ClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issuesClusterSub-clusters & issues
Expanding Internet infrastructure (20)Developing and deploying Internet infrastructures (6)

Community networks (5)

Policy and regulatory solutions to enable cost-effective expansion of connectivity (including alternative models) (6)

Broadband connectivity (3)

Internet safety (17)Child safety (8)

Internet safety (general) (5)

Online gender-based violence (4)
Freedoms in the digital space (21)Freedom of expression – between platforms' content policies and government regulation (9)

Transparency and accountability in content moderation (both human and algorithmic) (6)

Protection of freedom of expression (general) (5)

Intellectual property and freedom of expression (1)
Digitalisation, development and sustainability (26)Digitalisation/digital transformation for development (across industries, public services, society overall) (14)

Internet, digital technologies and sustainability/SDGs (9)

Enabling policy environments for digitalisation (3)
Regulating Big Tech (20)Regulating Big Tech – addressing market concentration/centralisation and fostering competition (15)

Regulation of social media platforms (general) (4)

Digital platforms as public infrastructure (1)

Data privacy (23)Privacy and data protection (general) (14)

National and international privacy legislation – present, future, implications (5)

Platforms and data privacy (2)

Balancing national / international security and privacy (1)

Identification and authentification – privacy implications (1)
IGF and NRIs (16)Strengthening the IGF (12)

Strengthening and expanding NRIs (4)
Artificial intelligence (AI) (13)AI governance, human rights and ethics (6)

AI (general) (3)

AI readiness/adoption (2)

AI applications for good (2)
Digital (inter)dependence (12)Implications of digital sovereignty approaches (5)

Internet fragmentation – causes and consequences (5)

China-USA tech relations (2)
Standardisation (5)Existing and emerging Internet/IT standards (2)

The interplay between standardisation and policy goals (2)

Multistakeholderism and Internet standards development (1)
Inclusion of disadvantaged/vulnerable communities (17)Digital inclusion of disadvantaged communities (persons with disabilities, senior citizens, other vulnerable and marginalised groups) (10)

Access and digital development in rural areas (7)
Online trust and content policy (16)Tackling misinformation & disinformation (15)

Addressing violent content online (1)
Protecting human rights in the digital space (18)Digital rights (general) (6)

Human-rights-based approaches to technology design and policy (5)

Roles and responsibilities of the private sector (4)

Legal frameworks for digital rights (national and international) (2)

Capacity development for digital rights advocates (1)

Internet, digital tech and environment (18)Digital technologies and environment protection – benefits and risks (6)

Greening the Internet and digital tech (6)

Environment protection (general) (6)
Future of work (8)Jobs in the digital age (3)

Social protection for workers (3)

Frameworks for online work (2)
Data governance (13)Data governance (5)

Cross-border data flows – governance approaches (4)

Governance frameworks for data sharing (3)

Data portability (1)
Inclusion within IG and policy spaces/processes (12)Inclusive and open IG/policy processes (7)

IG capacity development (3)

Addressing issues of interest for developing countries (2)
Internet of things (IoT) (8)IoT applications for good (3)

IoT and innovation (3)

Technologies for connected and self-driving cars (2)
Digital cooperation (9)Cooperation in governing the digital future (5)

Global digital cooperation (4)
Critical Internet resources (CIR) (4)Top-level domains (2)

Responsible CIR management (1)

Governance of the DNS root (1)
Online education (16)Online education and the digitalisation of educational processes/institutions – challenges and opportunities (8)

Access to online education (6)

Online education and children's rights (2)
Cybersecurity – other issues (10)Cybersecurity (general) (5)

Cybersecurity strategies, policies, frameworks (2)

Cybersecurity awareness (2)

Cybersecurity standards and best practices (1)
Children's rights (10)Protection of children's rights (8)

National and international instruments for protecting children's rights (2)
Internet, digital tech and climate (8)Internet, IG and climate action (6)

Digital tech for weather forecast (2)
Consumer protection (7)Data availability and use (4)Challenges to current IG approaches (5)Centralisation vs decentralisation of governance (2)

The future of multistakeholderism (2)

Rebalancing the power dynamic between stakeholders (1)
Implications of emerging technologies (5)Disruptive technologies (3)

Emerging technologies (general) (2)
Digital public goods (5)Other stand-alone issues (1)ICT building blocks (1)
Universal access (15)Internet access for all (12)

Affordability of access (3)
Encryption (6)Digital rights and equality (7)Digital tech and racial justice (3)

Gender rights online (2)

Equal digital rights for all (2)
Internet and digital tech in the context of COVID-19 crisis and post-COVID recovery (5)Digital economy, innovation and growth (6)Other stand-alone issues (3)Intersection of people governance and Internet governance (1)

Pandemic effects on Internet governance (1)

Regulation (1)
Blockchain (3)Other stand-alone issues (1)Cyber-diplomacy (1)
Capacity development (14)Developing digital skills (10)

Digital literacy (4)
Network/infrastructure security (5)Network security – addressing vulnerability and threats (4)

Security of critical national infrastructures (1)

Digital authoritarianism and digital surveillance (6)Digital authoritarianism and digital surveillance by governments (4)

Digital surveillance by tech companies (2)
Digital health (4)Digital currencies (2)New communication technologies (2)5G (1)

6G (1)
Access to and development of online content/resources (10)Multilingualism and local content (access and development) (5)

(Equitable) access to (open) content and resources (5)
Responsible state behaviour in cyberspace (5)Malicious nation-state cyber actions (3)

Cybernorms (1)

Confidence building measures (1)
Internet restrictions (4)Internet shutdowns (2)

Censorship (2)
Digital tax (2)Quantum computing (2)
Gender inclusion (10)Gender equality (6)

Addressing the gender gap in access and skills (4)
Cybercrime (4)Cybercrime acts (3)

Frameworks for international and public/private cooperation (1)
Other stand-alone issues (3)Mental health (1)

Protection of journalists (1)

Self sovereign identity (1)
Meaningful Internet access (6)Quality Internet access (4)

Stable and reliable Internet access (2)
Cyber-resilience (3)
Digital inclusion (general) (6)Internet/digital trust (3)
Youth inclusion (2)Other stand-alone issues (1)Election security (1)