HistoryOfPsychology_Jan2015
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SchoolName1800s18591860186518701875-1879188018851890189519001905191019151920192519301935194019451950195519601965197019751980198519901995200020052010201520202025
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Physiology
Hermann Helmholz
Studies of perception, nervous system, optics, physics
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Physiology
Gustav Fechner
Creates psychophysics
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Publishes Elements of Psychophysics
.1887 - Died
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Physiology
Frans Gall, Josef Spurzheim
1790-1810 (Phrenology popular in Germany), Phrenology Society founded 1820
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Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt
Create psychology as a field, analyze the elements of consciousness. What are mental elements and how do they become organized in higher level combinations (active, conscious process, not mechanistic)
1855 - PhD in physiology
Writes Contributions to the Theory of Sensory Perception
1863 - Lectures on the minds of men and animals, 1867-teaches world's first physiological psychology class
1873 - Principles of Physiological Psychology
Becomes Professor of Philosophy at Leipzig, quickly establishes his EXPERIMENTAL laboratory. 1879 founding of psychology
Journal of Philosophical/Psychological Studies
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Renames Journal to Psychology
Working on "Cultural Psychology", leads to creation of social psychology
1920 - Died
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Psychology
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Experimental study of higher cognition, formation of new associations and memory/forgetting
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1873 - degree in philosophy
Publishes: On Memory - a classic in psychology
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Psyc/ Structuralism, changing into "existential psychology" and phenomenology - a big change in views
Bradford Titchener
What are mental elements and their mechanical linkages? Rejects Wundt's mechanisms & objective measurements (reaction times). Psychology is to study conscious experience, consciousness is the sum of our current experiences and mind is the sum of accumulated experiences. Purpose of psychology is to discover the structure of the mind. Mental elements can be grouped and sensations have 4 attributes (quality, intensity, duration, clearness/attention). His students came to believe that affective states have only pleasure/displeasure, no dimentions of tension/relaxation, or excitement/depression (Wundt). Later he dropped the mention of "elements" and spoke only about the 4 attributes. Rejected his older work.
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Earns PhD under Wundt, Leipzig
Creates his lab at Cornell, directs students to run his experiments, translates Wundt's Principles of Psychology into English.
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Eventually begins taking female PhD students, advocating for femal professors
1927-Died
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Evolution
Charles Darwin
Publishes Origin of species
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Child psychology (notes on his own son)
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Heredity & Eugenics
Francis Galton
Mental inheritance, individual differences, because all knowledge comes through the senses, the smartest people should have the best senses. Into travel, inventions (weather instruments)
Publishes heredity genius, proposes eugenics
1884 - Creates mental testing lab (the large Anthropometric Laboratory) 1888 - Galton provides first mention of correlation
Karl Pearson creates modern formula for correlation coefficient due to Galton's prodding
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Statistics
Adolph Quetlet
Social Statistician 1830s - applies statistics to human measurements, 1846 publishes on probability and social science, use of normal curve
Dies
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Eugenics & Evolution
Herbert Spencer
Eugenics and adaptations of Darwin
1848 - Editor at the Economist. 1851 - Publishes Social Statistics (early views on laissez-faire policies). 1855 - Publishes Principles of Psychology
1862 - Publishes First Principles (part of Synthetic Philosophy)
1903 - dies.
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Functionalism / Philosophy
William James
The American Philosopher: Excellent writer, hated laboratory science, created foundation of functionalism: the goal of psychology is to study living people and their adaptations to the environment. Psychology as the science of mental life (immediate experience and body/brain). Believed conscious experiences are indivisible (wrong). Denies Wundt's immediate experience as convolutions (no such things as "simple sensations"). Said introspection is just highly focused attention that CAUSES simple sensations rather than discovers them. Believed consciousness is a continuous flow (stream of consciousness). Mind is continuous and selective. Relevance drives attention. Consciousness must have biological relevance.
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Teaches first psychology course at Harvard (1875)
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1884 - Theory of emotions
Becomes professor of Psychology instead of Philosophy. Writes Principles of Psychology. Becomes America's leading philosopher. All living creatures are bundles of habits.
Writes talks to teachers, beginning of educational psychology
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Pragmatism - 1907 Book
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Functionalism Psychology/Physiology
G. Stanley Hall
Loves evolution, child psychology, edu psy, great promoter of psychology, equal opportunity to women & minorities
1878 - Dissertation on space perception, first American Psychology Doctorate. From Harvard under James
Studied with Wundt, lived next door to Fechner. Realizes that personal success requires specialization in educational psychology. Meets with NEA. Promotes use of psychology in education. Excellent promoter, gets job at Johns Hopkins. Establishes first American Psychology Laboratory 1883
1887 -Founds American J. Psych. 1888 becomes president of Clark University (MA). Founds journal of Genetic psychology (research on children & education),
1892 Begins organizing the APA, 127 members by 1900
1904 - Book on Adolescent psychology - summary of 10 years of research - Hall's largest experimental contribution. Creates recapitulation theory - idea that we recreate the history of the human race during childhood development: savage to rational and civilized.
1909 Invites Freud and Jung to lecture at Clark Univ.
Founds Journal of Applied Psychology
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Psychology
Margaret Floy Washburn
Animal behavior, sensation, perception
First woman to earn a PhD in Psychology (Cornell)
1921 - Second female president of the APA
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Psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
Memory research, invents paired-associate tests, first female president of APA
1905 - First female president of APA 1906 - ranked in the top 50 most influential psychologists in the US
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PsychologyHelen Wooley
Sex differences in sensation and intelligence
PhD, University of Chicago, tested the idea that women were biologically inferior to men.
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Chicago School (Functionalism)
John Dewey
Psychology should be about the study of the whole organism and its adaptation. Loves evolution.
PhD 1884
1886 -Publishes "Psychology" an American text for American colleges - Fame. Spends 10 years at Univ Chicago
1896 - Publishes "Reflex Arc" Neither behavior nor conscious experience can be reduced to elements. Says that reflexes are circles, not arcs with endpoints. Stimulus and response considered as a unit, not separable. Consciousness can also not be reduced to elements.
1904 -Columbia University, more educational psychology
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Chicago School (Functionalism)
Roland Angell
Psychology should be about the study of how the mind helps the organism adapt. Study mental operations not elements. Consciousness is a mediator between needs of organism and demands of environment. What adaptive benefits does consciousness provide? No real distinction between mind and body. Requires the use of psychophysics.
1904 - Publishes "Psychology"
1906 - President APA
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Chicago School (Functionalism)
Harvey Carr
The subject of psychology is mental operations such as perception, memory, feeling, imagination, judgment and will. Mental operations and behavior are adaptive.
PhD, psychology. 1908, replaces John Watson at Univ Chicago. Watson had taught him animal experimentation.
Publishes his textbook "Psychology"
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Mental Testing/Functionalist/Eugenicist
James Cattell
Ambadassor of psychology to America: Mental testing, individual differences, quantification, ranking, ratings (bad at math himself), taught statistical analyses, liked eugenics
B.A. 1880, 1883 - Becomes Wundt's lab assistant
PhD from Wundt, considered himself a genius. Met Galton and took on the goal of measuring psychological differences between people.
1891- Professor at Columbia University. 1894 - Establishes the journal Psychological Review
1901 - after 5 years of testing basic sensation, skin sensitivity, JNDs, auditory reaction times and correlating with student grades/test scores - rejects the idea that these basic tests are valid predictors of achievement or intelligence. Buys "popular science monthly" turns it into the famous journal "Science".
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Intelligence/Eugenics
Alfred Binet
Creates first psychological test of mental ability (1900-1904), doing most work at home using his daughters as subjects.
First Intelligence Test , concept of mental age (Binet / IQ)
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Clinical Psychology
Lightener Witmer
1840s, America begins its search for idiots (counting mental defectives)
1892 - Lightener earns PhD from Wundt after Cattell said this was essential. Thought Wundt was sloppy. Joins a few others to help G.Stanley Hall found the APA. Cattell loved Lightener, wanted him as his successor. 1892 - APA founded, Freud begins psychoanalyzing clients
1896 - First American Clinic, started with the treatment of a 14 year old child who had a hard time learning to spell. Coins term "clinical psycholgy".
1905 - Jung word association tests. 1907 -Founds the journal Psychology Clinic. Expands U Penn clinic.
1913 Kraeplin the eugenicist (syndromes and diagnoses)
1921 - Rorshac Ink Blots
1952, First DSM
1956 - Dies. Last of the group who all met in G.Stanley Halls study in 1892 to found the APA.
Behavioral testing
Computerized testing
DSM-5, relabeling, revising the axes
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I/O & Clinical Psy, Advocate
Hugo Munsterberg
PhD in Psychology, Leipzig
1892, Head of Harvard Psychology at W.James' request (Harvard needs a Genius)
1898 Pres. of APA
Writes "American Traits" - a popular and successful book. Helps popularize psychology. Also "looked at problems with monotony, attention and fatigue, physical and social influences on the working power, the effects of advertising, and
the future development of economic psychology." http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/munsterb.htm
Argues against prohibition - gets paid 50k by Busch Co.
1913 - Findings on workplace efficiency
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Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud
http://www.freud.org.uk/education/timeline/
Born 1856
1881 Gets medical degree
Studies with Charcot, Paris, investigates hysteria
Publishes "Studies in Hysteria" with Joesef Breuer. Neuroses are from trauma, recall/expose/confront this to achieve relief from neurotic symptoms.
Publishes "Interpretation of Dreams"
1909 - Invited to America by G.Stanley Hall (Clark University), prompted Freud's rise to popularity.
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PsychoanalysisCarl Jung
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Child DevJean Piaget
http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html
1924, Judgment and reasoning in the child
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BehaviorismJohn Watson
The behaviorst - learning & behavior are 100% shaped by environment. All behavior can be reduced to S-R bonds and stimulus replacement (classical conditioning)
Love, Fear, Rage (these can be conditioned)
1913 Founds Behaviorism
1915- Adopts conditioned reflex method
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Behaviorism
Mary Cover Jones
Discovers conditioning can be used to remove fears, precursor of behavior therapy.
1924 - Removing fears through conditioning (50 years before this gets popular).
1968 - Receives G.Stanley Hall award for outstanding contributions to developmental psychology
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Behaviorism
Edward Thorndike
1914 - Educational Psychology
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Neo-Behaviorism
B.F. Skinner
1938 - Publishes Behavior of Organisms
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Physiology / Behaviorism
Ivan Pavlov
1875 - First univ degree
Lived in poverty until 1890
Conditioning Experiments (at age 41). Becomes Prof of Pharmacology, St. Petersburg Military Med Academy. Still in poverty, but didn't seem to mind. Used charity money for lab dogs. Mostly supervised, not a lab person himself.
1897 - working towards having 150 people work for him between now and 1936, 500 papers. Clockwork like lab. Crazy temper. Allowed women and Jews to work in his lab.
1904 Nobel prize for digestion work
1927 - Publishes Conditioned Reflexes with a credit to Descartes for creating idea of a reflex.
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Gestalt
Max Wertheimer
Gestalt, apparent motion, elements do not add up
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Intelligence/Eugenics
Henry Goddard
1908 - Translates and promotes intelligence tests across America
1911 "mental age", 1912 term IQ appears, 1913 Gottard tests immigrants (finding what and why?)
1917 Intelligence testing applied to the armed services (WW1)
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Intelligence
Robert Yerkes
Yerkes organizes the 1917 Intelligence testing applied to the armed services (WW1)
1926 - SAT developed (by Carl C. Brigham, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/timeline.html)
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Intelligence
David Weschler
1939, Created Weschler intelligence test
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I/O Psychology
Walter Dill Scott
Pre-university, pays close attention to wasted time on various jobs, studies in the down time.
1898 - Graduates from Northwester,n goes to study with Wundt, PhD in 2 years. Brings his new wife Anna, who also gets PhD, literature (Univ Halle).
1903 - Asked to improve advertising, writes "Theory & Practice of Advertising" (Importance of multisensory advertising - senses as windows to the soul)
Studies intelligence as judgement, quickness, accuracy for interviews and job placement. Compare applicant's scores to those who are already successful)
1915 First PhD in I/O Psych (Lilian Gilberth)
Selection & placement of job applicants
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I/O Psychology
Fredric Taylor
1911 - Principles of Scientific Management
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Neo-Behaviorism / Cognitive
Edward Tolman
Cognitive Map (1930s)
1912 - Studies Gestalt Psy with Kurt Koffka, also trained as a structuralist
1915 - PhD Harvard, 1918- Professor at Berkeley, comparative psychology
1932- Publishes Purposive Behavior in animals and Men - All actions are goal directed, proposes intervening variables (O) between stimulus and response S-O-R
Intervening variables connect stimulus with response and are the true causes of behavior. (see place cells online). Hunger, cognitive learning theory, cognitive map
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Neo-Behaviorism / Cognitive
Clark Hull
Drives are the basis of motivation (biological needs). Drives are stimuli that arouse behavior, reduction/satisfaction of drive is the sole basis of reinforcement (Primary and secondary drives). Reward = reduction of primary need. S-R connections are habit strength.
1918 - PhD
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Neo-Behaviorism
Albert Bandura
Social learning theory, observation, modeling, self-efficacy
PhD 1952, U Iowa
1959 - Publishes Adolescent Aggression, 1961 Conducts Bobo Dolls Experiments
1973 - Aggression, Publishes Social Learning Analisys
1977 "Social Learning Theory"
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HumanisticCarl Rogers
1939, The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child is published
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CognitiveGeorge Miller
1951- Publishes Language & Communication
1956 - 7 +/-2 Memory Study
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Cognitive
Ulrich Neisser
1969 - Writes Cognitive Psychology
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Cognitive
Noam Chomsky
1971 - Critiques Skinner, Language Development not accounted for by behaviorism.
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Positive
Martin Seligman
Learned Helplessness
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Cog Neuro
Donald O. Hebb
1936 - PhD (under Lashley)
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Schizophrenia History Links
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/nash/timeline/
http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/418882_6
http://schizophrenia.com/history.htm
Lies for comparative purposes (http://fountainheadclinic.com/schizophrenia/)
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Educational Psychology
Plato, Aristotle (theories of learning & knowledge). Locke (blank slate?), John Comenius (age related differences in children's cognition)
Jean Jacques Rousseau (Publishes "Emily" - learning through experience, exercise, educate towards natural inclinations)
Pestalozzi, natural interest in education
Wundt fits here as well (consciousness and active synthesis of ideas)
1896 - Dewey argues with structuralism, develops mental testing, functionalism
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Cog Neuro
Patricia Goldman Rakic
1970 - Role of PFC and distribution of dopamine
1979 - Dopamine important for spatial memory (delayed responses tasks)
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Cog NeuroFraser Wilson
Professor, U of A, NHP Neuroscience
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Cog NeuroPaul Greenberg
2005 -PhD Functional Stability
2011 - Applied Neuroscience Seminars
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United StatesCivil War
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Questions all psychology students should be able to answer:
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General Question: How can I be in psychology and not have a start on these questions?
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Goal: I will be able to pose and begin to answer these questions. I will create a very short "elevator speech" that summarizes my beliefs and evidence on each of these topics.
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CategoryQuestion
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People
Who are the major players in the creation of psychology as a field of study
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Dates & Achievements
What are some milestone dates in origins and development of modern psychology?
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Methods
What evidence do we have that psychology is a science?
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Concepts
What is the mind? Draw a figurative diagram. What are the parts and why do I think these parts exist?
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Concepts
What does the nervous system look like? Draw and label it. Update your drawings by consulting neuroanatomical images and writings. http://gogeco.org/biopsychology/
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Concepts
How does the nervous system work? http://gogeco.org/biopsychology/
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Concepts
What are some simple laboratory techniques in psychology?
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Concepts
What are some of the major "isms" (beliefs and belief systems) that drive modern science and psychology?
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Concepts
What is the self? What does it consist of? Explain and/or diagram the "self".
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Methods
What are the methods of functionalism, structuralism, psychophysics, clinical psychology, psychoanalysis, mental testing, and school psychology?
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Tasks all psychology students should be able to do:
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Command of knowledge
Draw a timeline of important events and people in the history of psychology from 500 BC to Today
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Command of knowledge
Tell a story about these events. Have one story be able to be spoken in 2 minutes or less, and time your more complete explanation - how long does that take?
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Knowledge
Identify all of the major schools of thought by naming them and summarize their primary goals, list the dates of origin, list the main players, list the main methods they used and the main conclusions they created.
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Command of knowledge
Describe how you believe each of these contributed to modern psychology
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Command of knowledge
Explain the zeitgeist (social, religious, economic, etc) associated with each school of thought, or within a specific few decades of any century starting in 1700 for both Europe and America.
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Knowledge
Define, explain, and draw the brain and nervous system
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Knowledge
Define, explain, and diagram the human mind
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Knowledge
Explain the scientific method
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Knowledge
List and explain the most successful methods in psychology (psychophysics, observation, surveys, statistics, neuroscience, etc)
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Command of knowledge
Be able to take any current policy, organization, economic goal, or belief system and generate suspicions about its origins
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Command of knowledge
Locate and use internet based resources to map the history of anything
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Command of knowledge
Know which philosophers, scientists, writers or religious authors to read when you need to know the origins of any specific belief system
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Practical use
Use psychological principles in daily decision making
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Practical use
Notice how daily events such as human interactions, communication, marketing and human needs match up with known principles from psychology
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Practical use
Test psychological ideas for their usefulness in your life. What are the elements of persuasion, conditioning, and learning that we can use every day?
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Practical use
Create, complete, and evaluate short research projects on yourself or in personal life and at work - what events, thoughts, or behaviors can we evaluate to see if our plans for positive change actually result in positive change?
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Benefits
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Answering these questions and engaging in these tasks will create a sophisticated psychology student who will remember and be able to use their education.
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You will also be able to transfer these questions and mentality to any other subject - vary them accordingly.
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Performing these tasks will increase your curiosity, ability to "see", and ability to make informed decisions.
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