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Note: 1. This spreadsheet shows the filtration performance of medical and non-medical materials. The filtration performance generally includes two aspects: filtration efficiency and pressure drop;
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2. The filtration efficiency (together with standard deviation) was measured at 0.3 micrometer with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, TSI 3936), and the test aerosols (NaCl) were generated by a constant output atomizer (TSI 3076). The reason we measure 0.3 micrometer particles is that they are typically the most difficult to remove by filtration. More information can be found from the video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpbJFk311Lw
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3. The pressure drop is the flow resistance through the filter materials. It is directly related to the breathability of the material - the higher the pressure drop, the more difficult it is to breathe;
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4. We tested the filtration efficiency and pressure drop under different "face velocities" - 9 cm/s, 15 cm/s, 23 cm/s. This is to consider the situation where people may cut these filter materials as discs to insert in their own respirators (e.g. a 3D printed one: https://governmentciomedia.com/fda-approves-first-3d-printed-mask-covid-19-support). Generally, an adult will breathe with a flow rate of 60 liters per minute. So, by using a mask area of 111 cm^2 (the typical area of a face mask), we will have a face velocity of 9 cm/s. Some homemade respirators may have a smaller mask area, or people may use hand to further press the filter materials around the nose and mouth, resulting in a smaller mask area.
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5. A smaller the mask area leads to a higher the face velocity, a higher the pressure drop (flow resistance), and generally a lower the filtration efficiency
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6. For fabric materials, we also listed the GSM (grams per square meter) as a reference.
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Thanks to:
PMTL: Weixing Hao; Missouri S&T: Drs. Joel Burken, Hongyan Ma, Chris Ramsay, Jennifer Nixon, Missouri S&T 3D printing team; Phelps-Maries County Health Department;
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Linsey Marr (Virginia Tech), Maya Trotz (USF), Karl Haro von Mogel (Biofortified), Pratim Biswas (WUStL)
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Contact:Yang Wang (yangwang@mst.edu); Please feel free to use the data for non-profit purposes.
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Citing the data:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113582
Weixing Hao, Andrew Parasch, Stephen Williams, Jiayu Li, Hongyan Ma, Joel Burken, Yang Wang (2020), International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 229: 113582. ISSN 1438-4639
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Website:
https://yangwangpmtl.wordpress.com/
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9 cm/s15 cm/s23 cm/s9 cm/s15 cm/s23 cm/s
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Filter type
Filter rating (MPR,MERV,Other)
GSM# of layers% of 0.3 micron particles removedpressure drop (kpa)
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Grams per Square Meter
111 cm^2 mask areaStandard Dev67 cm^2 mask area
Standard Dev
43 cm^2 mask area
Standard Dev
111 cm^2 mask area67 cm^2 mask area43 cm^2 mask area
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3/261N95198.16%0.49%95.32%1.42%94.39%0.97%0.10.30.5
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2
3M Filtrete-Allergen Reduction Electrostatic HVAC Air Filter
1900 MPR, MERV 12 https://www.lowes.com/pd/Filtrete-1900-MPR-Maximum-Allergen-Common-20-in-x-25-in-x-1-in-Actual-19-6-in-x-24-7-in-x-0-7810-in-Electrostatic-Pleated-Air-Filter/3130397
189.10%1.47%55.38%1.52%58.51%1.30%0.10.50.6
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3M Filtrete-Allergen Reduction Electrostatic HVAC Air Filter
1900 MPR, MERV 12293.83%2.41%85.95%2.45%86.48%2.51%0.30.50.6
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3M Filtrete-Allergen Reduction Electrostatic HVAC Air Filter
1900 MPR, MERV 12398.88%N/A94.75%N/A96.32%N/A0.20.60.9
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8VACCUM BAG (Hoover, model unknown)199.58%0.73%99.48%0.71%99.72%0.71%0.41.21.9
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9Natural Brew Coffee Filter324.10%2.30%40.10%7.40%43.91%6.20%0.51.12
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10Brew Rite Coffee Filter3N/AN/AN/AN/A50.28%6.20%0.51.12
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3/27
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11BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13144.17%9.34%35.71%9.49%32.62%9.43%0.10.10.5
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12BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13275.80%2.46%67.72%2.37%58.24%2.49%0.30.20.3
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13BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13381.69%N/A80.78%N/A84.56%N/A0.20.20.4
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14BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13489.41%0.76%86.84%5.90%82.51%2.35%0.10.20.4
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15BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13592.59%N/A88.63%N/A87.41%N/A0.10.20.4
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16BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13694.75%N/A91.81%N/A90.29%N/A0.10.30.5
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17BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13796.74%N/A93.72%N/A93.80%N/A0.20.30.3
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18BestAir filter3000 MPR, MERV 13898.04%2.04%95.29%2.05%94.38%2.10%0.10.30.4
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API Activated carbon (grinded fine) + 1 layer HEPA
HEPA used: 1900 MPR, MERV 12
N/AN/AN/AN/A90.16%0.67%N/AN/A1.9
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20API Activated carbon (coarse) + 1 layer HEPA
HEPA used: 1900 MPR, MERV 12
N/AN/AN/AN/A79.93%3.00%N/AN/A1.4
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3/29213M Filtrete-Smart Air filter2500 MPR179.81%3.33%79.62%3.58%73.46%3.50%0.10.20.4
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223M Filtrete-Smart Air filter2500 MPR296.46%2.54%95.47%2.52%92.04%2.60%0.20.50.6
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233M Filtrete-Smart Air filter2500 MPR399.28%N/A98.50%N/A97.55%N/A0.30.50.7
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243M Filtrete-Smart Air filter2500 MPR499.72%0.76%99.49%0.76%98.97%0.74%0.30.50.8
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4/125Bandana (100% cotton)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
28.488417.82%12.15%N/AN/A7.97%12.00%00.30.2
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26Bandana (100% cotton)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
218.20%6.77%N/AN/A7.76%7.00%00.20.2
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27Bandana (100% cotton)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
318.59%N/AN/AN/A7.08%N/A0.10.30.2
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28Bandana (100% cotton)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B019PKQN92/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
419.54%5.37%N/AN/A10.19%5.24%0.10.30.4
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29Scarf (woolen yarn)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1
30.814119.12%11.23%N/AN/A24.19%11.23%00.20.2
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30Scarf (woolen yarn)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1
221.27%5.76%N/AN/A23.85%6.32%0.10.20.3
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31Scarf (woolen yarn)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1
325.07%N/AN/AN/A23.95%N/A0.10.30.3
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32Scarf (woolen yarn)
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074QLGPYB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&th=1
448.81%3.85%N/AN/A28.07%3.84%0.10.30.3
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33pillowcase thread 400
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
32.45931N/AN/AN/AN/A10.51%8.12%0.20.30.3
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34pillowcase thread 400
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
2N/AN/AN/AN/A13.49%6.39%0.20.30.5
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35pillowcase thread 400
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
318.59%N/A14.09%N/A10.28%N/A0.10.40.5
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36pillowcase thread 400
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0758C9NPB/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
425.25%5.20%27.60%5.47%19.92%5.37%0.20.40.5
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37pillowcase thread 600
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
35.0756121.00%10.31%19.14%9.85%18.41%10.15%0.30.61.7
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38pillowcase thread 600
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
222.01%8.38%40.67%8.16%38.19%8.29%0.50.91.3
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39pillowcase thread 600
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
341.40%N/A47.53%N/A48.44%N/A0.71.41.8
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40pillowcase thread 600
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B079WZCN7Q/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o01_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
458.45%6.60%57.79%2.50%56.58%12.12%11.62.2
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4/441Surgical mask78.47%5.63%74.57%5.47%68.95%5.50%0.10.30.4
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42N95 from SDELC98.66%N/A96.07%N/A91.04%0.70%0.20.50.6
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43KN95-NIDI
KN95 is the Chinese standard of N95
94.50%0.71%95.49%0.70%90.08%N/A0.20.30.5
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44KN95-JINJIANG
KN95 is the Chinese standard of N95
99.86%0.39%98.75%0.39%97.10%0.40%0.30.40.6
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4/652thread 1000
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
45.1744115.47%10.34%N/AN/A16.99%10.50%0.20.51
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53thread 1000
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
231.28%8.73%24.23%8.33%46.55%8.60%0.50.91.4
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54thread 1000
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
350.82%N/A39.37%N/A55.05%N/A0.81.41.6
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55thread 1000
https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B07FYJPG94/ref=ppx_yo_dt_b_asin_title_o02_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1
455.09%6.84%63.46%6.76%62.33%7.00%1.11.62.1
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4/13
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56 Household Air FilterMERV 13144.92%3.25%33.41%8.16%28.34%4.59%0.10.20.5
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57 Household Air FilterMERV 13267.71%1.22%60.42%3.23%49.89%1.53%0.10.20.4
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58 Household Air FilterMERV 13381.56%1.53%74.15%5.47%62.06%0.69%0.10.20.4
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59 Household Air FilterMERV 13488.95%0.50%82.67%1.21%71.19%1.01%0.10.20.4
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4/17
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6030# coffee filter paper12.662816.66%4.82%22.88%2.44%18.77%4.12%0.30.51.2
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6130# coffee filter paper214.93%1.38%30.53%2.76%35.55%2.71%0.50.61.5
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62shop towelsToolBox19.7791127.21%1.20%33.48%2.59%34.15%2.84%0.20.51.4
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63shop towelsToolBox245.75%0.93%48.92%1.92%50.01%2.55%0.30.91.5
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64shop towelsToolBox358.95%1.06%60.13%1.57%64.57%1.89%0.411.8
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65shop towelsToolBox468.42%0.55%70.90%0.75%72.35%1.01%0.51.32.1
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4/18
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66knit 160% cotton, 40% polyester58.1512128.14%1.67%17.56%1.59%13.32%3.27%0.10.20.4
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67knit 160% cotton, 40% polyester243.37%0.75%33.92%1.65%24.63%2.80%0.10.20.4
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68knit 160% cotton, 40% polyester352.58%1.04%43.73%1.94%39.93%2.22%0.10.30.6
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69knit 160% cotton, 40% polyester463.59%0.96%56.37%1.37%53.59%2.09%0.20.30.6
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70knit 297% cotton, 3% spandex57.139514.60%3.66%3.24%1.85%16.11%3.67%0.10.30.4
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71knit 297% cotton, 3% spandex216.22%2.14%15.06%1.83%16.07%4.84%0.10.30.4
84
72knit 297% cotton, 3% spandex321.69%2.50%18.99%2.72%21.14%2.17%0.10.30.4
85
73knit 297% cotton, 3% spandex430.24%1.49%17.92%2.50%26.04%2.52%0.10.30.5
86
4/20
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74cotton solid 1Sew Right Solids33.575619.51%1.63%16.83%0.79%5.73%3.66%0.10.30.4
88
75cotton solid 1Sew Right Solids214.73%1.06%19.03%1.37%16.56%3.01%0.20.30.5
89
76cotton solid 1Sew Right Solids323.31%1.85%20.77%2.65%19.98%1.53%0.20.40.6
90
77cotton solid 1Sew Right Solids424.33%1.16%21.31%2.18%25.63%1.27%0.30.40.7
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78Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - unwashed26.6163112.52%2.21%8.67%2.04%9.78%0.77%0.10.20.5
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79Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - unwashed212.07%1.97%13.61%3.42%14.09%2.61%0.10.20.5
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80Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - unwashed312.55%1.35%15.00%3.62%12.06%2.69%0.10.30.5
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81Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - unwashed414.98%1.60%9.75%2.89%13.42%1.79%0.10.30.5
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82Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - washed28.709316.10%1.28%7.01%1.47%11.55%1.04%0.10.20.4
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83Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - washed22.43%1.85%8.87%2.77%13.42%2.02%0.10.20.4
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84Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - washed37.95%0.74%9.43%2.06%16.52%2.28%0.10.30.4
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85Muslin 1 (Roc Lon) - washed410.67%2.07%12.81%2.07%17.20%1.31%0.10.30.5
99
86Lycra93.1744113.78%2.15%16.91%3.34%25.66%4.57%0.20.40.6
100
87Lycra237.08%0.67%34.48%3.48%28.30%3.89%0.30.40.7