Noun Classes and Cases
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Noun SuffixesNominative and Vocative CaseAccusative CaseDative and Benefactive CaseInstrumental and Comitative CaseNound StemNominative and VocativeAccusativeDative and BenefactiveInstrumental and Comitative
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Inanimate Objects-aks-at-ate-aksicar (parked)mab-mabaksmabatmabatemabaksi
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Animate Objects and Experiences-u-ukse-uksu-uksicar (running)mab-mabumabuksemabuksumabuksi
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Animals and Insects-as-ase-asu-asifly (insect)sn-snassnasesnasusnasi
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People-e-en-ene-enifriendneg-negenegennegenenegeni
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Locations-ens, -is-etne, -itse-etnu, -itsu-ensi, -isihousebun-bunensbunensebunensubunensi
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Abstractions-uns-unse-unsu-unsicamaraderie, trustneg-negunsnegunsenegunsunegunsi
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Sensations, Emotions, and Visual Properties-i-ise-isu-iksihappinessbem-bemibemisebemisubemiksi
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Activities and Languages-ans-anse-ansu-ansiexercisingtuks-tuksanstuksansetuksansutuksansi
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English largely lacks noun cases, instead using prepositions such as to, for, and with.This language uses suffixes.Every noun has a stem, and the meaning changes according to the suffix attached to the stem.Nominative Case indicates the subject of the verb, the noun that is doing. She dances. Vocative Case indicates a noun being addressed. Thank you, Mr. President.Accusative Case indicates the direct object of a verb. Justin drinks water.Dative Case indicates the indirect object of a verb. Justin throws the ball to his friend.Benefactive Case indicates a noun for whom or which something is done. I open the door for the president.Instrumental Case indicates the noun used to carry out an action. I wash my hands with water. Comitative Case indicates the noun that accompanies the subject of the verb in an action. I cook with the president.
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