AB
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TermDefinition
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algorithma process or set of rules for solving a mathematical problem
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bimodala distribution which has two peaks
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bin widthsthe width of the rectangle with shows data is graphed in groups on the x-axis
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bin(s)a bar whose height corresponds to how many data points are in that bin
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campaigngather and collect data
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categorical variablesvalues that have words
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centeruseful for numerical variables, the center of the distribution often corresponds to our notion of ‘typical value’
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claima statement of something
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collectthe process of gathering and measuring information
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columnsa structured data item in a table
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conditional relative frequencythe ratio of a joint relative frequency and related marginal relative frequency
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consolea pane within RStudio; the place where RStudio is waiting for you to tell it what to do, and where it will show the results of a command; you type your codes directly into the console
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dataData are information, or observations, that have been gathered and recorded
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data analysistables, graphs, and summaries of the data that are produced to help us find patterns and relationships
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data collectionthe process of observing and recording data, or of examining previously collected data to make sure it meets the needs of an investigation
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data cyclea guide we can use when learning to think about data
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data interpretationthe statistical questions are answered by referring to the tables, graphs, and summaries made in the Data Analysis phase
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data pointa single fact or piece of information
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data set(s)a collection of data
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data tablearrangement of data
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data trailsthe data collected about us as individuals that could be used to see the patterns in our personal lives
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distributiona function or a listing which shows all the possible values
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dotplota graphical display of data using dots
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environmenta pane within RStudio; where values and objects can be viewed
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ethicsa code of behavior, specifically what is right and wrong
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evaluateto think carefully
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frequencythe number of times an outcome occurs
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GPSstands for Global Positioning System; it is a radio navigation system that allows land, sea, and airborne users to determine their exact location
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groupingwhen the data are split into categories
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histograman approximate representation of the distribution of numerical data
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imagesa representation of the external form of a person, thing, or picture
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inputthe value you place into the algorithm
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joint (relative) frequencya fraction that tells you how many members of of a group have a particular characteristic
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left-hand rulewhen multiple data points can appear in more than one bin, observations would go in the bin on the left-hand side
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left-skewedthe mean is typically less than the median; the tail of the distribution is longer on the left hand side than on the right hand side
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marginal (relative) frequencythe margins on the table to show that the cells with the initial total counts
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maximumthe largest value
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minimumthe smallest value
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numerical variablesvalues that have numbers
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observationsData that have been gathered and recorded
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organizethe method of classifying and organizing data sets to make them more useful
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outputthe value(s) that are produced by an algorithm
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panea rectangular area within RStudio
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participatory sensingan approach to data collection and interpretation in which individuals, acting alone or in groups, use their personal mobile devices and web services to explore interesting aspects of their worlds ranging from health to culture
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photo ethicsthe principles that guide how we take and share photographs
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plota pane within RStudio; where plots/graphs/visualizations will be generated
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previewa pane within RStudio; (spreadsheet) - where they will be able to see the variables and observations (index); rows and columns of data
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privacythe right of individuals to have control over how their personal information is collected and used
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rangethe largest value minus the smallest value
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recorda collection of data
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rectangular or spreadsheet formatinformation that is stored in a rectangular or spreadsheet format
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representationsthe form in which data are stored, processed, and transmitted
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right-hand rulewhen multiple data points can appear in more than one bin, observations would go in the bin on the right-hand side
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right-skewedthe mean is typicallygreater than the median; the tail of the distribution is longer on the right hand side than on the left hand side
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rowsa structured data item in a table
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scatterplota plot that uses dots to represent values for two different numeric variables
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shapethe placement of points in a distribution
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side-by-side bar plota plot where the bars are split into colored bar segments, used to compare things between different groups or to track changes over time
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spreadthe distribution is at certain values
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statistical questionsquestions that address variability and can be answered with data
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surveysa research method used for collecting data to gain information and insights into various topics of interest
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symmetrica type of distribution where the left side of the distribution mirrors the right side
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typical“mean” or “average”; expected values
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unimodala distribution which has a single peak
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variabilityhow spread out a set of data is; variability gives you a way to describe how much data sets vary and allows you to compare your data to other sets of data
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variablescharacteristics of an object or person
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visualizationa picture of the data
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x-axishorizontal axis of a coordinate plane
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y-axisvertical axis of a coordinate plane
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