FNH 200 942 2017 Summer Assignments #1 & 3
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First two letters of your first name (if you prefer to use a pseudonym, please e-mail me and let me know)First two numbers of your student numberInsert an image of your favourite food. Using code between the quotations:
and adjust the last two numbers, currently 100 and 101, to showcase your photo.
Describe briefly (in less than 50 words) why you selected this particular foodWhat do you want to learn about your favourite food through FNH 200? Please ask three questions. This is a time to revisit what you wanted to learn and questions you had about foods at the beginning of the course.

* Revisit the questions you asked at the beginning of the course (in alphabetical order of your last name below)
* Are you able to answer them?
If yes, please answer your own questions to your best ability. Please also provide the Lesson # that associates with your answer.
If not, try to make connections with concepts you've learned. Educated guesses are welcome, but no wild guess please. You may want to speculate where you may be able to find the answer to your questions, such as academic/research literature, government websites, food associations sites, health organizations, etc. Answers such as 'I will google it later' is definitely not enough :) .

* Add your answers (or most educated speculations) directly underneath your original questions.

Ju (Judy's Example)20
My family loves instant noodles. There are at least 10 different varieties (brands and favours) of instant noodles in our pantry.1. What makes it instant?
2. Why is it so wavy?
3. How are the seasonings made? Why are they packaged separately? It's a hassle to remove the package and it's not very environmentally friendly.
4. I don't notice an expiry date on the package. Does it expire?
5. Can we make gluten-free instant noodle?
(I attempted to answer these as a 'good' student.)

For question #1, I am guessing that it is because the noodle was deep fried and deep fat frying is a way to remove water from the original noodle (Lesson 06). I'm not sure how it makes it instant, but think it must have been to do with the rehydration rate of the noddle (Lesson 06).

2. We never talked about wavy noodle in FNH 200. Perhaps it helps with the rehydration? The wavy structure may help water re-absorption. When I have time, I may read more about this in the book "Asian Noodles: Science, Technology, and Processing" edited by Gary G. Hou. Wiley. 2010. p. 128.

3. According to Lesson 08, the seasoning can be dried in two ways. The powdery seasoning may have been dried with spray drying as it is a common method to dry liquid (soup) and the dried onion may have been dried with tray drying.

4. No expiry date means the noodle has a shelf life more than 90 days (Lesson 04). I think it will eventually expire as I've had rancid noddle in the past. I think keeping it in cool temperature in the dark may prevent oxidation (Storage session in Lesson 06).

5. We never talked about this in class. But I remember that gluten is responsible for the elastic and springy structure in bread (Lesson 02). These structures are not that important in noddle. I hope that eventually, gluten free noodle could be developed since my close friend is sensitive to gluten and she also loves instant noodle.
An25Due to frustrating dietary issues all of the food I buy is non wheat based.1.) How can Gluten Free food best emulate the taste of the original it is attempting to immatate?
2.) Why do wheat based products in Italy effect people with Gluten allergies differently than those in North America?
3.) While some gluten free products use alternates to wheat, such as rice, corn, or quinoa, others use processes to 'remove the gluten' what does that mean and what all does it do to the product?
Because I love fettucine alfredo and pretty much any italian food. It's a comfort food and something so simple. 1. What is the process the noodles go through when turning from a hard solid to a flexible substance?

2. How are the noodles preserved?

3. How come pasta gets harder again in the fridge?
1. I know the drying method for pasta is tray (air) drying (lesson 8). The pasta hardens as the water migrates to the surface and evaporates. During boiling the starches are undergoing change. From lesson 2 we learned about gelatinization which changes the noodle to soft an pliable texture.

2. From lesson 7, I learned pasta is often stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). This is the conditions surrounding the pasta which is a gas mixture pushed into the package usually a combination of carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

3. From lesson 2, I know that retrogradation is when starch loses some of their holding capacity during refrigeration. This leads to a squeezing out (syneresis) of water and loss of tenderness to the pasta noodles, ie they get more firm.
Sashimi is the pure flavour of the ocean and it is very appetizing. Roe and uni are also delicious.1. How to identify if the sashimi can be eaten raw?
2. The nutritional value of sashimi.
3. What percentage of proteins in sashimi can be absorbed by the body?
1. I got the ideas from lesson 7 that the freezing fish at -20 oC for 7 days can eliminate larvae of Anisakis simplex from raw fish and prevent anasakiasis so the sashimi can be eaten must be frozened before. Because deep freezers sold for home use is also -18°C (lesson 7), the sashimi should not be eaten in home.

2. This course did not mention much about nutrition. According to lesson 2, in my opinion, sashimi mainly contain proteins and fats. In addition, taste-good sashimi might contains more fats.

3. The course totally did not mention about protein absorb but I guess the proportion of proteins in sashimi that can be absorb is lower than the proportion of proteins in cooked fish because the cooking process makes the protein denaturation which can make proteins be absorbed easilier.
I eat yogurt for breakfast since I was a kid, and I never get tired of it. 1. Can I eat yogurt few days past the expiration date? 2.What are the differences in nutrition between yogurt and milk? 3. How does milk turn into yogurt?1. According to lesson 4, products that have passed the durable life date and that have been stored under prescribed conditions are still safe to eat but the quality (appearance, flavour, nutritional value) may have deteriorated.

2. Comparing to milk, yogurt should be lower in sugar lactose because lactose sugar in milk are turned into lactic acid during fermentation.

3. Yogurt is produced from milk fermentation by adding bacteria culture in milk. Lactic acid are converted from lactose sugar and given a thick texture to yogurt. (lesson 9)

I love eating fruit, but one of best is mango because it is delicious raw, in desserts, or dried. This variety is the best because it's not as fiberous as the other type of mango1. What is the optimal temperature and time for mango to be dried in a food dehydrator to achieve a chewy texture?
2. When mangos are to be exported, are they picked while they’re still green?
3. How are artificial mango flavours created?
1.Case hardening would contribute to a chewy texture, since the case traps some water in the centre on the fruit, resulting in a softer texture than the surface of the fruit (lesson 8.) However, specific temperatures and times were not mentioned (except for instant noodles in deep fat frying section of lesson 8.) I’m guessing that the optimal temperature and time would vary depending on the thickness and the humidity, as proper dehydration requires the humidity to be lower than the food to be dehydrated (lesson 8.)

2.This was not specifically mentioned in class but in lesson 5, we learned that fruit continues to ripen (soften, change colour) after it’s been harvested. This continued deterioration is called senescence. I would guess farmers would consider this fact and take advantage of the shipping time to ripen their product. If they picked the mangos at their peak ripeness, by the time they arrive in Canada, they’d be rotten. However, in store in Vancouver, mangos are sometimes green, firm and sour—not very pleasant to eat. This may indicate that there was not proper controlled atmosphere storage (lesson 1) that would provide the optimal storage environment for the fruit to retain or achieve desirable qualities.

3.This topic was not covered in class. If I were to guess, artificial flavouring would fall under the food engineering sub-field of food science (lesson 1.) To learn about how artificial flavourings are made, I watched a YouTube clip of a Canadian TV series called “How It’s Made,” where one episode explains the general processes on how artificial flavourings are made. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TrR6JetqQ94.) Obviously, exact methods are not given, because the formulas are company secrets, but this video is still very informative.
I love a good burger and fries. My obsession with burger is probably from the way i grew up. I remember as a kid, i only had a burger (junk food) once every two months as a prize of being a "good girl". It definitly made me more curious and for some weird reason made me appreciate it more...Sorry mom and dad! 1. Are burgers really unhealthy?
2. How restaurants keep the meat fresh/ how they store them for long time?
3. Why are there such a big difference in prices between restaurants? (ex. Hells kitchen burger is 50$/ Five guys 12$/ McDonalds 5$)

1. It really depends on where you get the materials with what quality, storage and the way they produce it. Buying cheap, low quality burgers that use lots of oil and fat are unhealthy, however, the high quality burgers with low fat and oils are not unhealthy. So it really depends on the way they make it with what kind of products. Also during class I learned that Canada does not use any kind of antibiotics or hormones which is a very big bonus in compare to United states that use antibiotic and hormones for their meats.
2. It is important to know the optimal condition for keeping foods. Freezing provides longer life of foods, keeping them at temperatures well below 0C. It is important to keep meats at temperatures below -9.5 C to not let microorganism to grow, freezing also lower water activity that also slow down chemical reactions and microbial growth.Another important factor is maintaining that temperature is important for maximize storage life.Checking on meats that are stored in refrigerator is important to make sure they don’t notice any change(change in colour in meats).Also vacuum packaging is the best option that is used for longer storage life.(this method remove oxygen and suppress grow of any aerobic spoilage bacteria)
3. In class we learned about different quality of Canadian beef. High quality beef includes prime, AAA,AA and A. Prime is the number one high quality and A is being the lower of the four high quality grades. Restaurant with high prices use higher quality beef with better methods in compare to cheap restaurants that use low quality/ cheap beefs.
Be34#ERROR!I enjoy eating sushi because you can put almost anything in there, often with healthy ingredients such as cucumbers, lettuce, seaweed, and avocado. Traditional sushi rolls with seafood and vegetables are low in calories and nutrient packed.
1. How are the raw fish/seafood preserved before it being packed into
sushi rolls? Optimal temperature? Ideal duration of storage time
before being consumed?

2. How to store cooked sushi rice? In terms of maintaining the
consistency as well as preventing it from spoiling.

3. What are some illnesses I can contract from eating sushi and
how may I reduce the risk of contracting these illnesses?
I really enjoy eating cashews not only for the taste, but also becuase they are a good source of protein and fat. I carry a bag with me everday as they are a good snack on the fly and very filling!
1. How are cashews preserved?
2. Is there a coating added to cashews after they are picked?
3. What is the difference between organic and non organic cashews?

For question #1, we did not talk about the preservation of nuts as a class. I do know, to keep nuts fresh, they must be packaged properly in a plastic container or in a ziplock back. This is becuase they oxygen will get to the nuts and begin changing the texture and quality of the nut. A way that I would assume nuts could be preserved would be to add salt to them. Salt will bind to the water, to reduce that water content and therefore reduce the chances of microbial growth.

2. For question 2, Judy mentioned that she doesn't think a coating is added to nuts. But, we did talk about the mallard reaction which would occur when the nuts are being roasted. This reaction will produce a browning around the nuts and will aslo contribute to the raosted taste.

3. For question 3, we also did not go into the differences between organic and non-organics as a class. My guess would be that organic nuts do not have any pesticides added to them during growth to reduce the chances of microbial growth. Also if there were any flavorings added, perhaps they are organic in nature as well. Organics however, would have a shorter shelf like than non-organics as non-orgaincs are preserved in some way to increase the shelf life and reduce the microbial growth. More on organic versus non organic nuts here http://www.livestrong.com/article/269647-which-nuts-seeds-to-buy-organic/

Th40I enjoy eating poutine. It is made with french fries and cheese curds topped with gravy. I eat it almost everyweek, usually with close friends
1. what kind of cheese is used for the curds? 2. what kind of gravy is used? 3.what are the health consequences of eating poutine?
I can eat mutiple spoons of peanut butter and still want more.
Its great with almost anything like smoothies, sandwiches and even on its own.
1. Why do some peanut butter brands have an oil layer on top while others do not?
2. Why is it so sticky? (When I give some to my dog he spends several minutes getting it off of his tongue)
3. Why is it so addicting although the brands I always buy have no added sugar?
1. In lesson 2, we discussed how there is a process called homogenization. Which is usually high energy mixing, this does not involve any added substances that would act as stablizers. Stablizers keeps the two layers, the continuous and dispered phase, from seperating and it would explain why some brands do not have a layer of oil on top. The stablizer in this case, would keep the oil droplets suspended in what I would assume to be water. The water would be considered the continuous phase and the oil to be the dispersed. Logically the peanut butter brands with the layer of oil on top does not have an added stablizer and was just made using the homogenization process. 2. We never went over it during class but from looking it up it is linked to having a high protien content and low water content(which was breifly discused in lesson 2 becuase it is not at all linked to water activity). In addition to that some companies instead of using stablizers use a method that causes it to be even more sticky. Source:http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/12/makes-peanut-butter-sticky/ 3. We did not go over why certain foods would be addiciting ,however, in lesson 2 we learnt that fat makes food more appetizing. In 100 grams of peanut butter there are around 51 grams of fat explaining why it may seem "addiciting". When spread on warm toast it softens and becomes more spreadable and appetizing. Source: https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/5003?fgcd=&manu=&lfacet=&format=&count=&max=50&offset=&sort=default&order=asc&qlookup=16398&ds=&qt=&qp=&qa=&qn=&q=&ing=
Ch71I love bubble tea. There are so many favors to choose from. My favorite bubble tea is oolong milk tea with pearl. In a cold winter day, I like to order a hot milk tea. In a hot summer day, a mango slush with pearl is my to go drink. 1. What are “pearls” made of?
2. What makes the pearls so chewy?
3. What is the expiration date of pearls?
4. How do I make bubble tea at home?
1. What are “pearls” made of?

The main ingredient of pearls is starch. Pearls are usually made of sweet rice, tapioca, cassava, sweet potato powder, potato flour, or jelly. They are made into 5 to 10 mm starch balls. Taste varies according to the composition of water, sugar and spices.

2. What makes the pearls so chewy?

It is essential to have enough water when you cook pearls. If you do not have enough water, pearls are more likely to stick and burn. To make the pearls chewy, you also need to stir lightly and cook them for about 30 minutes with the lid closed.

3. What is the expiration date of pearls?

When pearls are stored at room temperature and covered in syrup to ensure that they do not start sticking to one another, they should be consumed within 4 hours otherwise they may become too soft. Do not put the pearls in the refrigerator because they will become too hard.

4. How do I make bubble tea at home?

Boil enough water. Add pearls into the boiling water. Stir lightly to keep them from sticking together. Cook the pearls for about 30 minutes with the lid closed. Turn off the heat, leave the pot covered for about 15 minutes. Rinse the pearls with cool water and drain. For the extra layer of flavor, add honey or sugar.
Yi22This biscuit with strawberry filling is my favourite snack. It’s creamy but not overly greasy. 1. Why is the biscuit so crispy? 2. How is the strawberry flavour simulated without real strawberry? 3. Why is that biscuits taste the same long after its expiry date?1. Why is the biscuit so crispy?

When baking, a biscuit becomes more crunchy and crispy as the dough spreads wider. Margarine and butter are preferred fats for spreading over setting because they melt at a lower temperature and contains little water. Meanwhile, doughs that contains high sugar content also spreads more readily because sugar liquifies at baking temperature. In order to retain a biscuit’s crispiness, granulated sugar is often used in the recipe. Compared to other sweeteners, granulated sugar is less hygroscopic so it takes up less water.

2. How is the strawberry flavour simulated without real strawberry?

We never go over this but the flavor is simulated with an artifical flavoring composed of complex chemicals. A list of ingredients for a typical artifical strawberry flavoring: http://www.feingold.org/strawberry.html

3. Why is that biscuits taste the same long after its expiry date?

As we have learned in lesson 5, this biscuit is a kind of shelf-stable foods, which means it has a shelf life greater than 6 months. An expiry date is not necessary for this kind of foods. The menufactor put an expiry date on the biscuit because cosumers like to know the expiry date, and after this date, the company is no longer responsible for the product. Therefore the biscuit may remain edible and tastes the same after the expiry date.
One of my guilty pleasures is boxed mac and cheese because it's super easy to make after a long day and it's the ultimate comfort food. 1. How is the cheese powder made? 2. How are the noodles made into the shell shape? 3. What makes the cheese powder have such a long expiry date? 4. Is there a way to make a fresh cheese sauce that tastes the same as the powder-based sauce?
I love durian so much, however, like many other people, I cannot stand the weird smell and taste when I eat it the first time. But I fall in love with it instantly after meeting it several times. It has so special outlook and taste.1. What makes the taste and smell so special? 2 Durian taste so sweet and creamy, and my mom always tells me not to eat too much and it will make me gain weight because it contains so much fat and sugar in it. Is that true?3 what is the fat and sugar content compared with apple and other berries? 4 It that health enough for obesity group?
Hot bar is the most popular snack for primary school students. Until now, I still keep a very deep impression of its delicious taste and tempting smell. The most surprising thing is that I can even buy hot bar in Canada, 1. What makes hot bar so addictive? 2. Is hot bar really unhealthy? 3. What is the process of making hot bar? 4. What is the ingredient of hot bar?
Having an Asian background, I grew up eating century egg either with congee for breakfast or as a type of appetizer whenever my family would have dinner in restaurants. I've always been so intrigued by this food. Firstly because of it's name - "century egg" carries in itself a huge history, begging questions of what 'century' could imply. There is definitely a story behind the creation of this egg. Also, the taste is incredibly interesting. It tastes nothing like a regular egg that we could buy from a western supermarket, yet it carries familiar properties that can tell us that it definitely still is an egg. As a kid, I never really liked the strong taste of its yolk, yet i loved the egg white (if you can still call it that). It reminded me of the jelly candies I would eat as a treat, the gelatonous texture and even the blandness of it's taste.1. What are the similarities of a century egg and a regular egg from a supermarket? 2. What allows for the egg white to have a gelatonous texture? 3. Why the drastic change in colour and taste? 4. Century egg is supposedly called that because it's preserved for a hundred days, how is it still unspoilt upon eating despite having been preserved for so long? 5. Does century egg ever spoil? What would a spoiled century egg look like?
One of my favorite things to do with my family is go fishing. We catch our own fish, process it and then cook it. 1. What are some of the differences between the way my family processes the fish, and the way other markets process them. 2. What are some of the risks eating seafood? 3. How can you mitigate the risks of eating seafood?1. One of the major differences is the way we freeze the fish. While we put our fish in our personal freezer, other markets probably use Immersion freezing where they immerse the food, packaged or not, directly in non-toxic refrigerant fluid. We learned about this in Lesson 7. 2. Some of the risks of eating fish include Scombroid poisoning from fish including: tuna, bonito, and mackerel. From shellshish you can get amnesic shellfish poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning. We learned about this in Lesson 12. 3. Safe practices for eating fish include consulting "Shelfish Contamination Closures" put out by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. This will protect you from shellfish that has been affected by domoic acid. Also another thing to avoid while harvesting shellfish is Red Tide. We also learned about this in Lesson 12.
Gu10https://gss3.bdstatic.com/-Po3dSag_xI4khGkpoWK1HF6hhy/baike/c0%3Dbaike116%2C5%2C5%2C116%2C38/sign=b69049ea49540923be646b2cf331ba6c/a686c9177f3e6709f21cf2363bc79f3df9dc55de.jpgCrab soup dumpling is one of the most famous food in my hometown. The fillings usually made of more than 21 ingredients, mainly crab meat. A good soup dumpling should have very thin skin, and a lot of soup in it. When enjoying it, use straw to drink up the soup first, and then eating the rest of the soup dumpling with vinegar. The umami of crab meat and chicken soup, wrapped by a thin skin, it is insane!!1. Why aquatic product usually deliver umami taste? 2.Why crab have an outstanding umami taste, it there specfic chemicals that contribute to this taste? 3. How can we put soup in the soup dumping when making it?1. Why aquatic product usually deliver umami taste? Monosodium glutamate (MSG),3 disodium gluanylate (GMP) and disodium inosinate (IMP) are three umami substances in the nature. The umami taste is contained in varies food, including aquatic products (freshwater fish, seafood, seaweed, etc.) We have not covered the exactly substances in this course, but I guess It is one or more chemicals among the three natural umami substances that contribute to the umami taste of aquatic product. 2.Why crab have an outstanding umami taste, it there specific chemicals that contribute to this taste? The umami taste in snow crab is mainly delivered by MSG, IMP, two of the three nature umami substances (MSG, IMP, and GMP). The reason for the outstanding umami taste of crab is probably the containment of high level of these umami-producing chemicals. 3. How can we put soup in the soup dumping when making it? There are several ways, depended on the region making it. One famous way is utilizing the gel-forming ability of pork skin soup. When other ingredients are put on the skin, and before wrapping them up, gel-liking pork skin soup dices are used to fill the rest of the space within the soup dumping skin. Once the soup dumpling is steamed, the pork soup dices begin melting, and thus becomes the soup in the soup dumpling.
Reference: http://jn.nutrition.org/content/130/4/931S.full