fires in drained peatlands is also a negative trend. The reason for this is the increase of the duration of arid periods. So, in 2015, about 120 hectares of dried peat soils were covered (at the same time) by fires at the Irpin’s and Zdvyzh’s basins (Fig. 2).
The main directions of the improvement of drainage systems and their operation regimes adaptation should be determined by the requirements which ensuring the effective and safe use of reclaimed territories with the certain type of land use, their combination, etc. The main problem is the existence of different requirements for water supply within a certain territory and time interval, which may even be diametrically opposed. So, one user or site needs additional moisture, while others - drainage (drainage).
As complicating factors, may be insufficient amount of water in shallow, dry periods, impossibility or complexity of the existing technological system of water delivery. This applies, in particular, to the bilateral regulation of groundwater levels, especially in the present, mostly unfavorable, technical state of dual-use ameliorative systems. Thus, in the vast majority of the floodplain areas of the river Irpin there is a closed horizontal drainage, which can be used for the optimization of the water regime of reclaimed soils. Bilateral water regulation through the use of a network of reclamation channels and closed drainage is now complicated due to state of adjusting structures, drainage estuaries, drain silting, and a decrease in the depth of the drainage through triggering and sowing of peat.
For operative management of water regime of soils, as a component of agrotechnologies of agricultural plants growing on drained lands, it is recommended to use sprinkler or drip irrigation. This requires the accumulation of sufficient water’s amount in the main canal, drainage canals or other reservoirs.



Figure 2 – Distribution of fires on drained peat bogs in the basins of the Irpin (A) and Zdvyzh (Б) rivers, Kyiv region, 2015.

Thus, increasing of the adaptive capacity of existing drainage and irrigation-drainage- systems in the basins of Irpin and Zdyvzh rivers in the Kyiv region for the implementation of the efficient operational regulation of the water regime of the territory and soils, also taking into account the current conditions of land use and climate change, requires their reconstruction or modernization with the transformation to drainage-irrigation systems chiefly.
In order to increase the water provision of the territory during the dry periods and with the aim of the creation of guaranteed water supply sources for the irrigation and extinguishing of peat fires it is proposed to arrange the reservoirs (ponds) on reclamation channels by expanding and deepening of the latest. In addition, on the most reduced closed areas of drainage systems in the watersheds, it is advisable to create ponds. One of the variants of water storage tanks for drip irrigation systems is floating reservoirs with anti-filtering lining from geosynthetic materials and delivery of water from them in wells. This will provide access to groundwater (in conditions of the insufficient amount of surface water), both for extinguishing fires and for other purposes, including irrigation of agricultural crops, recreation.
An example of the implementation of adaptation measures for water regulation in drained lands under the current climate transformation conditions is the cultivation of berry crops (blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, sweet cherries, etc.), which is quite common in the basin of the Zdvyzh river (DIS "Zdvizh", "Maidanivka", the drainage system "Nebilitsa"), using drip irrigation, as well as the use of sprinkler equipment for cultivation of potatoes, cabbage on the areas of the Irpin DIS (SM "Valley" , hose-drum machines).
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T-22310Kyung-Sook ChoiClimate change implications over wheat production system of Punjab, PakistanChanging climate, dwindling water supplies and poorly managed agricultural and irrigation system is the lethal combination responsible for Pakistan’s lagging behind the major agricultural countries in terms of per unit land and water production. During the post green revolution era, a lot of emphases was placed on the sustainable wheat and rice production to cater the country’s food security issues. The adaptation of semi-dwarf high yielding varieties along with the extensive but uncontrolled use of fertilizers and surface and groundwater lead to substantial increase in crop production. However, the higher crop productivity came at the cost of over-exploitation of the precious land and water resources ultimately resulting in the unstable production rates, loss of soil fertility, and qualitative and quantitative deterioration of both surface and groundwater bodies. From the food security perspective, efficient utilization of the blue (irrigation) and green (rainfall) water resources is pivotal for sustainable intensification of both rain-fed and irrigated agricultural lands. Here the wheat production system of Punjab, Pakistan is presented as a case study to identify how the changing climate as reflected by a range of climate models ensemble might influence the yields and water footprints. The FAO developed Aquacrop v 5.0 yield simulation model was calibrated by incorporating crop phenology data retrieved from the field experiments conducted during 2004-2010 at a representative site located in the district Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The calibrated model, coupled with the statistically bias-corrected climate projections from the 9 Global Circulation Models (GCMs), was run for the two future time slices, the 2040s (2021-2050) and 2070s (2051-2080), under the two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs): 4.5 and 8.5. Under the worst, most likely future scenario of temperature rise and rainfall reduction, the wheat yield decreased and water footprint, especially blue, increased, owing to the elevated irrigation demands originating from the accelerated evapotranspiration rates. A probable increase in rainfall as envisaged by some GCMs may partly alleviate the adverse impacts of the temperature rise but the higher uncertainties associated with the predicted rainfall patterns is worth considering before reaching a final conclusion. The total water footprints were continuously increasing implying that future climate would profoundly influence the crop evapotranspiration demands. The future wheat production was predicted to be more irrigation or blue water dependent since the contribution of rainfall or green water would be much lower.
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T-23318Jongwon Doagricultural drought, water supply, reservoir, drought indexEffective drought early warning system depends on drought criteria or levels of drought severity, associated with drought responses.
The South Korea government(Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs(MAFRA) and Korea Rural Community Corporation(KRC)) has been officially operating a government-level drought monitoring and early warning system for agricultural reservoirs since 2017.
It has provided in real-time water level information and current drought conditions of approximately 1500 agricultural reservoirs.
South Korea has experienced extreme droughts in 2017 spring drought that was one of the most severe drought event since the 1994-1995 and 2000-2001 drought.
To quantify agricultural drought risk, drought index is extimated to evaluate the performance of the water supply on the agricultural reservoir using current water level.
The purpose of this study is to improve drought index and drought risk maps of agricultural reservoirs in South korea based on the storage rate of the reservoir using real-time water level.
It is suggested that the agricultural drought index be utilized as a basis for the establishment of risk management measures, and could provide effective information for decision making on drought risk mitigation.
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T-24319Yi-Ju LinThe Influence of Climate Change on Cultivation Interval and Field Irrigation Requirement for Paddy Rice in TaiwanThe impact of climate change on food security has become one of the most important issues all over the world. Adopting the irrigation management in response to the impact of climate change on crop production is regarded as a significant topic for the hydraulic engineer.
In this study, Tainan, an important food production area in Taiwan, has been investigated to examine the effect of climate change. The general circulation model (CSIRO-MK3, GFDL-CM2.0, GFDL-CM2.1, UKMO-HADCM3, and IPSL-CM4) output under the A1B scenario during the three periods of short-, medium-, and long-term is used to predict temperature and precipitation amount under climate change impact, and using the correlation coefficient, relative mean square error, and efficiency coefficient to evaluate the differences between Modify Blaney-Criddle and Hamon and Penman-Monteith estimations to establish an appropriate reference evapotranspiration. Finally, in the view of accumulated growing degree days, crop growth days, growth days of heading and flowering stages, crop water requirements and irrigation water requirements were established to effectively response to climate change and improve irrigation water allocation efficiency.
The results show that Hamon estimations is more accurate than Modify Blaney-Criddle estimations in estimating the reference evapotranspiration. In the short-, mid-, and long-term climate scenarios, the number of crop growth days and growth days of heading-flowering stages of first-season and second-season paddy rice of the Tainan region are shortened. Under the long-term climate scenario of first-season paddy rice, the growth day was shortened by 15 days (-12.0%), and the growth day in the heading and flowering stages shortened by 8 days (-16.3%). The crop water requirements at the first season in the long-term climate scenario has increased 3.89mm. The irrigation water requirements tends to decrease. This result can serve as the foundation for the irrigation bureau to manage and deploy irrigation water under different climatic conditions.
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T-25360Aston ChipanshiExploring the adaptive capacity of agriculture to climate variability across the Canadian PrairiesIn an attempt to understand how agriculture will continue adapting to the changing and variable climate, crop based agrometeorological indices were analyzed for the present climate and future climate change scenarios against production trends. The indices included Water Demand (Precipitation – Evapotranspiration), a proxy for water availability and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) which was used to assess the frequency, duration and trend of moisture availability for agriculture. Other indices included the heat stress and growing season length across the Canadian Prairies. Water demand (P-PE) and SPEI trended upward (more negative) especially in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Significant water deficits were most pronounced in central Alberta. In spite of the increased severity and frequency in water deficits, there was a noticeable reduction in the variability of crop yield (spring wheat) over time; however severe drought years were matched by reduced production. The reduction in yield variability over time was attributed to the increased adaptive capacity that has been gained through the use of improved seed hybrids, fertilizer, the use of fungicides and adoption of best management practices such as zero till and direct seeding. After crop yields were de-trended to remove effects of technology, the cumulative precipitation during the growing season explained the majority of the variance in crop yield. This initial analysis has set the stage for analyzing further whether the current adaptive strategies will be sufficient under the projected drier and hotter climatic conditions across the southern grain belt of the Canadian Prairies. Given the increasing water demand for agriculture, novel water management strategies such as rain harvesting, drip irrigation, eco-farming etc will require more exploration.
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T-26361Teboho MasuphaAssessment of climate change-related risks on smallholder farmers in the Capricorn district of Limpopo Province, South AfricaAn analysis of drought and heat stress affecting crop production and livestock was carried out using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Thermal Heat Index (THI) in order to characterise the nature of climatic risks faced by farmers in the Capricorn district. Monthly climate data from seven stations evenly distributed across the district was utilized with data from 1960 to 2015. The results indicated that the district has been subjected to recurrent drought conditions accompanied by high temperatures, hindering agricultural production in the region. In order for the smallholder farmers in the district to optimize their agricultural practices, they need to use different climate change adaptation strategies such as early maturing crops, drought tolerant crop varieties, crop and livestock diversification, destocking and food storage.
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T-27372Lei WangSpatial-temporal changes of main crops irrigation water requirements in China during 1986-2015Temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of crop water requirement and irrigation requirement are the key elements for determining crop irrigation quota in different areas of China's vast territory. Based on daily meteorological data in the last 30 years 1986- 2015 from 160 representatives stations and the statistical data of crop growth stages from different areas in China, crop water requirement and net irrigation requirement for 5 main crops were estimated by using FAO Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method. The results were validated with the observed data form different irrigation stations in different areas. Isograms of the multi-annual means were studied for rain, reference evapotranspiration, crop water requirement and net irrigation requirement using IDW interpolation methods. The spatial-temporal characteristics analysis were made for climate change , crop water requirement and net irrigation requirement for wheat, maize, cotton ,bean and rice, which were the most widely planted crops in China. The Isogram of irrigation dependency indexes of main crops were calculated. Results were concluded that mean irrigation dependency in Northeast China, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China were less than 50%, and the crop irrigation water requirement in these areas was not high. In recent years, droughts were frequent in Yunnan and around areas, crop irrigation dependency had increased quite significantly. In North China Plain, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shanxi, and Gansu, 32%-50% of the crop water requirements depended on irrigation for dryland crops, 55%-80% of water consumption came from irrigation for rice In Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the irrigation dependency indexes of main crops were over 0.7, and the agricultural economic development mostly relied on irrigation.A preliminary analysis of the effects of climate change factors was made, and the trends under future climate scenarios need further study.
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T-28389Khem Raj SharmaReflections on Climate Change and its Impact on Agriculture in NepalIn Nepal, agriculture contributes about 30% of GDP and provides employment opportunities to 60% of the total population. Out of total rainfall received in Nepal, more than 75% occurs during monsoon (June – September) resulting in overly monsoon dependent agriculture. A recent study has reported significantly positive trend for average annual maximum temperature (0.056 oC/yr) while there is insignificant positive trend for annual minimum temperature (0.002 oC/yr). Similarly, analysis of extreme precipitation trends shows significant increasing number of rainy days mainly in the northwestern districts; very wet days and extremely wet days are decreasing mainly in the northern districts and consecutively dry days are decreasing mainly in the northwestern districts of Mid Western Developmental Region while consecutive wet days are increasing significantly in the northern districts of Mid Western Developmental Region and central parts of Western Developmental Region and Eastern Developmental Region of the country.
Out of the 75districts in the country, 28 districts have shown positive trend in monsoon rain whereas 47 districts have shown negative trends. Most of the districts in the farwestern region and central districts in the western region have shown increase in annual rainfall. Except for the Terai, all other regions have recorded a decrease in annual rainfall. Out of those 47 districts with less annual rainfall, five districts-Manang, Dolakha, Ramechhap, Sindhuli and Ilam—are the most affected. Monsoon precipitation has gone up in the southern plains, the Terai, whereas the rainfall during the same season has decreased in the rest of the regions. Likewise, an increase in pre-monsoon precipitation has also been traced in the Tarai, Siwaliks and mid-hills, but it has decreased in high mountains and high Himalayan regions. Altogether, the post-monsoon precipitation has shrunk in 73 districts, spread over all five development regions of the country. On top of this, glaciers melting are resulting into loss of natural storage from ice having greater impact for those living closer to glaciers.
Climate induced events such as frequent drought; severe floods, landslides, cold waves and other type of effects in agricultural crops have been experienced in Nepal. Some laboratory experiments suggest that elevated CO2 levels can increase plant growth. However, other factors, such as changing temperatures, ozone, and water and nutrient constraints, may counteract these potential increases in yield. Negative impacts on agriculture due to climate change and food scarcity will increase if adaptation measures are not considered. Though the farmers have developed some coping and adaptation mechanisms, but the intensity and frequency of the changes have weakened their institutional adaptive capacity. In Nepalese agriculture, the necessity of climate resilience and proper performance of irrigation system to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change looks eminent. The paper is based on the existing country-specific literatures supported by findings from field studies.
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T-29355Syed ShahModeling the integrated effects of Climate, Soil, Groundwater, and Irrigation water on Root Zone water and salt fluxes for Maize Crop: A Case Study in Faisalabad, PakistanThe soil and water productivity of Maize is very low in Pakistan compared to developed countries due to inefficient management of water and salt fluxes happening at the root zone. Keeping in view the importance of root zone fluxes, a stochastic modeling framework has been developed for Maize crop, which is the most important cereal crop to ensure the food security of swiftly increasing population in Pakistan. Maize is produced in the wide spectrum under different ecohydrological conditions. The analysis of water and salt balance in the maize cropped area under irrigated condition of Faisalabad is the paramount importance to understand its dynamics in the root zone keeping in view the sustainable soil and water productivity. The initial conditions for the analysis includes the fixed irrigation of 0.1888 cm/day keeping in view the complete growing season, average rainfall of 0.1352 cm/day, groundwater salinity 0.0085 molc/L, soil salinity 0.012 molc/L and the water table depth from soil surface 1200 cm. The analysis has been performed under the five scenarios of canal water (CW) and groundwater (GW) usage. It includes 100%CW, 100% GW, 70% CW & 30% GW, 30% CW & 70% GW and 50% CW & 50% GW. The model is run for 2500 days to analyze long term trend of water and salt fluxes. The long term average (1000-2500 days) results of the study show the root zone salt accumulation 0.0078 molc/L the lowest and 0.013 molc/L the highest for the 100%CW and 100% GW use respectively. Increase in the root zone salt accumulation under 100% GW usage reduced the ETa up to 0.002 cm/day as compared to the 100% CW used ETa. On other hand the leaching was increased up to 0.002 cm/day under 100% GW usage as compared to the 100% CW. While in the remaining scenarios, ETa was found constant and the variation was found in the leaching. The results of leaching under the scenarios of 70% CW & 30% GW, 30% CW & 70% GW and 50% CW & 50% GW show the 0.0114 cm/day, 0.012 cm/day and 0.0117 cm/day respectively. The other components of water balance shows a constant zero cm/day runoff, zero cm/day capillary up flow. The numerical error of the water balance was around 0.003 for all the scenarios. The different scenario represent that purely canal water and conjunctive water having greater percentage of canal water should be promoted and outreached compared to purely groundwater or having greater percentage of groundwater. The presented analysis manifests the water salinity interaction as a function of irrigation, rainfall, and capillary upflow and guides towards efficient management of irrigation water quantity and quality for long term sustainable soil and water productivity.
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T-30358Jennifer AttemaDirect Measurement of Prairie Reservoir Evaporation: Towards Improving Estimation MethodsEvaporation from water bodies is an important, but poorly quantified, term of the water balance of many watersheds. Improved estimates of lake and reservoir evaporation are urgently needed by water managers, particularly in arid regions where current water resources are strained by a changing climate. Many practical methods of estimating evaporation use simple empirical relationships to relate lake evaporation rates to meteorological data collected from a land-based station. These estimates are often restricted to monthly time scales. Approaches that better represent the physical processes governing evaporation at shorter time-steps are required. However, improvements have been hindered by the lack of direct measurements.

The main purpose of this research is to collect the first direct measurements of evaporation on prairie reservoirs and improve understanding of the processes governing evaporation at shorter time scales. Evaporation measurements were collected using the eddy covariance technique on moored buoys at Val Marie Reservoir (southwest Saskatchewan) and Shellmouth Reservoir (western Manitoba) during the 2016 and 2017 open water seasons (May – October). The measured evaporation rates have been compared to meteorological data collected at the buoys and nearby land stations. The results of this work enable further discussion on improving practical evaporation estimates and establish an important dataset for future contributions to water management.
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T-31303Narges ZohrabiIntegrated analyzes of the Impacts of Streamflow Fluctuations and irrigation efficiency improvement on Irrigation and Drainage Networks using Performance IndicesIn order to supply food demands of the growing global population and achieve the goals of sustainable development, agricultural production must double over the next quarter of century. In this regard, more agricultural lands should be irrigated. However, available water resources in most regions of the world have declined in recent years due to increased demand for water and climate change. Dez irrigation and drainage networks located in the Dez basin in the southwest of Iran, has been one of the main centers of agriculture and production of food in the region for a long time. These irrigation and drainage networks depend on the basin's upstream Streamflow to meet their own water needs. However, recent studies in the Dez Basin show that the Basin will be strongly influenced by climate change in future. As a tool that can help making correct decisions, evaluation of the system response to various possible conditions is the first measure to take in this regard. The present study compared the current and climate change conditions and assessed the effect of reduced streamflow on irrigation and drainage networks. To this end, different scenarios of streamflow fluctuations (5% and 10% reductions in the mean annual streamflow of the rivers in the Dez Basin) and different scenarios of management (10% and 20% improvements in irrigation efficiency) were used. Since the Dez Basin is developing extensively and water must supply diverse needs, the integrated water resources management approach was employed in the simulation process. For this purpose, the streamflow fluctuations scenarios and management scenarios were combined and simulated in the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model. Results obtained from the scenarios were analyzed by the reliability and vulnerability indices and also by the sustainability index (based on these two indices). It was found that in the scenarios of 5% and 10% decrease in annual streamflow, the water provision reliability index declined by 5.69% and 18.89%, the vulnerability index remained almost constant, and the sustainability index deteriorated by 3.2% 9.6%, respectively. In general, in all stages, efficiency increases changed the vulnerability index and significantly improved the reliability and sustainability indices of the irrigation and drainage networks. Results of the present research indicated that the performance indices could be considerably improved through improving the efficiency of the reduced streamflow conditions. This made it possible to satisfactorily supply water to the irrigation networks. As a management decision, these results showed that improved irrigation efficiency was, to a large extent, able to increase water provision reliability and system sustainability in reduced streamflow conditions induced by climate change.
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W-0132Israr Hussain Kazim Hydraulic performance of a trickle irrigation system with special reference to emitters and energy loss along lateralsThis research study was conducted on one acre of land at Phularwan Farm in Sargodha district of Punjab, Pakistan. Drip irrigation system was installed in recently planted citrus field. Eight subsurface lateral lines were laid down, fitted with different type of emitters. Length of each lateral line was 57.92 m (190 ft). The designed discharge of all the emitters were 8L/hr (2gph) and same type of emitters were installed on two adjacent lateral lines. The system was operated at three different pressures i .e. 10, 15, and 20 psi.

It was observed that the emission uniformity (EU) of turbo (imported) and turbo (local) emitters were found maximum (90.8 and 90.6 % respectively) at 15 psi operating pressure. The EU of turbo (imported) was found 61.9 and 60.7 % respectively at 10 and 20 psi. The same values of turbo (local) were 46.8 and 73.4 %. The EU of bubbler type of emitters was 65.7 % at 15 psi, 59.5 and 39.8 % at 10 and 20 psi receptively. ln spiral type of emitters the emission uniformity was found as 45.4, 44.2 and 49.4 % respectively at
J O, 15 and 20 psi.

Local pressure loss of emitters ranged from 0.005 to 0.0013 m and i t varied with discharge. Almost same local pressure loss of 0.009 m was found in turbo (imported) emitters. The total minor head loss values were less than local pressure loss values and i t ranged from 0.003 to 0.005 m. At 15 psi more losses were observed than at I 0 and 20 psi pressures. The average total energy loss along the laterals was observed 0.006 m and it was nearly same at all the pressures in all kind of emitters. The average friction loss percentage ranged from 0.44 to 0.88 percent.
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W-0261Han XinResearch on the variability of Sense heat flux under inhomogeneous underlying surfaceSurface turbulent fluxes include sensible heat flux and latent heat flux,and sensible heat flux is an important component of surface water-heat balance, which is an important indicator in reflecting the energy exchange intensity between the surface and the atmosphere, and has a profound influence on the regional heat balance and water cycle. Currently, the widely used turbulent flux measurement techniques are the eddy coherence meter (EC) and Large aperture scintillator (LAS). EC is the single-point observing, the measuring range is from a few meters to a few hundred meters.LAS include the receiver and transmitter, the measuring range is from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers or more. Since both sensors are set up the certain height, the measuring results only reflect the physical processes of a particular underlying surface or some underlying surface.
In this paper, the observed data of inhomogeneous underlying surface developed by Daxing Experimental Base of National Center of Efficient Irrigation Engineering and Technology Research-Beijing in 2015 and 2016 were used,and the relationship between the sense heat flux of Large aperture scintillator(H-LAS) ,Eddy Covariance system (H-EC)and solar radiation(Rn), horizontal wind speed(Ws) and underlying canopy height(h) were analysed. so that the data observation and principle analysis of both LAS and EC will be provided some scientific evidences.
The results are listed as follows:(1)Firstly,through the analysis of the influence of Rn on H-LAS and H-EC on the time scale in 2015 and 2016, the trend of H-LAS and H-EC coincide with that of Rn on the time scale, and H-LAS, H-EC correlation with Rn was significant, the average correlation coefficient was 0.5 or more, the maximum correlation coefficient was 0.91.(2)Secondly,the daily change trend of H-LAS was consistent with the daily change trend of Ws, and H-LAS increased with the increasing of Ws. Due to the change of Ws in one day, the sensible heat flux in one day was different at different times. The H-LAS changed with the wind speed obviously, the correlation was bigger,R2 were 0.9706,0.9746.However,H-EC was not significant correlation with wind speed and the correlation coefficient were only 0.2197, 0.432. (3)In addition,for H-LAS, the underlying canopy height was an important factor affecting the sensible heat flux. The larger the height of the canopy, the larger the sensible heat flux was. However,there was no obvious variation between H-EC and underlying canopy height.
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W-0393Zhigong PengResearch on the Threshold Value of Agricultural areas under the Constraint of Total Amount of Water Consumption in North ChinaThe threshold value of the Agricultural areas has been determined based on the dual constraints of the total amount of water intaking and the total amount of water consumption, which has important reference value for the healthy development in agriculture of the areas short of water resource similar to the suburbs of Beijing. In this paper, the effective paths to address the shortage of water resources for agricultural areas in the suburbs of Beijing have been put forward based on the analysis on the constraint value of the total amount of agricultural water consumption and the constraint value of the total amount of the water intaking for irrigation in Daxing District, Beijing that have been calculated as the precondition, through the research on the changing trends of the agricultural water consumption with the amount of irrigation by adopting the measures such as the optimization of the irrigation schedules and the adjustment of planting structure; based on the recommended scenarios of planting structure adjustment, the threshold value for Agricultural areas under the constraint of total amount of water consumption was studied. The results show that: (1) using the measures to optimize the irrigation schedules can significantly reduce the agricultural water consumption and irrigation amount, which enables the regional water consumption in agriculture to be lower than the constraint value of the total water consumption and enables the total amount of water intaking for agricultural irrigation to be lower than the actual average level for many years, but the total amount of water intaking for agricultural irrigation is still higher than its constraint value; (2) to decrease the planting areas for the open-field vegetables and winter wheat with higher water consumption and to increase the planting areas for the summer maizes with less irrigation amount and lower water consumption, while further to develop the areas for facility agriculture with higher efficiency of agricultural water in Daxing District, Beijing, can not only meet the constraint values of the total amount of water intaking for agricultural irrigation and the total amount of the water consumption, but also comply with the requirements to stabilize the grain yields and increase the output of vegetables as prescribed in the Development Planning of Urban Modern Agriculture for the Period of Beijing "12th Five-Year";(3) The threshold value to meet the Agricultural area of the constraint value of the total amount of water intaking for agricultural irrigation is 4.60~7.42×104 hm2, and that to meet the Agricultural areas of the constraint value of the total water consumption is 6.72~9.48×104 hm2, for which the threshold value of the Agricultural areas increases by 41~61% under the synergistic reaction of the agricultural water control measures such as adjusting the planting structure and optimizing the irrigation schedules; (4) In the case that the total amount of water consumption is kept unchanged, with the development of facility agriculture areas, the development areas of traditional agriculture has been reduced, but the areas threshold values of the facility agriculture and traditional agriculture often do not align perfectly due to the differences among the constraint values of the total amount of water consumption. It is obvious that, in order to maintain the sustainable and efficient utilization of regional water resources, to ensure the healthy development of regional agriculture, it is bound to adopt the water-saving measures such as the optimization of irrigation schedules and the adjustment of planting structure, to control the threshold value for agricultural areas within a reasonable range, so that the total amount of the regional agricultural water consumption can not break through the constraint value of the total amount of water intaking for agricultural irrigation and the constraint value of the total water consumption.
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W-04132Qinghong YanEffect of SAP on Growing Seedlings in Substrate and Growth of Rape in SandIn this study, rape is taken as the research object, the SAP (Super Absorbent Polymers) is applied to the nursery substrate and the gully in the sand to study the effect of different concentrations of SAP on the seed germination of the matrix seedling, the seedling growth and the growth effects of rape in sand planting. The test results show that: (1) SAP can improve the water holding capacity of nursery substrate, reduce irrigation times and had no significant effect on the germination rate and germination vigor of seeds. It also can promote the plant height, leaf number, leaf area and dry weight and fresh weight growth accumulation. The comprehensive analysis shows that when the concentration of SAP is 0.6%, the best effect can be achieved. (2) Sap can effectively improve the water holding capacity of sand, reduce the average daily amount of irrigation of rape promote the plant growth and is conducive to the accumulation of production. When the concentration of SAP is 90 kg/hm2, the effect is the most remarkable.
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W-05175Elham ZanganehEffects Of Subsurface Drip Irrigation With Different Emitters Depth And Spacing On Yield And Water Productivity Of Sugarcane(Var. CP69-1062) In IranSugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is a perennial plant from graminea family that has high commercial and nutrient values to produce sugar (Abdollahi 2009). In addition, there are special attention to sugarcane cultivation in Iran, due to its high application in food, medicine and chemical industries. So that, a large number of areas in Khuzestan province (about 100,000 ha) is under cultivation of this plant (Abbasi and Sheini 2017). Due to having a long duration especially in hot season, high evaporation and evapotranspiration, it is classified as the high water requirement plant (Singh et al 2018 ، Bhingardeve et al 2017 ، Degefa et al 2016). It is found that sugarcane water demand varied between 1400 to 3500 mm.ha-1 (Srivastava et al 1979، Kumari et al 2014،Baksha 2008). For this reason, it is cultivated in the area with high amount of rainfall (Abbasi and Sheini 2017). Since furrow irrigation is used to supply water requirement of sugarcane, it is caused to decrease irrigation efficiency. Sub-surface dripp irrigation system, as a system set up under the soil, plays a better role to control salinity and deep percolation compared to drip irrigation. It is due to moisten of root zone (Phene, 1995). This method saves water by applying water in the root zone and decreasing deep percolation. So, it increases irrigation water productivity (Camp, 1998 and Lamm and Trooien, 2003 and Lamm and Camp, 2007). For this reason, many studies were conducted using this method for many plants like tomato (Joleini, 2011), soybean (Irmak et al., 2014), potato (Nagaz, 2012), Corn (Arbat et al., 2010) and grapes (Pisciotta et al., 2018). Due to reviewed papers and scarcity of water resources in Iran, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of sub-surface irrigation system on sugarcane. So, the objectives of this study are to achieve yield and yield component variation under different dripper spacing and depth in subsurface drip irrigation system.
Methodology:
This research was conducted at Khuzistan sugarcane and by-products research and training institute with area of 0.82 ha located at latitude 30˚ 59’ N and longitude 48˚ 32’ E with elevation 6.6 m. Treatments were consist of dripper spacing in sub-main pipe (L1: 30 cm, with discharge of 2.2 l.h-1, and L2: 50 cm, with discharge 3.8 l.h-1) and dripper depth (D1: 15 cm, D2: 25 cm, and D3: 35 cm) with six blocks as a strip split plot in randomized complete block design. Due to problems, two blocks of each treatment were not studied because of impermeable layer was up. Each plot had three furrows with two rows. Pipes with diameter 16 mm were set in the middle of each furrow. In line pressure compensated PC2 dripper were used for irrigation. Sugarcane (Var. CP69-1062) was cultivated on October, 2016 and was harvested on November, 2017. For removing the marginal effects, 10 meters plots in mid furrows was manually harvested and weighted and extended to tons per hectare then 20 stem was selected randomizely and height of stem, biomass weight and net stem weight were measured. Then, those samples were transferred to the laboratory for extraction. Percentage of sucrose in juice (POL) wad measured using saccharimeter by applying a correction factor. Percentage of soluble solids in juice (BRIX) was measured using refractometer. Finally, following equations were used to determine sugar quality and yield:

(1)

(2)

(3)


(4)


(5)

(6)


Where, Pty: purity of sugar, P.F is correction factor for purity, Q.R: quality of sugar, PSS: percentage of gross sugar, RS: Percentage of recoverable sugar, NSY: sugar yield (ton.ha-1), GSY: gross sugar yield (ton.ha-1), and SY: stem yield (ton.ha-1).
In order to determine biomass water productivity and sugar water productivity, the following equations were used:

(7)

(8)

Where, WPb: biomass water productivity (kg.m-3), WPs: sugar water productivity (kg.m-3), Yb: biological yield (kg.ha-1), NSY: sugar yield (kg.ha-1), and VIRR: Volume of irrigation water (m3.ha-1).
After collecting all of data, Duncan method using SPSS 24 software was used to analyze the results.
Results and Discussion:
The results showed that the dripper depth had a significant effect on height of stem, biomass yield, water productivity of sugarcane biomass, net stem yield, gross sugarcane yield, net sugarcane yield and sugarcane water productivity (P-value≤0.05). Dripper spacing had a significant effect on biomass yield, sugarcane water productivity, net stem yield (P-value≤0.05). Interaction between dripper depth and spacing on biomass yield, net stem yield and sugarcane water productivity (P-value≤0.05). The results revealed that D2L1 had the highest biomass yield (142.73 ton.ha-1). In addition, the highest net stem yield and water productivity were observed for mentioned treatment. These values were 124.40 ton.ha-1 and 5.6 kg.m-3, respectively. The values were obtained for this treatment had a significant difference compared to D2L2, D3L1 and D3L2. It might be due to moisten a large area of root zone. It decreased moisture loss in the form of evaporation and deep percolation.
Conclusion:
Depth of 25 cm and spacing of 30 cm is the suitable option to set drippers for irrigation of sugarcane. Nevertheless, it was not observed any significant difference for technological yield (Percentage of sucrose in juice and soluble solids in juice, purity and sugar percentage), sugarcane yield and sugarcane water productivity among the treatments. So, it is recommended to do more researches for evaluating the effect of depth and spacing for other varieties under different conditions.

Refrences:
1. Abbasi, F. and Sheini Dashtegol, A., 2017. Evaluating and Improving the Sugarcane Furrow Irrigation Management in Khuzestan. Water and soil sci, 26(2,4), pp.109-121.‎(In Persian)
2. Abdollahi, L. (2009). A revision of sugarcane fertilizer irrigation management and integration of domestic and foreign experience and using plant models predict. Shekan Sugar Magazine, April 2009. Deabal Khazaee Agro-Industry. (In Persian)
3. Arbat, G.P., Lamm, F.R. and Kheira, A.A., 2010. Subsurface drip irrigation emitter spacing effects on soil water redistribution, corn yield, and water productivity. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 26(3), pp.391-399.
4. Bhingardeve S.D., et al., 2017. Water Productivity in Sugarcane under Subsurface Drip Irrigation. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 9( 29), pp.-4377-4381.
5. Camp, C.R., 1998. Subsurface drip irrigation: a review. Transactions of the ASAE, 41(5), p.1353.
6. Degefa, A., Bosie, M., Mequanint, Y., Yesuf, E. and Teshome, Z., 2016. Determination of Crop Water Requirements of Sugarcane and Soybean Intercropping at Metahara Sugar Estate. Advances in Crop Science and Technology, pp.1-4.
7. Irmak, S., Specht, J.E., Odhiambo, L.O., Rees, J.M. and Cassman, K.G., 2014. Soybean yield, evapotranspiration, water productivity, and soil water extraction response to subsurface drip irrigation and fertigation. Transactions of the ASABE, 57(3), pp.729-748.
8. Jolaini, M., 2011. Investigation the effect of different water and plastic mulch levels on yield and water use efficiency of tomato in surface and subsurface drip irrigation method. Journal of Water and Soil, 25( 5) ,pp. 1025-1032.
10. Kumari, V., Srivastava, T.K. and Chandran, S., 2014. Technologies for Improving Water Use Efficiency in Sub-Tropical Sugarcane Production.
11. Lamm, F.R. and Trooien, T.P., 2003. Subsurface drip irrigation for corn production: a review of 10 years of research in Kansas. Irrigation Science, 22(3-4), pp.195-200.
12. Lamm, F.R. and Camp, C.R., 2007. Subsurface drip irrigation. In Developments in Agricultural Engineering ,(13), pp. 473-551. Elsevier.
15. Nagaz, K., Masmoudi, M.M. and Mechlia, N.B., 2012. Effects of deficit drip-irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on pepper yield, water productivity and soil salinity under arid conditions of Tunisia. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development (JAEID), 106(2), pp.85-103.
16. Phene, C.J., 1995, April. The sustainability and potential of subsurface drip irrigation. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Micro Irrigation Congress, Orlando, Florida ,pp.359-367.
17. Pisciotta, A., Di Lorenzo, R., Santalucia, G. and Barbagallo, M.G., 2018. Response of grapevine (Cabernet Sauvignon cv) to above ground and subsurface drip irrigation under arid conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 197, pp.122-131.
18. Srivastava, S.C. and Johari, D.P., 1979. The irrigated sugarcane in India
19. Singh, I., Verma, R.R. and Srivastava, T.K., 2018. Growth, Yield, Irrigation Water Use Efficiency, Juice Quality and Economics of Sugarcane in Pusa Hydrogel Application Under Different Irrigation Scheduling. Sugar Tech, 20(1), pp.29-35.
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W-06219Attila Nagy Water and energy safe precision irrigation system: a Hungarian exampleProduction of good quality agricultural products in appropriate quantity can only be privided by the use of high precision agricultural technologies. Nowadays, IT tools provide more and more information on the field and the cultivated plants in agriculture. Irrigation and water management are critical points of agricultural production. Water supply is a critical point in plant production. Hydrological phenomena are the most rapidly-changing process in space and time. Their environmental information assessment is therefore a difficult task even with more advanced technology tools, partly because there is no universal solution for any technical background, even for a single river basin. Spatial decision support should be flexible enough to handle spatial and temporal changes in hydrologic relationships in river basin systems. In this study the research site is 22 ha pasture and 80 ha arable land near to Nyírbátor city, Hungary. During the research, a new filter system was developed to filter the fermentation sludge from the suspended and floating contaminants. The importance of this is that the purified fermentation sludge as a nutrient solution can be utilized as an alternative water source on such high performance irrigation machines as the linear irrigation system, which established at 80 ha of arable land. In the technical implementation, a linear irrigation system has been developed with an experimental apparatus by which precision utilization of the filtered fermentation sludge can be utilized. During the development, the selection and definition of variable rate nutrient application was made by identifying the management zones. After that the control technology of the precision RTK-based linear irrigation was developed taking into account the agro-ecological properties of the growing area. Due to the results, it is possible to continuously process hydraulic water balance elements in 2-3 dimensions to control the water supply and water governance in real-time. Irrigation system is suitable for irrigation of alternative water resources resulting the utilization of agricultural biogas fermentation outlet and locally collected excess water, in addition to GPS control, it is able to adapt to continuous changes in soil and plant water balance while irrigation. Suitable for other special functions (humidification, frost protection) within the same system.
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W-07236Gary KrugerContans as an integrated pest management tool for irrigated soilsPlant diseases are caused by plant pathogens such as fungi and bacteria. Plant pathologists have learned that three essential factors - presence of the pathogen, presence of a susceptible host, and a favorable environment – are essential for disease to occur in a field. These factors are described as the disease triangle. Disease will only appear, however, in the sweet spot of interaction of these three factors. The environment is a huge factor for influencing disease within irrigated rotations. The interaction of these variables can lead us to believe we are doing well in our disease control decision making, when in reality we are just getting lucky that conditions are not favorable to disease. Sclerotinia is one disease which may lurk on the edge of outbreak until it surprises us when the conditions for disease align. For this reason, reliance on foliar fungicides alone to control this disease in irrigated fields can fail. Use of the biological control agent, Coniothyrium minitans, can be a helpful asset to reduce the uncertainty for schlerotinia outbreaks. It controls the accumulation of sclerotia bodies from a high frequency of sclerotinia sensitive crops. By focusing on the “presence of pathogen” component of the disease triangle, it offers an innovative strategy to irrigators to control sclerotinia. 2017 was not a “sclerotinia year” according to the Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture’s provincial canola survey. Yet a local Irrigation Crop Diversification Corporation strip demonstration with Contans on an irrigated site near Riverhurst in the Lake Diefenbaker area showed modest yield response for both lentil and dry bean. What makes this result more remarkable is that the yield response occurred even though the grower applied a blanket treatment of foliar fungicide for sclerotinia control on both fields. Contans may potentially be applied through an irrigation pivot following harvest when soils are being recharged with moisture. Registration of this practice is currently being pursued.
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W-08299Kyung Sook ChoiDevelopment of farmers education model for water saving as a drought measureRecently, Korea has experienced increased frequency and intensity of droughts due to climate change, and hence, water shortages and food security have become increasingly important issues in Korea. With these circumstances, Korean government has established adaptation policies for mitigating drought risks, and water saving program is one of the policies to achieve secure water. Since agricultural water is free in Korea, farmers usually have lack of mind for water saving, and this causes excessive water use in the fields. Moreover, farmers do not participate agricultural water management as KRC, government owned company, has responsibility of that, they mostly do not care of water management even at farm level. Therefore, approximately 35% of agricultural water supply are assumed to be loss, and farmers are thought to be main contributor of this water loss. For this situation, an education model were developed for farmers to build up water conservation mind and to encourage them to save water in the fields. The model consists of three stages including understanding, application, and practice levels. The understanding level gives general information of water shortage problems, and cause and effects of water loss due to farmers’ bad water managements. The application level adopts action learnings by using the water use simulator through various farmers’ water use scenarios, and farmers can expereince consequences of conventional and conservational water use practices. The third education level gives direct way of field experiences to farmers through searching causes of water loss in the their fields, and establishing water saving practices applicable for the fields. The model was applied to the eight rural villages and the survey was conducted to farmers after educations in order to investigate their minds regarding to water saving issues and willingness to take water saving practices in the fields. The results showed the positive responses for the education objectives, but further process will be needed to develop the various education models to provide various types of farmers in appropriate way, and to build up an education system to guide farmers to save water continuously for achieving the education effects of water saving.
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W-09311Yu-Min WangMultispectral Imager Onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Estimating Paddy Rice Chlorophyll in South of TaiwanCChlorophyll is intimately linked in plants and has been used as a surrogate for diagnosing crop water status. The objective of this study was to use unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform to determine paddy rice chlorophyll content under AWD system for monitoring water stress in Southern of Taiwan. The study used a multispectral sensor of four narrowband onboard UAV integrated with GPS module. A flyover was conducted over paddy rice field, and the preliminary data was processed with the Pix4d software to perform the ortho-mosaic reflectance maps of the individual bands. In addition, the ArcMap 10.1 was used to generate spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Red edge index (NDRE) Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI) , and Transformed Chlorophyll Absorption Reflectance index (TCARI). The indices were used in the stepwise regression to establish relationship with the crop chlorophyll content collected from field with the SPAD Meter. The overall stepwise regression yielded an R2 of 0.77. Meanwhile, the individual treatments yielded the highest regression performance (R2=0.99) with the chlorophyll contents versus the UAV multispectral indices. Results showed good correlation between UAV-based multispectral sensor derived vegetation indices and crop chlorophyll content which is useful for crop stress monitoring. This indicated the use of multispectral imagery as a potential platform to accurately estimate crop chlorophyll and monitor crop health
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W-10320Wen-Shin LinAssessment the Performance of Rice Cultivation between Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) and System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Southern TaiwanDue to the increasing water shortage, irrigation water is decreasing, significantly impacts on agricultural production, especially in the paddy field. Thus, the rice cultivation techniques of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and System of Rice Intensification (SRI) have caused wide adoption in responding to water scarcity. However, under the uncertainties circumstances of water saving techniques, the optimal conditions of AWD and SRI planting in southern Taiwan should be evaluated. The present SRI study with the field experimental design followed four water depth treatments (T2: 2 cm; T3: 3 cm; T4: 4 cm; T5: 5cm) with three replications in 2017. These treatments combining with rainfall were compared with the results of the AWD were conducted in 2013 and 2015, respectively, on the same experimental field design. Crop morphological, physiological parameters and grain yield were measured to evaluate the performance between AWD and SRI.
According to the study results, under the same water depth treatment, plant height and tiller numbers at vegetative stage were higher in SRI than AWD practice. At heading stage, under SRI management practice, the average plant height was higher from 2.5 to 10.98 cm compared to AWD practice. And, the average weight of thousand-grain harvested under SRI practice was weighted 17 % to 21 % more than AWD practice. Additionally, treatment with 3 cm water depth applied in SRI practice could save 16 % water with 0.40 kg/m3 total water productivity. In conclusion, in southern Taiwan, farmers implement SRI practice with 3 cm water depth can save irrigation water and maintain rice yield, simultaneously.
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W-11349Alina BuberManagement of the Hydrothermic Regime of the Irrigated Field While Growing Early Potatoes in the Arid ZoneWithin the framework on Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation, that aimed to provide the food for population and develop of the agro-industrial complex, the issue of obtaining stably high yields of early potatoes with the minimization of costs per unit of production is very acute.
Results of multifactor experiments in 2015-2017 years on early potatoes cultivation under drip irrigation (DI) and finely divided sprinkling (FDS) in the conditions of the Volgograd region did not allow us to identify optimal technological parameters with apply of statistical methods. In addition to the small number of field experiments over a number of years, the abnormal weather conditions was the dominant case, that is leading the significant shifts in vegetative growth period over the years and variations of the most vigorous vegetation intervals over the meteorological conditions during various stages of potato growing.
The prospect to solve this problem is recognized in application of a dynamic model for the potato crop growing that takes into account the ability to control soil moisture in the root zone and temperature regime of the vegetation cover and simulate them depending on the emerging weather conditions and the actual state of the plants. The model is formed according with the generally accepted scheme with a daily calculation step. Using the J. Ritchie algorithm to determine evaporation and transpiration, it is easy to reconcile the design scheme with soil moisture distribution under drip irrigation, and also take into account the agrocenosis water balance with periodic fine dispersion water sprinkling (1-2 mm of water) in the hottest hours of the day. Preliminary numerical experiments, based on the retrospective data of earlier field experiments, indicate sufficient flexibility of the model in terms of the formed water-temperature regime simulation and its influence on potato growth processes. However, a number of technical problems remain to consider the nutrition plants regime and its realization in a dynamic model.
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W-12378Mahdi MohammadiNon-destructive leaf area estimation method; using image processing techniquesLeaf area is an important traits in plants since it is a determinant factor in photosynthesis, growth, evapotranspiration, light absorption, and water balance and energy exchange, in general. It is, therefore, an effective factor in plant production and sustenance. On the other hand, leaf area is used for computing two important crop indexes that are utilized in monitoring food security, namely Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Leaf Area Duration (LAD). Furthermore, the growth rate of a leaf during different time periods indicates desirable conditions or existence of environmental stress. One of the natural reactions of a plant to an undesirable growth environment is a shape deformation in its leaves. One technique to automate the recognition of leaf deformation in plants is through image processing tools. Leaf area may be computed indirectly using its shape parameters such as leaf length (L) and leaf width (W). In traditional methods, technicians would have to remove a leaf from a plant in order to perform shape parameter measurements. Removing a leaf from its origin is considered to be a destructive method which permanently eliminates the chance of future growth monitoring of the leaf. However, in image processing techniques, leaves will remain intact, while shape parameters are deduced using computational means. Indirect computational methods enables researchers to save precious field and laboratory time as well as saving monitory resources. In silico techniques also have an added value when it comes to preserving the integrity of the leaf itself. When a leaf is preserved, there is a chance that one may repeat the measurements in other time periods as well as monitoring its growth. In this study, an indirect image processing approach has been devised to estimate leaf area using its shape parameters. To achieve the shape parameters, a MATLAB module has been developed in which several preprocessing steps are applied to a leaf image. In this technique, the background image is removed first. In later stages of the processing, a pixel ratio is taken as the percentage of the initial image occupied by the leaf. This methodology assumes that pixel ratio of the leaf image to the total image pixels indicates the ratio between image area and the leaf area. Given that a conversion factor between pixels and surface area, one may easily compute the leaf area. This study has enabled us to validate the general equation for computing LA using L and W parameters. In other words, the validity of the general equation was examined by comparing results produced by the proposed approach with those yielded through the general equation. The comparison of results achieved by these methods has confirmed that the general equation for leaf area, in fact, yields the most accurate approximation. We have been able to further improve on the constant coefficient used in the formula by a considerable margin of accuracy. The constant coefficient in general equation was previously reported in a non-exact range between 0.7 and 0.8. However, in this study a more exact value of 0.787 was found through processing of 112 maize leaves. An additional effort was made in this study to fit the results into a curve using the existing tools in MATLAB. The fitted results has shown that other non-linear equations, which best describe the results, do not improve the estimation performance of the general equation. It is, therefore, our conviction that the general equation is still the most accurate estimate of LA. However, the methodology used in this study proposes a faster approach to measuring LA using image processing techniques.
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W-1320Maryam MoradyInvestigating the Effect of Irrigation Network Improvement on reducing underground water resources usag and CO2 Gas Emissions Using Intelligent Precision Automatic Control System (MPC)In this research, Intelligent Precision Automatic Control System (MPC) has been used to improve the utilization of surface water and groundwater resources in Necdabadabad Irrigation Network.
The purpose of this work was to reduce the water withdrawal from the aquifer using the automatic control system for the transmission and distribution of water within the studied area
Therefore, the improvement of the desirability of utilizing the main system of agricultural transmission and distribution based on the water supply adequacy index was investigated.
To this end, the effectiveness level of the automatic control system was improved to enhance the network performance in the form of impact levels of 80, 90, and 100.
Based on the impact levels, the number of wells that have been completely closed due to this improvement or decreased since the operation of pumping was determined.
In addition, the reduction in water withdrawal from the aquifer was determined by reducing the harvesting of zeolite water from the studied plain
The results indicated that the amount of water withdrawal from the aquifer for each level was 80, 90, and 100, respectively, reductions of about 8%, 14% and 19% respectively, which decreased the amount of energy consumption proportional to each level based on the relationship between water and energy. It turned out that the environmental benefits of using irrigation canals were also calculated based on the reduction of carbon dioxide levels.
The results of this research point out the necessity of placing modernization and irrigation network automation projects in priority of resource management plans in a way that can be realized by identifying the potential solutions for improving the performance of water resource distribution systems hence reducing the energy consumption and negative environmental impact.
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W-1466Aditya ShahMaking an efficient irrigation system and rain gardenHello, my name is Aditya Shah and I am currently a University of Lethbridge student. When I was in high school, I had the chance to be part of the club, Green initiative, led by Mr.Dulku. We based our irrigation system on using solar power to operate the pumps as well as rainwater to water the plants.

We connected IBC tanks to the school rooftop. This way the rooftop water had a place to go and be used. Rooftop water can be dirty as dust accumulates over time, so we used a system in which we had a ball to control the movement of water. The ball starts at the bottom of a small pipe and the first few liters of water push the plastic ball up. At its maximum height, the ball acts as a barrier and does not let the other water down, instead it pushes the incoming water to the side and into the tank.

For irrigation, we bought pumps from irrigatia. They had a unique design in which solar panels were mounted on top of the pumps. It also reduced human effort as it contained a timer which would automatically water the plants as set. The timer and the solar panels proved to be very efficient as we put the irrigation system to a test by leaving it untouched for one month, it was successful.

Irrigation is also a useful strategy when trying to conserve water. Since plants don’t require water on their leaves, directly setting the outputs close to the roots makes sure the plants are getting hundred percent of the water and so less water is needed to sustain them.

Controlling drainage is important in maintaining a healthy environment, the water could be used efficiently to water plants in a rain garden compared to overflow on land. Gutters and directed pathways direct the water to the rain garden, which then is able to infiltrate into the soil as the plants and soil help to remove the pollutants. They are made deep with loose soil to allow a much water as possible. Rain gardens have native plants which extend their roots deep below the soil which helps to absorb nutrients and take in extra water when conditions are dry. An extra benefit to having a rain garden is in the native plants, they are easy to maintain and they attract pollinators such as bees.

When our club built a rain garden in the back of our school, we had a dug a path for the water to flow. It would start at one end on the garden and flow to the rain garden, this way we ensured that we had the maximum amount of water we could get and reduced flooding in your garden. It also helped other plants like squash that need pollinators grow faster, due to the attraction of bees by the rain garden.
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W-15129Shams Hayat khanIrrigation Channel construction and its impact on crops yields and farmers economic growthIrrigation Channel construction and its impact on crops yields and farmers economic growth.

Dr. Shams. Hayat khan1, Dr. Watanabe. Fumio2,Hashimi. Mir Mohd Shafee3, Naseri. Pervaiz Ahmad4


Abstract

Afghanistan’s climate, endowment with land and water resources, as well as topography determines that only a fraction 12% of the country’s land area is considered arable. The total irrigated area is currently 2.45 million hectares, and more than 95% of water used in the country is consumed by the irrigation sub-sector. Consequently, water resources management is directly linked to the irrigation sub-sector, and its development and management. It is estimated that approximately 7,000 irrigation schemes in Afghanistan remain dysfunctional and under performing, resulting in a significant reduction in the actual irrigated area, and considerable reductions in total annual crop production. In addition, water and land productivity in irrigated agriculture has not reached its potential, established irrigation management institutions, The purpose of this research is to evaluated effect of rehabilitation and construction of irrigation schemes on crop productivities and farmer’s economy, research adapted in three differences province like Kabul, Logar, and Parwan and three rehabilitees irrigation schemes as Ajmeer, Neem- Daha, Darak Rood Rabat respectively, command Area were 341, 140, 117 ha respectively, Direct beneficiaries 357,100, 350 and indirect beneficiaries2499,3600, 2450 families respectively. Schemes length developed 2870,28581762m respectively. Cost of rehabilitation and construction Were $ 149.745, 103.530, 85.058 respectively. Save water loses 20% and supplied water for additional 85, 35 and 30 ha land and annual net income from harvest of wheat cultivated were $41884, 17247 and 14783 respectively.
Key words: Irrigation schemes, increase irrigated land and water use efficiency, Preparation opportunity for jobless people
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W-16177Emilly Tumuheirwe Kakooko NdyomugyenyiInfluencers of food security and food dietary diversity in rural semi - Arid communitiesObjective: The aim of this study was to investigate the food availability, food choices and nutritional adequacy of household food in the study area.
Methods: Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. The primary data was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire administered to selected farmers in the study area and focus group discussion methods. A probability sampling method (that is, pure or simple random sampling technique) was used to select the respondents. From a total population of 3,236 small-scale irrigators in Kaabong District, 147 respondents who happened to be irrigation farmers were randomly selected while 43 dry-land farmers were selected adjacent to the selected irrigators.
Results: This study revealed that the type of carbohydrate food eaten most is the Sorghum which is eaten seven times in a week by a large majority of the respondents (about 60%) out of 190 respondents, while very few eat other carbohydrate foods and only less than 1% Millet few times in a week. This could be because Sorghum is the staple food eaten in the Kaabong district. The study revealed that household food security depends on a nutritionally adequate and safe food supply at the household level and for each individual; a fair degree of stability in the food availability to the household both during the year and from year to year; and access of each family member to sufficient food to meet nutritional requirements. There is no significant difference in the type of food eaten between the irrigation and dry-land farmer households. Social factors and cultural practices in most countries have a very great influence on what people eat, on how they prepare food, their feeding practices and type of food they prefer. The likelihood of food security increases when farmers increase agricultural output and have access to a piece of land on the irrigation project. Therefore, with concerted support from government, and all stakeholders, food security can be enhanced at the household levels. Also, education and extension training are essential for farmers so that they are able to adopt new technologies. The study suggests that households that need to be targeted for food aid are those with large families, and those without access to irrigation projects. Also, to be included are those families with few assets, and those without access to agricultural land and implements.
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W-17307Zhonghao MaoThe response property of inverted siphon in long distance water distribution systemIn order to design controllers for inverted siphon, it is necessary to learn its delay time and response property. Compared to open canals, the water movement in inverted siphon is very different due to the fast travelling speed of pressure wave and high water pressure. The authors use the shock capture method to simulate the water change in a complex system consists of two canals and one inverted siphon. The result shows that the water level change at downstream end is significantly smaller than water change at upstream end, also the oscillations is significantly dampened. Furthermore, the frequency response shows that an inverted siphon can work as a filter that helps to improve the effects of controllers.
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W-18367Omid MoridnejadManaging equitable distribution of water and providing demanded pressure in Hirmand 1 Irrigation Network
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W-19394Skyler Jayden DembeThe contribution of simple irrigation technologies to crop production in the arid lands of North Eastern UgandaRationale: Season river streams are potential sources of water for domestic use, agriculture and in maintaining the ecological balance. Crop productivity under simple irrigation technologies was examined in north eastern Uganda.
Findings: simple irrigation technologies are becoming more important to peoples livelihood. The study revealed that maximum profitsarerealised when a combination of cereal crops and vegetables are grown together and irrigated using water from various sources. The productivity and profitability varied within zonal dimensions. Areas with wider valleys registered higher achievements; the experience was lower in terms of achievements in flood plains, areas close to marketing centres and areas with good road networks. Major problems limiting productivity included; declining soil fertility, water shortage and crop pests and diseases.
Conclusions: Strategies to ensure water availability includes; opening of small shallow wells in wetlands or sometimes in river tributaries, valley diversions of tributaries to farms and conservation of indigenous tree species. Proper management of simple irrigation technologies could sustain productivity.
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W-209David MurrayDesalination of seawater for hydroponic agriculture to adapt to climate changeIn recent years, climate change impacts have led to severe drought conditions in several regions of Vancouver Island leading to a lack of water available for alternative agriculture production which is highly specialized on the island. To address this problem, The newly established science unit of KWL has developed a new innovative method to desalize seawater in order to make it usable for hydroponic agriculture. This new patent pending method is more efficient and cost effective than tradional desalination methods. The concept behind this new technology is based on previous research carried out by Murray and Currie that uses high quality water for making scotch. The water treatment options required for making premium quality scotch were modified and adapted so that they are effective and economically viable for desalination. The technology has been pilot tested by several agricultural entrepreneurs on Vancouver Island and is now available to be tested more broader in other agricultural regions suffering from drought.
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W-2136Mohamad Ali FulazzakyPredicting the depth and water velocity of bio-sand filter with linear models for the removal of organic matter from rainwaterThe use of rainwater harvesting from roof surface at household and community level for domestic purposes in mountainous and rural areas must be treated as being a part of the efforts to provide access to drinking water such as using bio-sand filter. Efficiency of bio-sand filter (BSF) must be monitored to ensure the quality of drinking water for consumer health and safety. A common approach to address the monitoring of raw and treated water remained ineffective in controlling water quality. Accurate design to achieve an expected efficiency of the drinking water treatment system is still not available to most BSFs since the present physical models were not originally able to calculate the design parameters. The aim of this study was to develop the linear models for calculating the depth of sand filter and water velocity to be used in operating the BSF treatment system to remove organic pollutants from rainwater. All parameters in equation are physically meaningful, experimental data validation showed the equations remained accurate. The performance of BSFs can be predicted using the models to gain an insight in designing of both depth of sand filter and water velocity.
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W-2296Masoom HamdardFreshwater Swaps; Potential for Wastewater Reuse in Peri-Urban Agriculture, A case study of Kabul, AfghanistanBig cities are confronted with the challenge of rapid pollution growth, particularly in the developing countries. This often results in unplanned urban area expansion, bringing in more rural areas within the boundaries of cities and causing many administrative conflicts. This situation is more alarming in the context of water scarce countries such as Afghanistan. The escalating living standards with increasing water demand and the need to expend agriculture land to meet the food requirements, has resulted in water competition among various water competitors. Another challenge that developing countries are confronted with is the safe disposal of increasing urban wastewater. This study focuses on the reuse of urban wastewater by assessing the scope, financial constraints and social perception of acceptability on wastewater reuse in peri-urban agriculture. The overall aim of conducting this research is to explore scope for freshwater swaps in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Currently, there are rarely any functional primary or secondary wastewater treatment plants in Kabul. It has though attracted the attention of the government particularly with growing industrial sector that discharges contaminated wastewater into freshwater bodies. Government is seeking technological solutions with financial support from donors, to treat the wastewater and explore the possibility of reusing it in agriculture sector. However, this will not be enough to bring wastewater back into the water cycle as social perception about the wastewater reuse also play crucial role.
The study assessing the public perception on wastewater reuse, proposes conjunctive water management to deal the wastewater and water scarcity problem.
Based on the findings from the case study of Kabul, the study concludes with some suggestions on policy options for sustainable wastewater reuse in agriculture sector.
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W-23124Chansung OhPollutant load estimation considering the land-use scenarios of reclaimed agricultural land in Saemangeum, Korea.1.Introduction
This study presented a watershed modeling to compare pollutant loads according to the land-use scenarios and water management in the Saemangeum (SMG) region. SMG watershed, consisted of Mankyeong and Dongjin River basins, contains a significant portion of cropping and livestock area which often affect stream water quality as nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Management and reduction of NPS pollution are essential to keep water resources clean and sustainable in SMG watershed. Many changes on land-use plans in the landfill region have been made in the SMG reclamation project, since it was started in 1991. In 2011, SMG master plan that specified 30% of agricultural land use of total landfilled area by the SMG project was established. Recently, due to the increase in rice production and inventory, and also the decrease in rice consumption, the government’s policy to diversify rice paddy into upland field has changed. Since the different irrigation system and fertilizer application between rice paddy and upland field are required, pollution loads from the agricultural field are varied by the type of agriculture. Thus, understanding pollution loads with the altered land use plans is important. To achieve this object, the agricultural land use plans in reclaimed area and its irrigation systems were applied to the model, HSPF, to compare pollutant loads from the agricultural land.

2.Numerical Model
The comprehensive hydrologic and water quality model used in this study is HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran), which has developed by U.S. EPA and U.S. Geological Survey. It can simulate water quality constituents as one of the surface runoff models based on physical processes, and also consider various topography, soil and land-use plans in the watersheds. It is effectively used in the regions such as lake, estuary and near coast due to its connection with reservoir models.

3.Study area
The study area is located on mid-west coast of Korea peninsular, and includes administrative districts of Gunsan, Gimje, Buan, and the SMG watershed consists of Mankyeong and Dongjin watersheds, and SMG reservoir. The total area of the basin is 3,334.0 km2, and the areas of Mankyeong and Dongjin watersheds are 1,527.1km2 and 1,129.3 km2, respectively. The SMG Development Project involves an area of 401 km2, including reclaimed tidal land of 283 km2 and reservoir of a 118 km2. Land use of the basin comprises agriculture, forest and urban areas, which account for an estimated 42%, 32%, and 11.6%, respectively. A huge area for agricultural land can adverse impact on the water quality of SMG reservoir caused by directly discharged point source (PS) and NPS pollutants from the region.

4.Numerical simulation setups
In order to set up a precise water quality modeling system for SMG watershed, weather data, stream discharge, water supply from outside watershed, water intake, water quality monitoring data were collected and verified first. Reservoirs (40 ea) and weirs (51 ea) were considered also in the modeling process to better representation of hydrologic structures in the watershed.
The watershed is delineated in a level of Ri/Dong unit which is used as a basic unit for estimating pollutant load in Korea. The watershed delineated into 804 sub-watersheds in total based on the administrative districts above mentioned. The established model consists of 7 Mankyeong sub-models, 7 Dongjin sub-models, and 3 reclaimed sub-models. Hydrologic and water quality stations for the model calibration and validation were selected based on long term data period to remove biases such as drought or flood years, and were distributed to increase model reliability. Total six discharged hydrologic stations for the model calibration were selected. The calibration results showed -27% to -17% of PBIAS in between simulated and observed data. NESs were calculated generally more than 0.6 to 0.7. The validations were done at eight monitoring points. PBIAS were -23.6% to -1.8% and the monthly R2 were from 0.6 to 0.8 ranges. The water quality calibration and validation were conducted at 29 stations with DO, BOD, TN, and TP during the same period with the flow. The water quality model was manually calibrated, and the model is well calibrated and validated reasonably.
SMG reclaimed agricultural area plans were collected and representative land use scenarios for modeling were developed. Plans of cultivating paddy rice and/or upland crops in the reclaimed agricultural land were investigated. The total 84% of rice paddy land use were changed into 5% of rice paddy plan, while the total 95% of the reclaimed land was planned to use for growing upland crops. Related agricultural structures and land use plans such as irrigation pumps were closely investigated based on drawings for construction projects. Land use scenarios in reclaimed agricultural area were developed to consider recent government aspects and trends. Food crop, forage crop, and vegetation crop were identified as a representative three crops and were evenly applied in the model. Standard fertilization by crops and irrigation schedules were investigated and its modeling approach was applied in the reclaimed agricultural lands.
Reclaimed model consists of 15 sub-watersheds, 11 bypass canals and drainage canals. While pollutant loads and excessive water from existing drainage area were discharged through bypass canals, irrigation water intake for reclaimed agricultural lands was assumed at Mankyeong and Dongjin estuaries. Irrigation water in the reclaimed paddy fields was estimated based on penman equation, while the amount of irrigation in the reclaimed upland were assumed to use sprinkler irrigation and Pollutant loads from agricultural field in SMG reclaimed land were estimated by considering the drainage canal and water use strategy in the reclaimed land.

5.Numerical simulation results
The numerical simulation results showed that BOD, TN and TP loads in the reclaimed agricultural land was estimated ranging 0.9-5.2 mg/L, 3.8-6.5 mg/L, 0.08-0.36 mg/L, respectively in the rice paddy field. However, the concentrations of BOD, and TN increased by 3 percent, while TP concentration increased by 40 percent, and the pollutant load of TP has increased about three times when the change of land use plan from rice paddy to upland fields. Therefore, intensive non-point source management plans are required if the upland crop land is developed.
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W-24137Megan LudwigUsing Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in End Member Mixing AnalysisResults from end member mixing analysis (EMMA) in a British Columbia river system using colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were compared to results of five EMMAs using common tracers -- Mg, K, Sr, Ca, Na. EMMA uses changes in concentration of conservative tracers to determine the proportional contribution from end-members in water samples composed of mixtures of the end-members. CDOM has been used in EMMA analyses of the Baltic Sea (Stedmon et al., 2010) to calculate flow contribution from three allochthonous input sources. To our knowledge, this is the first application of CDOM in EMMA in freshwater systems. Samples were collected on the lower Shuswap River (an irrigated system in British Columbia, Canada) for the 2017 water year (October 2016 to September 2017). Five, two end-member mixing models were created to determine the proportion of water contributed by incremental flows -- flows not accounted for in sampling including groundwater, and seasonal streams. Potassium was eliminated as a viable tracer in this stretch of the river due to lack of variability between sites.

The EMMA outputs for incremental flow estimation from Mg, Ca, Sr, and Na were not significantly different according to a single factor ANOVA (p-value of 0.0525, alpha of 0.05). The average estimation of incremental flows for the four model outputs were then compared for variance against the CDOM outputs using ANOVA. The ANOVA concluded the variance between the element and CDOM model outputs were not significantly different, with a p-value of 0.8223, greater than the alpha of 0.05. The average contribution of discharge by incremental flows was estimated to be 6.92% by the element EMMAs and 5.94% by the CDOM EMMAs. The difference in average contribution between the element and CDOM models was 0.99%. It was concluded that EMMAs using CDOM were a viable option in the Lower Shuswap River. Mixing models using CDOM create the opportunity for continuous monitoring using optical sensors and therefore continuous flow estimates without having to rely on field sampling.The results from the EMMA can be used to quantify the discharge inputs from various sources, as well as determine total input in un-metered reaches of river systems.
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W-25213Chihhao FanReview of Agriculture Environmental Heavy Metal Control Standards in TaiwanAround the 1960s, Taiwan experienced an explosive growth in industrial development. People take priority to economic development on industry over maintaining existing agricultural production. As the results, there are hundreds of factories established in the farmlands. Once the industrial wastewater flew into the farmlands, it would be a huge threat to the farming environment and food safety. However, the heavy metal contaminant control standards of irrigation water, soil, and agricultural products were established by the governing authorities, respectively. Due to the variety of the entering pathways of heavy metal from environmental media to food webs will eventually cause health risk to human beings, it is necessary to consider the transport mechanisms of heavy metals in the pathways.

To review and modify the current control standards, this study collects and compares the established processes of regulating agricultural production safety. Moreover, the study analyzes the circumstances of heavy metals accumulation for multi-media and adjusts management strategies for produce growing.
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W-26216Chihhao FanThe Preliminary Study on the Development of Integrated Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Investigation Mechanism in Agricultural Production EnvironmentBased on the environmental regulations and administrative orders, the prevailing monitoring practice for agricultural production environment is conducted by various government agencies in Taiwan. Each monitoring implementation by a given agency aims to achieve its legal authority regarding the assurance of environmental quality, and the main focus and concerns for such a monitoring implementation differ among government agencies. In such circumstance, all the resources and labor expended in the monitoring practice are remarkable, and some of the monitoring tasks may be repetitively conducted by different working groups. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate and integrate the monitoring programs and related protocols including monitoring equipment and frequency, experimental analytical methods, quality control and other regulatory requirements to achieve a better resource allocation and utilization.
Meanwhile, when significant pollution incidents occurred, the notification system by the local responsible irrigation association is the only mechanism to share such information with other related agencies. Unfortunately, there is no integrated monitoring framework for environmental management, resulting in the difficulty for pollution source identification and mitigation. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a draft framework for integrated pollution monitoring and survey mechanisms based on the concepts of integrated operation of environmental investigation. In view of the increasing practicality of the available pollution inspecting/identification technologies, such as heavy metal rapid screening and ion-exchange resin capsules application, we reviewed the current available monitoring technologies and innovative management strategies from the literature and amended the current Operating procedures and management for irrigation associations to enhance response and monitoring of water quality improvement” to strengthen the existing pollution identification/investigation mechanism.
In this study, three suggestions to the integrated pollution monitoring and survey mechanisms for agricultural production environment were proposed: (1) to install more water quality monitoring stations to evaluate the concentration difference between irrigation water and its source (e.g., upstream river); (2) to coordinate the sampling frequency and timing among various agencies (e.g., irrigation water quality stations and upstream river quality stations) so that the obtained water quality monitoring results can be compared and utilized extensively; (3) to include nickel as a monitoring item at river water quality stations related to agricultural production environment to assess the impact of heavy metal on irrigation water quality. To practice this draft monitoring integration mechanism, Taoyuan city, Taichung city and Changhua county were chosen as the demonstration area. It is suggested to install new water quality monitoring stations at Xin-Wu river in Taoyuan city, Chung-Hsing drainage canal in Taichung city and Shi-Go drainage canal in Changhua County. Additionally, the Council of Agriculture has dispatched the experimental mobile vehicle to Tie-Shan secondary canal of Dong-Xi second main canal, Gong-Cuo secondary canal of Dong-Xi third main canal, Go-Liao canal irrigation group and Xin canal irrigation group to deploy time-lapse capsule for heavy metals monitoring. The spatial and geographical distribution of potential pollution sources can be narrowed down. The northern Changhua region was chosen as the experimental location for integrated pollution monitoring and survey mechanisms for agricultural production environment. In addition, the Council of Agriculture hold an in-situ interdepartmental integrated pollution monitoring operation in Changhua, which cooperated with members of Changhua Environment Protection Bureau and Changhua Irrigation Association, collecting periodical water samples together. This year, Interdepartmental integrated pollution monitoring operation of agricultural production environment will be carried out based on the previous results, and enlarge its scale in not only Changhua but also Taichung and Taoyuan. This kind of horizontal connection among various departments and agencies would improve Taiwan’s agricultural production environment.
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W-27218Chihhao FanThe classification system and regionalization applied to safety management of agricultural production environmentIn Taiwan, the agricultural farming area amounts to 850 thousand hectares (around 23% of Taiwan’s land area). The major growing crop is rice which plants on the plains of 380 thousand hectares with irrigated systems. Therefore, the quality management of irrigation water and farmland soil is important. The water quality could be applied as a prior index to identify the potential pollution of the soil since contaminants in aqueous phase has a significant mobility as compared to that in soil.
The prevailing plan for national land use leads to the imbalance of the development between rural and urban areas. The industrial areas are usually adjacent to the agricultural production areas. The channel arrangements of industrial wastewater discharge systems and the agricultural irrigation systems are not separated, resulting in the irrigation water coming from polluted rivers and ponds into farmlands, contaminating the soils and crops. There is a considerable variation in pollution risks for different areas. It also threatens the safety of agricultural production environment.
In recent years, the governing agencies of Agriculture and Environment have respectively developed the irrigation water quality index (IWQI) and N. L. Nemelow index (PN value) to implement their inspection and management liability. They regionalize and prioritized the irrigation areas and farmlands based on their pollution potentials, and execute the corresponding management strategies for water quality and soil quality improvement by resource dispenses. However, to conform to the present reality of agricultural production environment and to interdepartmentally integrate the resources efficiently, the system of classification and regionalization for agriculture production (SCRAP) uses detailed background and observation data on the irrigated areas provided by regional irrigation associations, and uses spatial statistical methods to develop the classification of water and soil quality indices. Besides, to consider the classification of both water and soil, the system also integrates IWQI and PN values which classified the spatial environment by existing pollution severities. These results of classification and regionalization of farmland resources and pollution potentials of water and soil will be returned to agricultural production environment safety database for possible future references. They will help the decision makers in the governing agencies of Agriculture and Environment in dealing with the problems of pollution of agricultural production environment more efficiently.
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W-28232Janelle VilleneuveAssessment of Water Quality in Alberta's Irrigation DistrictsAlberta has the largest irrigated area in Canada with nearly 680,000 hectares of irrigated land. More than 80% of this area is in 13 irrigation districts including 55 reservoirs and more than 8,000 kilometres of conveyance works. The irrigation infrastructure provides water for crop and livestock production. In addition, irrigation water supports rural municipalities, domestic water users, wildlife habitats, and numerous recreational activities like fishing, camping and golfing. Quality irrigation water is required for these uses. This 7-year study (2011 to 2017) assessed the quality of irrigation water by comparing to federal and provincial guidelines for agricultural and aquatic uses using a water quality index. Changes in water quality as water traveled through the irrigation infrastructure were also evaluated. Approximately 90 sites within the irrigation districts were sampled four times per year during the irrigation season (June to September). Sites included source water as it entered the districts, irrigation water from mid-district laterals or reservoirs and unused irrigation water returning to the rivers. These samples were analyzed for more than 155 parameters including nutrients, salinity, pathogens, and pesticides. Indices were calculated for irrigation, livestock watering, protection of aquatic life and recreation uses. Generally, irrigation water achieved excellent or good water quality index scores. Irrigation water was also found to degrade as it moved through the irrigation infrastructure, with return water often having poorer water quality than source water. This study has provided a water quality baseline that will allow long-term evaluation of potential change in the quality of Alberta’s irrigation water.
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W-29255Rushena KupiedinovaInvestigation of the influence of water quality on technological parameters of the drip irrigation systemsThe drip emitters are most sensitive to water quality. It contamination limit the normal operation of the system and uniform distribution of irrigation water in the network which lead to the violation of the stable functioning of the irrigation network. This is main problem of irrigation systems exploitation.
The use of low quality water, fertilizers and chemical reagents in the process exploitation of the irrigation networthe causes accumulation of physical, biological and chemical contaminants in irrigation pipelines and drip emitters. We investigated the consumption-pressure characteristics of drip emitters during it exploitation, the main causes and dynamics of contamination of the irrigation network, the formation of areas of self-flushing ability of the water flow in the irrigation pipeline. It was been using irrigation water of different quality: suitable water for irrigation according to all indicators (1st class of quality); limited suitable water for irrigation (class II quality) due to high iron content and the danger of toxic effects on plants.
The most varied indicators of irrigation water were pH, mineralization, toxic alkalinity, concentration of toxic ions.
Investigations were conducted on experimental objects of existing of drip irrigation systems. It have been shown that process of contaminants formation depends on the chemical composition of water. Precipitates of chemical origin on the walls of irrigation pipelines have been formed due to the increased content of iron and hydrogen sulfide when use of water from underground sources. Formation of biological contaminations, mainly of the algae, occurs in pipelines when used of water from surface irrigation sources (Dnipro River and Alma River). The dominance of the diatom algae group was established according to the results of the species composition analysis. The real threat to the biological contamination of the drip irrigation systems constitute silicone shells, considering their strength. In addition, silt particles of soil, sand and detritus, in combination with diatoms, were detected at the entrance of drip emitters. The labyrinths of drip emitters partially silted due to the turbulent regime of water movement in them. It was established that the limiting index for the selection of methods of chemical treatment of water was the stability index (Is). The process of changing the aggregate state of chemicals is accelerating when it was positive value, while it was slowing down when the negative one The stability index of irrigation water at the research objects was in the range from -0.42 to 0.07
Also, the change in the consumption-pressure characteristics of drip emitters during the three-year operation period has been investigated. It has been established that drip emitters have tends to reduce the water consumption over time and therefore to change consumption-pressure characteristics. The consumption of drip emitters has decreased by an average of 15% during the period of operation.
The temperature of irrigation water in a complex with increased turbidity, content of iron and the fertilizer were the reason of contamination of drip emitters of the investigated systems and decrease it performance indicators. The temperature of irrigation water in investigastion condition was 21 ... 31^C.
It has been confirmed that the additional factor of contamination of drip emitters was fertigation. However fertilizers which are characterized an acidifying effect decrease of the water stability index and, as a result, diminish negative influence fertigation on the system's work. This position is very important in the south regions of Ukraine where mainly alkaline soils are irrigated.
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W-30323Amira AbdelrasoulControlling Poly Vinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane Design for Water and Wastewater TreatmentThe goal of this research on novel membrane designs is to make water and wastewater treatment processes highly efficient, cost effective, easily applicable, and sustainable. The objective of the present study is to enhance water transport through Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hydrophobic membrane using Zwitterionic Copolymer. The influence of zwitterion on PVDF membrane was first studied with the aid of Density-functional theory (DFT). DFT using B3LYP and UB3LYP functional and split-valance 6-311+G∗∗ basis sets were applied in order to optimize PVDF membrane with compatible Zwitterionic copolymer, and their various complexes with water molecules. The parameters of the hydrogen bridge of pure PVDF and PVDF- Zwitterionic copolymer in interaction with water, the frequency of valence vibrations of the bonds, energy, dipole moments, and the calculations of the molecular electrostatic potential will be comprehensibly discussed. Experimental and simulation investigations using Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance NMR showed higher interaction of water with PVDF- Zwitterionic copolymer compared to PVDF. The influence of zwitterionic on enhancing PVDF hydrophilicity and water transport will be also discussed. In addition, the zwitterionic effects on reducing the interactions between phosphorous and the PVDF- zwitterionic copolymer will be examined in relation to minimizing membrane fouling in treating wastewater from agricultural runoff.
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W-31350Wan-Yu LienForecasting heavy metal concentration of water in the irrigation canalsA large number of factories have been built along with economic growth. However, some factories were built in or near to the agricultural land. The heavy metal waste water discharged from those factories often led to the major threat of agricultural production environment safety. Basic water quality testing such as pH and conductivity (EC) could be easily obtained immediately from the monitoring equipment in field. Although heavy metal and water quality monitoring equipment is currently available, it is expensive and takes a period of time (at least 1-2 hours) to examine the concentration of heavy metal in water. Therefore, the numbers of heavy metal and water quality monitoring stations in the field are relatively rare. Several sites in Taiwan have already implemented the heavy metal and water quality monitoring equipment to better investigate the heavy metal concentration of water in irrigation canals. These monitoring stations access the sampling water from irrigation canals at regular time, thus automatically examine the concentration of Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in sampling water. An examination approximately takes an hour to completed, therefore the data are automatically sent through the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) every hour.

In this study, we try to forecast the future water quality, such as heavy metals concenrtation and EC, according to the historical observation data. One of irrigation canals where one heavy metal monitoring station and one basic water quality monitoring station were set up as were selected as study area. Then, we integrated the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model and the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model based on the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to identify the relationship between heavy metal concentration and the time series. Thus, the historical data, collected from heavy metal monitoring stations and one basic water quality monitoring stations, were used as input data to forecast heavy metal concentration or EC in next step. This study set up a hypothetical case to carry out the verification and validation of LSTM model to first examine the feasibility of research method and structure, and therefore adopt the real case to investigate. The result indicates that the research method established in this study could predict the heavy metal in water effectively. Furthermore, we combine the forecasted results with the distribution of factories and the type of heavy metal that factories may discharge to identify the possible sources of pollution. The ion exchange resin time-lapse capsules will be placed into the possible sources of pollution for certain period of time (maximum 7 days) to measure the involved heavy metal type and the concentration, to infer the source of pollution more precisely.
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W-32399Seyyed Ebrahim Hashemi GarmdarehEffect of treated wastewater and deficit irrigation on water use efficiencyNowadays farmers needs to treated municipal wastewater as a source of irrigation water than each other time, Due to increased population and increased need for food, reduced water resources and the need to water transfer in long distances. The experiment field study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with a control treatment, 100% irrigation with water well (I100) and three irrigation treatments with southern Tehran wastewater treatment plant in three replications. Irrigation treatments with effluent include irrigation treatment, 100% water requirement (W100), 75% (W75) and 55% (W55) water requirement during growth period. The results of biomass dry weight measurement at the end of the growth season showed that the highest amount of dry weight of biomass is related to complete irrigation treatment with wastewater (W100) and equal to 2.972 kg.m-2, and the lowest value was 1.295 kg.m-2for irrigation treatment, based on 55% water requirement (W55). Also the results showed that irrigation treatment, 75% of the water requirement with wastewater (W75=2.501 kg.m-2) was more effective than the control treatment (I100 = 2.312 kg.m-2) that was irrigated only with well water.
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W-3385Mohamad RamdaniModernization of Irrigation Schemes in Indonesia: A Perspective of SustainabilityThe irrigation systems in Indonesia, which cover more and less 7,2 millian hectares, has been developed since two cenrturies ago was implemented using old technology. Nowadays, these systems are indicated tendency to decrease of services, due to its life time has been already over, unsatisfied rehabilitation and operation and maintenance, catastrophic influences, catchment area degradation, and budget insufficiency for operation and maintenance. On the other hand water availability are decreasing and flood are now increasing becouse of cachtment area degradation, lead to the water competition, water conflict, and flood risk increasement. Moreover influenced of global warming and climate changed will lead to worse condition.
Those conditions are not suitable to the new irrigation management paradigm that emphasized the mainstay of irrigation infrastructure, the sustainability, effectiveness and efficient infrastructures service, optimize production and water productivity, which is now adopted in most of the ICID member countries, i,e. more effective and eficient irrigation system, which is so called irrigation modernization.
This paper discusses the importance of irrigation modernization to be adopted in Indonesia. Modernization are more efforts to create participatory and service oriented irrigation system by means of effective, efficient, and sustainable system to meet food and water security. Irrigation modernization in Indonesia are developed based on five pillars, i.e. better water relibility, to improve irrigation infrastructure, to create efficient irrigation system, to obtain strong institution, and to strengthened qualified human resouces. Real time irrigation system will be adopted instead of semi monthly basic operation one; by means of adopting telemetry, computerization, electrification, mechanikal gate and other modern facilities, instead of manual and old fashion facilities. Real allocation of irrigation water will be calculated based on crop water consumed instead of old rough estimate. Real losses will be observed on each representative stretch periodically instead of old rough estimate.
Strategic planning for irrigation scheme modernization in Indonesia are now set up cover among others are: minimum level of services, real time operation basis, demand orientation services, upstream control, irrigation modernization readiness index.
Three packages program for irrigation modernization are now being implemented to achieve expected result of modernization, 1.e. upstream and downstream harmonization, water resources sufficiency and reliability, upgraded infrastructure, improved water management, water saving, and water productivity.
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W-34198Ming-young JanA pilot study on subsurface water using at Kaopin River, TaiwanThe background for starting to use subsurface flow
Facing impacts from various natural conditions, the summer water supply in Taiwan is difficult for intake as suffering from either water shortage or high turbidity. Down in the southern part of Taiwan, the Kaopin weir in Kaopin River was able to provide about 8%(105m3/day) of the water-supply for summer in Kaohsiung area. However, the summer storms in recent decades have brought in floods with high flows and subsequent high turbidity, which had exceeded the capability of water treatment plant. As the weir could not reach the expected function, there is a deficiency in the water-supply. In order to meet the domestic water demand, there's a need to cut the industrial water amount, and the withdrawal of groundwater has to be started. As stated above that during typhoon storms, the high turbidity of the water in the weir has exceeded the treatment plant, and the cost would be increased if the treatment is forced, and the water supply could hardly reach stable.
In Taiwan, the subsurface has its definition. It is the water in between the surface flow and the saturated groundwater flow, and its characteristic is classified as interflow. There's no need to apply for water right at this moment. As the subsurface flow is in the sand and gravel under surface, its velocity is relatively slower. Basically river bank intake could combine the advantages of developing both surface and groundwater. That is, depending on the supply infiltrated from river bank surface water, the inter flow could be adjusted by the storage space of groundwater. In addition, through the process of transforming river flow to interflow, the water is naturally purified by the filtering capabilities. In order to increase the responsive abilities of water distribution in Kaohsiung area, the water management authority in Taiwan has planned in the bank of Kaopin River to assess the installation of an experimental station with the facility of applying interflow, and also to provide the source for back-up water.

Basic information of the Interflow Experimental Station
This experimental study was conducted in the right bank of the lower reach of kaopin River. There’s no tidal effect, and no considerable tributary in the upper 1000 meter. 700m downstream is the Kaopin weir, which could lift water level to introduce more inflow during dry seasons, and acquire river flow directly during the other seasons.
From hydrological conditions of the experimental station, there’s positive correlation between the variations of groundwater in the monitoring wells and river stages, along with groundwater tables and river stages. In summer time (August to September), the groundwater tables are higher than river stages by 0.2 to 1 .0 m without the influence of typhoon floods, however, river stages are always higher than groundwater tables by at least 3.0 meters when storm floods rise, and the groundwater is greatly recharged by river water. In the mean time, the turbidity of the groundwater is lowered profoundly due to filter layer, which showed that the water quality was rather good.
According to in-situ investigation, the geological texture is composed of alluvial layer like coarse sand, gravel, pebbles and silt, sand, and clay, and local artificial backfill. The results of the pumping test analysis show that the average transmissibility of the aquifer T is about 1,407 m2/day, the conductivity of the aquifer K is about 4.65×10-4 m/sec, and the specific yield of the free aquifer Sy is 0.238. Besides, based on Slug Test, the conductivity K is somewhat between 2.90×10-4~3.62×10-4 m/sec with the average of 3.22×10-4 m/sec. Further based on the planning report of Kaopin River, the scouring depth of river-bed under the condition of 100-year design flood, is simulated by CCHE2D hydraulic model with above empirical data. Results show that the maximum depth of the movable bed is around 8.0 m, and the safe depth for pipes not to be scours is 12~15 meters below water surface.

The installation of the experimental station for subsurface flow
The selection of the site of the experimental station was based on evaluation factors such as the acceptance of the residents, convenience for O&M, impacts to surrounding environment, and cost considerations. And the results show that the decision was determined by better hydrological conditions, minor impacts on neighboring groundwater levels, and acceptance of the residents. In addition, the O&M is convenient because it’s near the Management Center of Kaopin Weir, and by joining the nearby Ecological Park, residents could better understand the application of subsurface flow through some friendly facilities and guiding tours.
From literature review, the water-intake pipes beneath ground surface are radial pipes and collecting pipes. Radial pipes are horizontal pipelines installed underground. Clean water flows into radial pipes by the head of the river stages, then enters the wide open intake well for storage. Collecting pipes are to construct a big conveyance channel under the river bed. The outside of this conveyance channel is covered with river-bed material of various diameters, and a natural filter layer is formed. Water is also diverted to the wide open intake well for storage by using the elevation head of the river surface .
The design intake is 10,000 CMD for both radial wells and collecting pipes. The diameter for the wide open intake wells is 6.0 m, and 22 m for depth. The well collects radial pipes from river bed. There are five radial pipes on the upper layer, and three on the lower one. For diameters, there are combinations of 200 mm and 300 mm, along with 20 m and 30 m for pipe length. The pipe material is either wire-wrapped pipe or perforated steel pipe. Collecting pipes are the rectangular concrete trough, and are installed 6~7 m beneath river bed along with permeable filtering material. The diameter of the collection pipes is 1,000 mm, length 40 m, and the material is wire wrapped.

Experimental results of using subsurface flow
The experimental results show that the intake is not affected by river stages, and could reach 15,000 CMD when all of the radial pipes are in effect. And the intake for the collecting pipes is around 7,000 CMD when water levels are low at dry seasons, and could reach 10,000 CMD during wet seasons with high water levels.
Results for the sensitivity of radial pipes show that it’s more economical for the radial pipes with 30 m in length. 300 mm is suggested for diameter also for economical considerations. The efficiency for the steel wire-wrapped pipes is higher than open steel pipes. When the pressure head of the underground intake pipes is over 10 m, the amount of intake is almost the same. And the turbidity in the wide-open intake wells is obviously lower than that in river water.
Results of the neighboring groundwater tables during the intake process, the drawdown of the observation wells about 400 m away from the wide open intake wells is not quite obvious. It is about 0.1 m for those observation wells parallel to the river, and 0.2 m for vertical ones.

Concluding remarks
1. When the water is supplied for 2 months, the cost is calculated to be NT$ 10.34/ton, and NT$ 3.83 /ton for 6 months. It is relatively cheaper when compared to the water currently from reservoir (NT$ 10~15/ton), or desalination of sea water (NT$ 20~40/ton).
2. The subsurface flow is supplied by gravity water near river banks, and the amount is confined. Yet for the water shortage in limited local area with short period of time, the problem could be alleviated.
3. From the results of this experimental station, the effects of the groundwater tables are minor, no negative impact to agriculture water, and no land-subsidence in the local area.
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W-35229Barry OlsonUsing potash to control invasive mussels in Alberta's irrigation infrastructureAlberta is currently free of invasive mussels. However, this threat is approaching Alberta’s waters, with invasive mussels now in Manitoba. A major concern is the threat invasive mussels possess to the extensive irrigation infrastructure in southern Alberta. The primary concern is with the pipelines within Alberta’s irrigation districts. Currently, there are no registered products to control mussels in Canada. It has been shown that potash or potassium chloride, is lethal to mussels when potassium (K) concentration in water is high enough. The purpose of this 2-yr study was (1) to develop a method to treat irrigation district pipelines and (2) to assess the effects of applied potash on soil chemistry. For the study, five pipelines in three irrigation districts were used to test a method to inject dissolved potash into pipelines. Concentrated potash solution (about 120,000 mg/L K) was injected near the inlets of the pipelines using a dosing pump. The selected target concentration in the pipelines was 100 mg/L K, which is believe to be lethal to mussels. Pivot irrigation systems supplied with water by the pipelines were operated until the potash-treated water reached the pivots. Then the pivots were turned off and the pipelines closed. The potash-treated water held for 24 to 48 h before purging the treated water from the pipelines and onto cropland. Soil samples and water samples were collected during the injecting and purging phases and sent to the laboratory for analysis. The actual concentration of K achieved was near the target value for three of the pipelines. The K concentration was 106 mg/L for Pipeline A, 102 to 105 mg/L for Pipeline B, and 89 mg/L for Pipeline C. The concentration was consistently high for Pipeline D, ranging from 122 to 130 mg/L K, and consistently low for Pipeline E, ranging from 76 to 87 mg/L K. It is believed that inaccurate estimates of water flow through Pipelines D and E caused the K concentration to deviate from the desired target. The land area that received potash-treated water was a small portion of each field, which were typical about 50 ha in size. The area per field of application ranged from 0.7 to 17 ha. The application loads of K ranged from 3 to 29 kg/ha with a mean of 12 kg/ha. The amount of K applied to the fields was generally less than what would be expected to be removed by crops typically grown in southern Alberta, and this amount can range from 11 to 270 kg/ha, depending on the crop type. Analysis of soil samples from 18 fields among the five pipelines showed that extractable K in surface soil was generally unaffected by a single application of potash-treated water. However, extractable K concentration significantly increased by 12 to 26% among three fields. Nine fields had significantly higher chloride concentrations in the 0- to 2.5-cm soil layer after the application of potash-treated water. This was also true for the 0- to 15-cm soil layer at five fields. There was no consistent effect on soil electrical conductivity. This field study demonstrated that it is feasible to treat irrigation district pipelines with potash-treated water, and the application of treated water onto cropland should not be a concern.
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W-36339Jeongryeol JangEvaluation of hydraulic performance of E-dong reservoir according to the design criteria change for dams considering climate changesThe typhoon Rusa at 2002 recorded historically the hugest damage to Korea. The gross property damage was up to 5 billion US dollars. For agricultural sector, three irrigation reservoirs were failed and 9,378 ha of farmlands were flooded. The flood design criterion of dam was revised due to the typhoon Rusa's damage. The flood criterion for dam was strengthened from 200 years return period frequency to PMF(Probably Maximum Flood). E-Dong reservoir is irrigating 2,152 ha of paddy sine completed in 1972. E-Dong reservoir is one of the irrigation reservoirs have to be reinforced flood control capacity according to the new revised design criteria. If E-Dong reservoir is failed, 40 thousands residents who lives in downstream region are able to be suffered severe flood damage. A new auxiliary spillway is necessary to pass the PMF flow safely. This study was carried out to review a hydraulic stability of auxiliary spillway construction of E-dong reservoir, located at Yong-in city, Gyeong-Gi province in Korea, to enhance flood adaptation capacity.
3D numerical simulation by FLOW 3D and hydraulic physical model test were performed to prove flow pattern of approach channel, weir, chute, stilling basin and downstream as well as to confirm the adequacy of the auxiliary spillway size to provide the necessary conditions for the design of an economical and safe spillway. The physical model test was carried out at the hydraulic research center of Rural Research Institute of KRC in Korea. The model scale was 1/25 that should be considered the suitability and availability of experimental facilities. Hydraulic model test results showed that the design conditions were satisfied in all spillway sections. And it can be confirmed that the velocity results between the numerical simulation and the physical test were very similar. The results of this study will be contributed to decide the optimum design and construction of the auxiliary spillway for E-dong reservoir to prevent from sever flood damage as well as contributed to reduce enormous economic damage caused by dam failure as investing small cost in advance.
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W-37368Ahmad DoostiThe Assessment of Optimization Algorithms of GA and PSA methods for multi-reservoirs utilization in climate change conditionsThe multi-reservoir systems management are considered to be important due to potential complexity and influences by upstream and downstream reservoirs. The common optimization methods are not supposed to be appropriate tools for solving these problems as there are various constrains involved as well as discontinuous space and non-linearity nature of water resources management problems. Climate change and widespread droughts are the factors to emerge the necessity of proper utilization of reservoirs in order to provide downstream demand.
In this paper, the performance of genetic algorithms and particle swarm in solving the optimization problems of multi-reservoir systems including Boostan and Golestan dams located in Gorgaan river basin, Iran are studied.
Genetic algorithm is a parallel and guided search based on the theory of evolution. The operators of the GA algorithm include selection, crossover, and mutations that are used up to the next generation, respectively. The PSO optimization method was introduced in 1995 by James Kennedy and Russell Eberhart. In this algorithm, there are a few particles in the search space. The value of the objective function is calculated for each particle, proportional to the position of the space in which it is located. Then, using the combination of the current location of the particle and the best place previously contained therein, as well as the information of one or more particles of the best particles in the aggregate, the direction for the particle motion is calculated. After all the particles move, one stage of the algorithm ends. These steps are repeated several times until the particles converge and the final solution is obtained.
Each optimization model includes the objective function, constraints, the decision variable and the state variable. In this research, the amount of released water from reservoirs has been considered as a decision variable. The objective function is to minimize the difference between agricultural and environmental demand and the amount released from the reservoirs during the exploitation periods.

Reliability index is the relative frequency of non-failure in this research. The reliability reliability index is defined as follows:

In this research, GA algorithm parameters including population size, repeat count, and probability of cross-over and mutation probability were considered equal to 100, 50, 0.9 and 0.2, respectively. Also, the parameters of the PSO algorithm, and w, were 1.49, 1.49, and 0.72, respectively, with a population size of 100 and 50 repetitions respectively. Both algorithms were programmed in the MATLAB R2014.a software environment. Statistical information suggests that inlet flows to Boostan and Golestan dams have been reduced for 16.7% and 59.3% respectively by climate change. Results show that PSO algorithm proposes better performance compared to GA algorithm.
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W-38205Jih-Shun LiuDrainage Water Level Prediction Model for Farmland in TaiwanIn recent years, dramatic changes in the global climate have led to continuous natural disasters such as typhoons, heavy rain, and windstorms. Many farmlands in the coastal areas of Taiwan, where the terrain is low, flat and following with the problems of subsidence, are vulnerable to typhoons and floods, causing serious damage to agriculture. Due to the fact that it is not possible to improve the flooding problem in farmland areas in a short period of time, this study uses the real-time water regime monitoring system to establish the real-time information of the drainage channels of the farmland, combined with numerical hydrology, water management models, and terrain models. The data of real-time precipitation and radar rainfall of the Bureau of Meteorology completes a prediction model of water level and simulation of flooding in the study area. Aaccording to the flood rising rate of the drainage and the warning time needed for escape, the study formulates classification water level warning values. It can provide instant warning of flooding information and reduce the impact and loss of flooding disasters in the study area.
The simulations and verification results according 4 events of the storm patterns show that the forecasting model established in this study is quite close to the overall trend of changes in the simulated and the actual observation values of the drainage water level, and its root mean square error (RMSE) is between 0.020m and 0.021m, showing that the model established in this study can be a useful model for predicting the change of water level in drainage channels and can be used as a reference for subsequent application in disaster prevention.
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