High Expectations (Standard 1 – Set high expectations)
1. Teachers have the ability to affect and improve the wellbeing, motivation and behaviour of their pupils.Communicate a belief in the academic potential of all pupils
2. Teachers are key role models, who can influence the attitudes, values and behaviours of their pupils.Using intentional and consistent language that promotes challenge and aspiration.
3. Teacher expectations can affect pupil outcomes; setting goals that challenge and stretch pupils is essential.Setting tasks that stretch pupils, but which are achievable, within a challenging curriculum.
4. Setting clear expectations can help communicate shared values that improve classroom and school culture.Creating a positive environment where making mistakes and learning from them and the need for effort and perseverance are part of the daily routine.
5. A culture of mutual trust and respect supports effective relationships.Seeking opportunities to engage parents and carers in the education of their children (e.g. proactively highlighting successes).
6. High-quality teaching has a long-term positive effect on pupils’ life chances, particularly for children from disadvantaged backgrounds.Demonstrate consistently high behavioural expectations, by:
Creating a culture of respect and trust in the classroom that supports all pupils to succeed (e.g. by modelling the types of courteous behaviour expected of pupils).
Teaching and rigorously maintaining clear behavioural expectations (e.g. for contributions, volume level and concentration).
How Pupils Learn (Standard 2 – Promote good progress)
1. Learning involves a lasting change in pupils’ capabilities or understanding.Avoid overloading working memory, by:
2. Prior knowledge plays an important role in how pupils learn; committing some key facts to their long-term memory is likely to help pupils learn more complex ideas.Taking into account pupils’ prior knowledge when planning how much new information to introduce.much new information to introduce.
3. An important factor in learning is memory, which can be thought of as comprising two elements: working memory and long-term memory.Breaking complex material into smaller steps (e.g. using partially completed examples to focus pupils on the specific steps).
4. Working memory is where information that is being actively processed is held, but its capacity is limited and can be overloaded.Reducing distractions that take attention away from what is being taught (e.g. keeping the complexity of a task to a minimum, so that attention is focused on the content).
5. Long-term memory can be considered as a store of knowledge that changes as pupils learn by integrating new ideas with existing knowledge.Build on pupils’ prior knowledge, by:
6. Where prior knowledge is weak, pupils are more likely to develop misconceptions, particularly if new ideas are introduced too quickly.Identifying possible misconceptions and planning how to prevent these forming.
7. Regular purposeful practice of what has previously been taught can help consolidate material and help pupils remember what they have learned.Linking what pupils already know to what is being taught (e.g. explaining how new content builds on what is already known).
8. Requiring pupils to retrieve information from memory, and spacing practice so that pupils revisit ideas after a gap are also likely to strengthen recall.Sequencing lessons so that pupils secure foundational knowledge before encountering more complex content.
9. Worked examples that take pupils through each step of a new process are also likely to support pupils to learn.Encouraging pupils to share emerging understanding and points of confusion so that misconceptions can be addressed.
Increase likelihood of material being retained, by:
Balancing exposition, repetition, practice and retrieval of critical knowledge and skills.
Planning regular review and practice of key ideas and concepts over time.
Designing practice, generation and retrieval tasks that provide just enough support so that pupils experience a high success rate when attempting challenging work.
Increasing challenge with practice and retrieval as knowledge becomes more secure (e.g. by removing scaffolding, lengthening spacing or introducing interacting elements).
Subject and Curriculum (Standard 3 – Demonstrate good subject and curriculum knowledge)
1. A school’s curriculum enables it to set out its vision for the knowledge, skills and values that its pupils will learn, encompassing the national curriculum within a coherent wider vision for successful learning.Deliver a carefully sequenced and coherent curriculum, by:
2. Secure subject knowledge helps teachers to motivate pupils and teach effectively.Identifying essential concepts, knowledge, skills and principles of the subject and providing opportunity for all pupils to learn and master these critical components.
3. Ensuring pupils master foundational concepts and knowledge before moving on is likely to build pupils’ confidence and help them succeed.Ensuring pupils’ thinking is focused on key ideas within the subject.
4. Anticipating common misconceptions within particular subjects is also an important aspect of curricular knowledge; working closely with colleagues to develop an understanding of likely misconceptions is valuable.Working with experienced colleagues to accumulate and refine a collection of powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations and demonstrations.
5. Explicitly teaching pupils the knowledge and skills they need to succeed within particular subject areas is beneficial.Using resources and materials aligned with the school curriculum (e.g. textbooks or shared resources designed by experienced colleagues that carefully sequence content).
6. In order for pupils to think critically, they must have a secure understanding of knowledge within the subject area they are being asked to think critically about.Being aware of common misconceptions and discussing with experienced colleagues how to help pupils master important concepts.
7. In all subject areas, pupils learn new ideas by linking those ideas to existing knowledge, organising this knowledge into increasingly complex mental models (or “schemata”); carefully sequencing teaching to facilitate this process is important.Support pupils to build increasingly complex mental models, by:
8. Pupils are likely to struggle to transfer what has been learnt in one discipline to a new or unfamiliar context.Discussing curriculum design with experienced colleagues and balancing exposition, repetition, practice of critical skills and knowledge.
9. To access the curriculum, early literacy provides fundamental knowledge; reading comprises two elements: word reading and language comprehension; systematic synthetic phonics is the most effective approach for teaching pupils to decode.Revisiting the big ideas of the subject over time and teaching key concepts through a range of examples.
10. Every teacher can improve pupils’ literacy, including by explicitly teaching reading, writing and oral language skills specific to individual disciplines.Drawing explicit links between new content and the core concepts and principles in the subject.
Develop fluency, by:
Providing tasks that support pupils to learn key ideas securely (e.g. quizzing pupils so they develop fluency with times tables).
Using retrieval and spaced practice to build automatic recall of key knowledge.
Help pupils apply knowledge and skills to other contexts, by:
Ensuring pupils have relevant domain-specific knowledge, especially when being asked to think critically within a subject.
Interleaving concrete and abstract examples, slowly withdrawing concrete examples and drawing attention to the underlying structure of problems.
Develop pupils’ literacy, by:
Demonstrating a clear understanding of systematic synthetic phonics, particularly if teaching early reading and spelling.
Supporting younger pupils to become fluent readers and to write fluently and legibly.
Teaching unfamiliar vocabulary explicitly and planning for pupils to be repeatedly exposed to high-utility and high-frequency vocabulary in what is taught.
Modelling reading comprehension by asking questions, making predictions, and summarising when reading.
Promoting reading for pleasure (e.g. by using a range of whole class reading approaches and regularly reading high-quality texts to children).
Modelling and requiring high-quality oral language, recognising that spoken language underpins the development of reading and writing (e.g. requiring pupils to respond to questions in full sentences, making use of relevant technical vocabulary).
Teaching different forms of writing by modelling planning, drafting and editing.
Classroom Practice (Standard 4 – Plan and teach well structured lessons)
1. Effective teaching can transform pupils’ knowledge, capabilities and beliefs about learning.Plan effective lessons, by:
2. Effective teachers introduce new material in steps, explicitly linking new ideas to what has been previously studied and learned.Using modelling, explanations and scaffolds, acknowledging that novices need more structure early in a domain.
3. Modelling helps pupils understand new processes and ideas; good models make abstract ideas concrete and accessible.Enabling critical thinking and problem solving by first teaching the necessary foundational content knowledge.
4. Guides, scaffolds and worked examples can help pupils apply new ideas, but should be gradually removed as pupil expertise increases.Removing scaffolding only when pupils are achieving a high degree of success in applying previously taught material.
5. Explicitly teaching pupils metacognitive strategies linked to subject knowledge, including how to plan, monitor and evaluate, supports independence and academic success.Providing sufficient opportunity for pupils to consolidate and practise applying new knowledge and skills.
6. Questioning is an essential tool for teachers; questions can be used for many purposes, including to check pupils’ prior knowledge, assess understanding and break down problems.Breaking tasks down into constituent components when first setting up independent practice (e.g. using tasks that scaffold pupils through meta-cognitive and procedural processes).
7. High-quality classroom talk can support pupils to articulate key ideas, consolidate understanding and extend their vocabulary.Make good use of expositions, by:
8. Practice is an integral part of effective teaching; ensuring pupils have repeated opportunities to practise, with appropriate guidance and support, increases success.support, increases success.Starting expositions at the point of current pupil understanding.
9. Paired and group activities can increase pupil success, but to work together effectively pupils need guidance, support and practice.Combining a verbal explanation with a relevant graphical representation of the same concept or process, where appropriate.
10. How pupils are grouped is also important; care should be taken to monitor the impact of groupings on pupil attainment, behaviour and motivation.Using concrete representation of abstract ideas (e.g. making use of analogies, metaphors, examples and non-examples).
11. Homework can improve pupil outcomes, particularly for older pupils, but it is likely that the quality of homework and its relevance to main class teaching is more important than the amount set.Model effectively, by:
Narrating thought processes when modelling to make explicit how experts think (e.g. asking questions aloud that pupils should consider when working independently and drawing pupils’ attention to links with prior knowledge).
Making the steps in a process memorable and ensuring pupils can recall them (e.g. naming them, developing mnemonics, or linking to memorable stories).
Exposing potential pitfalls and explaining how to avoid them.
Stimulate pupil thinking and check for understanding, by:
Planning activities around what you want pupils to think hard about.
Including a range of types of questions in class discussions to extend and challenge pupils (e.g. by modelling new vocabulary or asking pupils to justify answers).
Providing appropriate wait time between question and response where more developed responses are required.
Considering the factors that will support effective collaborative or paired work (e.g. familiarity with routines, whether pupils have the necessary prior knowledge and how pupils are grouped).
Providing scaffolds for pupil talk to increase the focus and rigour of dialogue.
Adaptive Teaching (Standard 5 – Adapt teaching)
1. Pupils are likely to learn at different rates and to require different levels and types of support from teachers to succeed.Develop an understanding of different pupil needs, by:
2. Seeking to understand pupils’ differences, including their different levels of prior knowledge and potential barriers to learning, is an essential part of teaching.Identifying pupils who need new content further broken down.
3. Adapting teaching in a responsive way, including by providing targeted support to pupils who are struggling, is likely to increase pupil success.Making use of formative assessment.
4. Adaptive teaching is less likely to be valuable if it causes the teacher to artificially create distinct tasks for different groups of pupils or to set lower expectations for particular pupils.Working closely with the Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO) and special education professionals and the Designated Safeguarding Lead.
5. Flexibly grouping pupils within a class to provide more tailored support can be effective, but care should be taken to monitor its impact on engagement and motivation, particularly for low attaining pupils.Using the SEND Code of Practice, which provides additional guidance on supporting pupils with SEND effectively.
6. There is a common misconception that pupils have distinct and identifiable learning styles. This is not supported by evidence and attempting to tailor lessons to learning styles is unlikely to be beneficial.Provide opportunity for all pupils to experience success, by:
7. Pupils with special educational needs or disabilities are likely to require additional or adapted support; working closely with colleagues, families and pupils to understand barriers and identify effective strategies is essential.Adapting lessons, whilst maintaining high expectations for all, so that all pupils have the opportunity to meet expectations.
Balancing input of new content so that pupils master important concepts.
Making effective use of teaching assistants.
Meet individual needs without creating unnecessary workload, by:
Making use of well-designed resources (e.g. textbooks).
Planning to connect new content with pupils' existing knowledge or providing additional pre-teaching if pupils lack critical knowledge.
Building in additional practice or removing unnecessary expositions.
Reframing questions to provide greater scaffolding or greater stretch.
Considering carefully whether intervening within lessons with individuals and small groups would be more efficient and effective than planning different lessons for different groups of pupils.
Group pupils effectively, by:
Applying high expectations to all groups, and ensuring all pupils have access to a rich curriculum.
Changing groups regularly, avoiding the perception that groups are fixed.
Ensuring that any groups based on attainment are subject specific.
Assessment (Standard 6 – Make accurate and productive use of assessment)
1. Effective assessment is critical to teaching because it provides teachers with information about pupils’ understanding and needs.Avoid common assessment pitfalls, by:
2. Good assessment helps teachers avoid being over-influenced by potentially misleading factors, such as how busy pupils appear.Planning formative assessment tasks linked to lesson objectives and thinking ahead about what would indicate understanding (e.g. by using hinge questions to pinpoint knowledge gaps).
3. Before using any assessment, teachers should be clear about the decision it will be used to support and be able to justify its use.Drawing conclusions about what pupils have learned by looking at patterns of performance over a number of assessments (e.g. appreciating that assessments draw inferences about learning from performance).
4. To be of value, teachers use information from assessments to inform the decisions they make; in turn, pupils must be able to act on feedback for it to have an effect.Choosing, where possible, externally validated materials, used in controlled conditions when required to make summative assessments.
5. High-quality feedback can be written or verbal; it is likely to be accurate and clear, encourage further effort, and provide specific guidance on how to improve.Check prior knowledge and understanding during lessons, by:
6. Over time, feedback should support pupils to monitor and regulate their own learning.Using assessments to check for prior knowledge and pre-existing misconceptions.
7. Working with colleagues to identify efficient approaches to assessment is important; assessment can become onerous and have a disproportionate impact on workload.Structuring tasks and questions to enable the identification of knowledge gaps and misconceptions (e.g. by using common misconceptions within multiple-choice questions).
Prompting pupils to elaborate when responding to questioning to check that a correct answer stems from secure understanding.
Monitoring pupil work during lessons, including checking for misconceptions.