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Updated 15-JUN-2020, Maintained by Henrik Jarlov,@DrJarlov
Note: The results included in this list are predominantly not peer-reviewed and inclusion on the list does not constitute a review of quality
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Anti-SARS-CoV-2 screening studies
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CohortCountryPopulationSample date
Sample size (N)
Positive samples (n)
Positive (%)
Antibody testing method
Excess to PCR
Estimated IFR (%)
Source typeSource
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Hong Kong, Hospital lab samplesHKHospital lab samples
APR 2018 to FEB 2020
1,9380/530/2.73
microneutralization/EIA
NRNRPeer reviewed
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanmic/article/PIIS2666-5247(20)30053-7/fulltext
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Jordan, Blood donorsJOBlood donorsJAN-JUN 202074600.0ECLIANRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.06.20123919v1.full.pdf
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Italy, Milan, Blood DonorsITBlood donors
24 FEB to 08 APR
789NR4.6-7.1Lateral flowx20NRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098442v1.full.pdf
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Hong Kong, Hubei evacueesHKPublic05-18 MAR452174.0
microneutralization/EIA
x330.16Peer reviewed
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanmic/article/PIIS2666-5247(20)30053-7/fulltext
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Scotland, Blood Donors 1UKBlood donors17 Mar50000.0ELISANRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.13.20060467v1.full.pdf
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Scotland, Blood Donors 2UKBlood donors21-23 MAR50061.2ELISANRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.13.20060467v1.full.pdf
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USA, Telluride, First Responders USFirst responders22 Mar64500.0NRN/AN/AGvt. institutionhttps://www.sanmiguelcountyco.gov/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=492
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France, Oise, Blood DonorsFRBlood donors23-27 MAR20063.0ELISA/LIPS/S-flowNRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134v1.full.pdf
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France, Oise, High SchoolFRPublic23-27 MAR66117125.9ELISA/LIPS/S-flowNR0.0Pre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134v1.full.pdf
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Finland, non-infectious hospital lab samplesFIPublic23-29 MAR14510.7Lateral flowNRNRGvt. institution
https://thl.fi/web/thlfi-en/-/number-of-people-with-coronavirus-infections-may-be-dozens-of-times-higher-than-the-number-of-confirmed-cases
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UK, London, Blood donorsUKBlood donors23-29 MAR~1,000NR1.5NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
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Belgium, Flanders, Blood donorsBEBlood donors30-Mar584NR1.3NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://covid-19.sciensano.be/sites/default/files/Covid19/COVID-19_Weekly%20report_20200529%20-%20NL_0.pdf
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USA, San Francisco, Blood donorsUSBlood donors? MAR1,00010.1
CLIA and neutralization
NRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.19.20107482v1.full.pdf
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USA, San Francisco, Hospital patientsUSIn-hospital patients? MAR to ? APR3875 (1 patient)0.3
CLIA and neutralization
NRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.19.20107482v1.full.pdf
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USA, New York, Health care workersUSHealth care workers
24 MAR to 04 APR
2859333.0ELISAN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.27.20090811v1.full.pdf
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Finland, non-infectious hospital lab samplesFIPublic
30 MAR to 05 APR
15000.0Lateral flowNRNRGvt. institution
https://thl.fi/web/thlfi-en/-/number-of-people-with-coronavirus-infections-may-be-dozens-of-times-higher-than-the-number-of-confirmed-cases
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Germany, Gangelt, General PublicDEPublic
31 MAR to 06 APR
91912514.1ELISANR0.4Pre-print
https://www.ukbonn.de/C12582D3002FD21D/vwLookupDownloads/Streeck_et_al_Infection_fatality_rate_of_SARS_CoV_2_infection2.pdf/%24FILE/Streeck_et_al_Infection_fatality_rate_of_SARS_CoV_2_infection2.pdf
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UK, London, Healthcare workersUKHealth care workers
26 MAR to 08 APR
1818245.3ELISAN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.08.20120584v1.full.pdf
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China, Hubei, Chongqing, Guangdong, Health care workers and in-hospital patients
CN
Health care workers and in-hospital patients
09 MAR to 10 APR
6,9191702.5MCLIANRNRpeer reviewedhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0949-6.pdf
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China, Hubei, Sichuan, Guangdong, general publicCBPublic
10 MAR to 10 APR
10,449810.8MCLIANRNRpeer reviewedhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0949-6.pdf
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USA, Telluride, General PublicUSPublicMAR-APR5,455290.5NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://sanmiguelco.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/56e682135d1d4128bee1a0426aed1d10
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Germany, Hamburg, General PublicDEPublic
27-MAR to 17 APR
~1,300NR1.9NRNRNRMedia
https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/medizin/coronavirus-wie-antikoerpertests-dabei-helfen-die-pandemie-zu-verstehen-a-2258edcd-a304-4ee0-83cc-76a24f340c45
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Spain, Barcelona, Health Care WorkersESHealth care workers
28 Mar to 09 APR
583549.3LuminexNRNRPre-printhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.27.20082289v1
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UK, Midlands, Blood donorsUKBlood donors
30 MAR to 05 APR
~1,000NR~1.5NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
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Belgium, residual sera from private labsBEPublic
30 MAR to 05 APR
3,9101002.6ELISANRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.08.20125179v1.full.pdf
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Japan, Kobe, Non-infectious hospital samplesJPPublic
31 MAR to 07 APR
1,000333.3Lateral flowx506-x1,013NRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079822v1.full.pdf
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Denmark, Copenhagen, Blood DonorsDKBlood donors01-03 APR1,000272.7Lateral flowNRNRMedia
https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/indland/blodbanker-tester-om-donorer-har-haft-coronavirus
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Denmark, Midtjylland, Blood DonorsDKBlood donors02-03 APR24400.0Lateral flowNRNRMedia
https://www.dr.dk/nyheder/indland/blodbanker-tester-om-donorer-har-haft-coronavirus
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USA, Santa Clara, General Public (1)USPublic03-04 APR3,330501.5Lateral flowx26-x950.17Pre-printhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463v1
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463v2.full.pdf
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China, Wuhan, PublicCNPublic03-15 APR1,021989.6NRNRNRPeer reviewedhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/jmv.25904
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China, Wuhan, Hospitalized patientsCNIn-hospital patients03-15 APR3813910.3NRNRNRPeer reviewedhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/jmv.25904
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USA, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pregnant womenUSPregnant women04-15 APR237145.9ELISAx100.3Pre-printhttps://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-27402/v1
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Italy, Robbio, General PublicITPublic? APR91010011.0NRx10<0.7Media
https://www.tgcom24.mediaset.it/cronaca/a-robbio-pv-il-22-ha-o-ha-avuto-il-coronavirus-ok-del-sindaco-ai-test-per-tutti_17285128-202002a.shtml
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Finland, non-infectious hospital lab samplesFIPublic06-12 APR14753.4Lateral flowx24NRGvt. institution
https://thl.fi/web/thlfi-en/-/number-of-people-with-coronavirus-infections-may-be-dozens-of-times-higher-than-the-number-of-confirmed-cases
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Switzerland, Geneva, Health PanelCHPublic06-10 APR341123.5ELISANRNRPeer reviewed
https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2931304-4
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Denmark, Blood Donors 1DKBlood donors06-08 APR4,072NR1.5Lateral flowNR0.082*Pre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.24.20075291v1.full.pdf
https://bloddonor.dk/coronavirus/
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USA, LA County, General Public (1)USPublic10-14 APR863354.3Lateral flowNRNRPeer reviewed
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2766367?utm_source=twitter&utm_campaign=content-shareicons&utm_content=article_engagement&utm_medium=social&utm_term=051820#.XsLsOcW59A8.twitter
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Brazil, Rio Grande Do Sul, General PublicBRPublic11-13 APR4,18820.1Lateral flowNR0.42Pre-print
https://www.estado.rs.gov.br/upload/arquivos//pesquisa-ufpel-fase2-20200428.pdf
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.01.20087205v1.full.pdf
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Switzerland, Geneva, Health PanelCHPublic14-17 APR469286.0ELISANRNRPeer reviewed
https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2931304-3
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Denmark, Blood Donors 2DKBlood donors14-19 APR5,029NR1.9Lateral flowNR0.082*Pre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.24.20075291v1.full.pdf
https://bloddonor.dk/coronavirus/
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UK, Reading, Newport, Liverpool, Bedlington, Health Care Workers
UKHealth care workers14-24 APR161127.5Lateral flowN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.16.20099408v1.full.pdf
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Netherlands, General Public (random sampling)NLPublic?-17 APR2,096NR3.6NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.rivm.nl/en/novel-coronavirus-covid-19/children-and-covid-19
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Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Blood Donors 1BRBlood donors14-18 APR1,549NR3.0Lateral flowNRNRPre-printhttps://preprints.scielo.org/index.php/scielo/preprint/view/404/497
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Netherlands, Blood Donors (1)NLBlood donors01-15 APR7,3612002.7ELISANRNRPre-printhttps://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-25862/v1
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USA, Georgia, Atlanta, General public, non-random sampleUSPublic? APR12797.1NRNRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.01.20087478v1.full.pdf
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China, Wuhan, Hospital visitorsCNOut-hospital visitors? APR~5,000NR2.0-3.0NRNRNRMedia
https://www.wsj.com/articles/wuhan-starts-testing-to-determine-level-of-immunity-from-coronavirus-11587039175
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China, Wuhan, Hospital Health Care WorkersCNHealth care workers? APR3,600NR2.4NRN/AN/AMedia
https://www.wsj.com/articles/wuhan-starts-testing-to-determine-level-of-immunity-from-coronavirus-11587039175
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Germany, Frankfurt, employeesDEEmployees? APR1,00050.5
ELISA and neutralization
N/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.20.20107730v1.full.pdf
52
Slovenia, General publicSIPublic10 Apr1,318413.1NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.si/novice/2020-05-06-izjava-glede-aktualnega-stanja-v-zvezi-z-epidemijo-bolezni-covid-19/
53
Sweden, Stockholm, General Public (adults)SEPublic
week around 11 APR
446NR10.0NRNRNR
Healthcare institution
https://www.kth.se/aktuellt/nyheter/10-procent-av-stockholmarna-smittade-1.980727
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UK, London, Blood donorsUKBlood donors06-19 APR~1,000NR12.3NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
55
USA, Boston, General PublicUSPublic13-15 APR2006432.0NRNRNRMedia
https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/04/17/business/nearly-third-200-blood-samples-taken-chelsea-show-exposure-coronavirus/
56
Finland, General public 1FIPublic13-19 APR36292.5FMIANRNRGvt. institutionhttps://www.thl.fi/roko/cov-vaestoserologia/sero_report_weekly.html
57
Belgium, Blood donorsBEBlood donors14-16 APR900NR4.8NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://covid-19.sciensano.be/sites/default/files/Covid19/COVID-19_Weekly%20report_20200529%20-%20NL_0.pdf
58
UK, North East Region, Blood donorsUKBlood donors14-19 APR~1,000NR4.2NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
59
UK, North West Region, Blood donorsUKBlood donors14-19 APR~1,000NR6.4NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
60
France, Paris, ChildrenFRChildren
14 APR to 12 MAY
6056510.7Lateral flowNRN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.12.20129221v1.full.pdf
61
Denmark, Hospital Health Care WorkersDKHealth care workers15-17 APR~20,000NR4.1Lateral flowN/AN/AGvt. institution
https://www.regionh.dk/presse-og-nyt/pressemeddelelser-og-nyheder/Sider/Region-Hovedstaden-4,1-procent-af-de-sundhedsfaglige-har-v%C3%A6ret-smittet-med-COVID-19.aspx
62
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Blood Donors 2BRBlood donors19-23 APR623NR4.3Lateral flowNRNRPre-printhttps://preprints.scielo.org/index.php/scielo/preprint/view/404/497
63
USA, Idaho, Boise, General publicUSPublic20-24 APR4,856871.8CLIANRNRPeer reviewedhttps://jcm.asm.org/content/early/2020/05/07/JCM.00941-20
64
Sweden, Stockholm, Retirement homeSEPublic? APR~2,000NR~30.0NRN/AN/AMedia
https://www.svt.se/nyheter/inrikes/har-testar-man-om-vardpersonalen-ar-immun?cmpid=del:tw:20200420:har-testar-man-om-vardpersonalen-ar-immun:nyh:lp
65
Finland, General public 2FIPublic20-27 APR674172.5FMIANRNRGvt. institutionhttps://www.thl.fi/roko/cov-vaestoserologia/sero_report_weekly.html
66
Sweden, Stockholm, Hospital Health Care WorkersSEHealth care workers20-24 APR527NR20.0NRN/AN/A
Healthcare institution
https://www.ds.se/jobba-hos-oss/mot-oss/var-femte-medarbetare-antikroppar/
67
Switzerland, Geneva, Health PanelCHPublic21-26 APR5776110.6ELISAx10NRPeer reviewed
https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2931304-2
68
Japan, Kyoto, Health care workersJPHealth care workers10-24 APR9255.4ELISAN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.12.20098962v1.full.pdf
69
USA, Florida, Miami-Dade County, General PublicUSPublic10-24 APR1,800NR6.0NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.miamidade.gov/releases/2020-04-24-sample-testing-results.asp
70
Iran, Guilan province, General PublicIRPublic? APR55111722.0Lateral flowNR0.08-0.12Pre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079244v1.full.pdf
71
Italy, Padova, Hospital Health Care WorkersITHealth care workers? APR13364.5Lateral flowN/AN/APre-printhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.27.20073858v1
72
Denmark, Blood donors 3DKBlood donors20-26 APR5,689NR1.6Lateral flowNRNR
Healthcare institution
https://bloddonor.dk/coronavirus/
73
UK, Midlands, Blood donorsUKBlood donors
20 APR to 26 APR
~1,000NR~8.0NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
74
UK, South West Region, Blood donorsUKBlood donors
20 APR to 26 APR
~1,000NR~4.9NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
75
Spain, Madrid, Health care workersESHealth care workers14-27 APR2,59081831.6ELISAN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.29.20116731v1.full.pdf
76
Croatia, Split & Knin, employeesHREmployees23-28 APR1,494191.3Lateral flowN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20095158v1.full.pdf
77
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Blood Donors 3BRBlood donors24-27 APR669NR6.0Lateral flowNRNRPre-printhttps://preprints.scielo.org/index.php/scielo/preprint/view/404/497
78
USA, New York, First responders (NYPD)USFirst responders27-28 APR1,000NR10.5NRN/AN/AGvt. institution
https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/amid-ongoing-covid-19-pandemic-governor-cuomo-announces-35-counties-approved-resume-elective
79
USA, New York, First responders (FDNY/EMT)USFirst responders27-28 APR1,000NR17.1NRN/AN/AGvt. institution
https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/amid-ongoing-covid-19-pandemic-governor-cuomo-announces-35-counties-approved-resume-elective
80
Belgium, residual sera from private labsBEPublice20-26 APR3,3971935.7ELISANRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.08.20125179v1.full.pdf
81
Spain, Barcelona, Guinardó, General PublicESPublic21-27 APR311175.5Lateral flowNRNR
Healthcare institution
https://www.eapsardenya.cat/2020/05/02/primer-estudi-que-revela-la-proteccio-de-la-nostra-poblacio-davant-del-coronavirus/
82
Japan, Tokyo, Public and health care workersJP
Public and Healthcare workers
21-28 APR202125.9Lateral flowNRNRPre-printhttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.29.20085449v1.full.pdf
83
Austria, 27 high risk communitiesATPublic25 Apr269NR4.7NRNRNRGvt. institutionhttp://www.statistik.at/web_de/presse/123051.html
84
UK, Birmingham, Healthcare workersUKHealth care workers25 Apr51613626.3ELISAN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.18.20105197v1.full.pdf
85
Brazil, Rio Grande Do Sul, General PublicBRPublic25-27 APR4,50060.1Lateral flowx120.42Pre-print
https://www.estado.rs.gov.br/upload/arquivos//pesquisa-ufpel-fase2-20200428.pdf
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.01.20087205v1.full.pdf
86
Belgium, Blood donorsBEBlood donors27-29 APR900NR4.7NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://covid-19.sciensano.be/sites/default/files/Covid19/COVID-19_Weekly%20report_20200529%20-%20NL_0.pdf
87
Norway, Oslo, General publicNOPublic27-30 APR397NR<2.0NRNRNRGvt. institutionhttps://www.fhi.no/nyheter/2020/antistoffundersokelse-koronavirus/
88
Libya, Alzinta, Genral public and health care workersLY
Public and Healthcare workers
02 APR to 18 MAY
21962.7Lateral flow3,000NRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.25.20109470v1.full.pdf
89
UK, South East Region, Blood donorsUKBlood donors
20 APR to 03 MAY
~1,000NR~4.2NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-covid-19-surveillance-reports/sero-surveillance-of-covid-19
90
USA, New York State, General Public (1)USPublic19-28 APR15,1011,88712.5MIAx12NRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.25.20113050v1.full.pdf
91
Italy, Lombardy, Health care workersITHealth care workers
28 APR to 16 MAY
3,985NR13.0CLIAN/AN/APre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.24.20111245v1.full.pdf
92
Italy, Lombardy, General Public (selected sampling of people in quarantine)
ITPublic23 APR to May7,9754,04050.6NRNRNR
Healthcare institution
https://www.lombardianotizie.online/coronavirus-33306-test-sierologici/
93
Italy, Lombardy, Hospital Health Care WorkersITHealth care workers23 APR to May25,3313,55314NRN/AN/A
Healthcare institution
https://www.lombardianotizie.online/coronavirus-33306-test-sierologici/
94
USA, IndianaUSPublic
25 APR to 01 May
4,600NR1.1NRx110.58University
https://news.iu.edu/stories/2020/05/iupui/releases/13-preliminary-findings-impact-covid-19-indiana-coronavirus.html
95
Finland, General Public 3FIPublic
27 APR to 03 MAY
426122.8FMIANRNRGvt. institutionhttps://www.thl.fi/roko/cov-vaestoserologia/sero_report_weekly.html
96
Switzerland, Geneva, Health PanelCHPublic
27 APR to 03 MAY
604366.0ELISANRNRPeer reviewed
https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2931304-1
97
Denmark, Blood donors 4DKBlood donors
27-APR to 03-May
5,422NR2.4Lateral flowNRNR
Healthcare institution
https://bloddonor.dk/coronavirus/
98
Czech Republic, General PublicCZPublic
23 APR to 01 May
26,5491070.0-0.6NRNRNRGvt. institution
https://koronavirus.mzcr.cz/infekce-covid-19-prosla-ceskou-populaci-velmi-mirne-podobne-jako-v-okolnich-zemich/
99
US, North Carolina, General PublicUSPublicAPR-MAY676NR2.2NRNRNR
Healthcare institution
https://www.wakehealth.edu/Coronavirus/COVID-19-Community-Research-Partnership/Updates-and-Data
https://medium.com/@bergerpress/wake-forest-atrium-study-status-update-71492ee09f3b
100
Luxembourg, General PublicLUPublic
15 APR to 05 May
1,820351.9ELISANRNRPre-print
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20092916v1.full.pdf
https://today.rtl.lu/news/luxembourg/a/1514660.html