Classroom Words and Phrases for Hellenistic Greek
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Categoryἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτοςEnglishUsage Notes
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Greetings and Introductions
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χαῖρεGreetings! Hello! Farewell! Goodbye!Use this form when talking to only one person. See definition A.II. in LSJ.
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χαίρετεGreetings! Hello! Farewell! Goodbye!Use this form when talking to more than one person. See definition A.II. in LSJ.
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ὁ διδάσκαλοςteacher
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ὁ μαθητήςstudent
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τὸ ὄνομαname
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μου (genetive of ἐγώ)myUse this form when the word is not emphatic.
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μοι (dative of ἐγώ)to me, for me
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σου (genetive of σύ)your, of youUse this form when the word is not emphatic.
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σοι (dative of σύ)to you, for you
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ἐστί(ν)is (are when the subject is neuter plural)This form is enclitic. The accent on the final syllable will not always be present. The final ν is sometimes used, but often not.
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ὄνομά μοι ἐστί(ν)My name isThis is the standard way of introducing yourself in Hellenistic Greek. See the next entry for talking about your name in other contexts.
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τὸ ὄνομά μουMy nameUse this form for talking about your name when you are not introducing yourself.
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τίWho? What?English makes a distinction between animate referents (who) and inanimate ones (what). Hellenistic Greek did not make this distinction.
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ὄνομά σουYour nameUse this form for talking with someone about her or his name (but not when requesting the name).
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τί ὄνομά σοι;What's your name? What [is] your name?Use this form to ask someone for her or his name.
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γινώσκωI know
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γινώσκειςYou know
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οὐno, not
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οὐ γινώσκω τί ὄνομά σου.I don't know your name.
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Talking about language
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ἡ γλῶσσαlanguage
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ἡ ἑλληνική (γλῶσσα)Greek (language)This form is used as a very general term to talk about the Greek language in all of its forms in the ancient world.
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κοινήcommon, public, generalThis is the femine form of the word. The masculine form is κοινός, and the neuter form is κοινόν.
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ἡ κοινήHellenistic Greek, Koine GreekThis phrase refers to the form of Greek that developed after the conquests of Alexander (the Great), fusing elements of the Attic/Ionic dialect propogated by Alexander with vocabulary borrowed from a variety of the conquered language groups. This phrase implies the additional word, διάλεκτος (see below).
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ἡ διάλεκτοςdialect, way of speakingRefers to a particular variety of a language, or a particular mode of speech.
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ἡ κοινἠ (διάλεκτος)Hellenistic Greek, Koine GreekThis phrase refers to the form of Greek that developed after the conquests of Alexander (the Great), fusing elements of the Attic/Ionic dialect propogated by Alexander with vocabulary borrowed from a variety of the conquered language groups.
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ἡ ἀττική διάλεκτοςAttic GreekThe dialect of Greek spoken in Athens and the areas under its control.
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ἡ ἀγγλική (γλῶσσα)English (language)English did not yet exist at the time of ancient Greece. I have adapted this term from Modern Greek by adding the appropriate breathing to the beginning (᾽) and adjusting the final vowel from α to η.
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ἡ λατίνη (γλῶσσα)Latin (language)
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ἡ ἑβραική (γλῶσσα)Hebrew (language)
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τὸ γράμμαletter, drawing
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τὰ γράμματαletters, the alphabet, writing
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ἡ τέχνηskill, craft, method, art
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ὁ φθόγγοςsound, voice
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ἡ δίφθογγοςdiphthongBoth the ancing Greek term and the modern English one derived from it refer to the combination of two sounds to produce a single phoneme (meaningful unit of sound).
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ἡ λέξιςspeaking, speech, pronunciation, sayingThis term refers to the act of speaking or the sound produced by speaking, not to a written document delivered orally to an audience.
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εἰςto, toward, in, into, for
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εἰς τὴν λέξινfor pronunciation purposes, in regard to pronunciation
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ἡ γραμματικήgrammarThis is the feminine form of the adjective γραμματικός, -ή, -όν used as a substantive. See definition II.2 in DGE. (http://dge.cchs.csic.es/xdge/%CE%B3%CF%81%CE%B1%CE%BC%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B9%CE%BA%E1%BD%B9%CF%82).
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εἰς τὴν γραμματικήνfor the purpose of grammar, in regard to grammar
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ἡ ἑρμηνείαinterpretation, translation
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The classroom and items found there
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τὸ διδασκαλεῖονclassroom, schoolThis term referred to any place designated for teaching or used primarily for that purpose.
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ὁ βίβλοςpapyrus scroll, book, textbook
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ἡ σελίςcolumn of writing in a scroll (page in a later book)
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ὁ χάρτης, τοῦ χάρτουpaper, sheet of paper, papyrus
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τὸ λεύκωμαwhiteboardThis word refers to a plank covered in gypsum to make it white. The ancient Greeks used this for the purpose of writing public notices.
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ἡ καθέδραseat, chair, sitting posture
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τὸ δοκιμαστήριονtest, exam, means of testing
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πλάξ, πλακός, ἡ (acc. πλάκα)
board, a flat stone, tablet, flat surface
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πίναξ, πίνακος, ὁ (acc. πίνακα)
board, writing tablet, public-notice board
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κάλαμος, -ου, ὁWriting instrument, pencil, pen
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Talking about Class
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τὸ μάθημαThe lesson, that which is to be learned
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τὸ τέλοςThe goal, objective
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About writing, reading, and grammar
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ἡ γραμματικήgrammarSee definition II.2 in DGE. This is the feminine form of γραμματικός used as a substantive to name the field of study, Grammar.
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ἡ γραμματικὴ τέχνηgrammar, the grammarian's skillUse this phrase to refer to the work of doing grammatical analysis.
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ὁ παράγραφοςparagraphIn ancient Greek, this word refered to a line or stroke with a dot over it in the margin of a script indicating a change of speaker. The practice of indenting text to show the beginning of a new topic was not yet invented.
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τὸ ῥῆμαverbIn discussions of grammar, τὸ ῥῆμα refers to the verb when talking about individual words or to an expression when talking about phrases.
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ὁ λόγοςwordIn the context of grammar, ὁ λόγος refers to a word. In other contexts it has a very broad meaning, like the English word thing.
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τὸ ὄνομαnounIn the context of grammatical word types, τὸ ὄνομα refers to a noun. When contrasted with τὸ ῥῆμα, τὸ ὄνομα refers to a word (of any type) and τὸ ῥῆμα to a multi-word expression. In other contexts τὸ ὄνομα refers to a name (See above under Greetings and Introductions).
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ἡ συλλαβήsyllableA group of letters bound together to represent a meaningful unit of sound.
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ἡ προσῳδίαaccent, chang of pitchIn discussions of music, this term is used to denote a variation in pitch. In Classical Greek, accents represented changes in pictch, but in the Hellenistic period pitch distinctions were lost and replaced by stress accent. The term, however, remains the same.
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ὁ τόνοςpitch (music), accent (grammar), stretching, rising
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ὀξύς, ὀξεῖα, ὀξύsharp, keen, accute, high pitch (music)
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ἡ ὀξεῖα (προσῳδία)accute accent (grammar)See definition II.3.d in LSJ.
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βαρύς, βαρεῖα, βαρύheavy (weight), low (pitch)
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ἡ βαρεῖα (προσῳδία)grave accent (grammar)See definition A.III.1 in LSJ.
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βαρεῖα (συλλαβή)unaccented (syllable)See definition A.III.1 in LSJ.
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περισπωμένηpronounced with a circumflex accentThis is the nominative feminine singular form of the present middle participle of περισπάω. When used in reference to speech, the verb indicated use of a circumflex accent.
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ἡ περσπωμένη (προσωδία)
circumflex accent (grammar)See definition IV in LSJ.
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ἡ κλίσιςinflexion of nouns and verbsThe ancient Greeks did not distinguish between declensions for nouns and conjugations for verbs as we do today.
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ἡ γραφήwriting, an instance of writing, written documentἡ γραφή could also be used to speak about drawing. The word was used for any instance of representing something by means of drawing lines.
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ἡ ὀρθογραφίαcorrect spelling, orthographyFrom ὀρθός (correct) and ἡ γραφή (writing).
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τὸ κεφάλαιονThe chapter (of a book)
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Giving and Receiving Instructions during Class,
Giving feedback once instructions are followed
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δοκεῖIt seems...
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εἰ δοκεῖ σοὶ ...Please...Literally, this short phrase says, "If it seems [approriate] to you...", but it is used to make a request. See definition III.2 in DGE.
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εὖwellThis little adverb has a wide range of uses. If can be uses alone as an adverb or appended to the beginning of a noun to create a possitive version of what that noun means. For example τὸ ἔργον (work) + εὖ produces the adjective εὐεργός (well done, well made, etc.)
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εὖγεGreat! Well done! Well said!An interjection spoken to show strong approval of something someone just did
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ποιεῖς ...You do, You are doingThis is not a command. It is a simple statement or an observation spoken to one person.
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εὖ ποιεῖςYou're doing well, Good job, Thank youSpoken to a one person while an action is being undertaken
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ποιεῖτε ...You do, You are doingThis is not a command. It is a simple statement or an observation spoken to more than one person.
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εὖ ποιεῖτεYou're doing well, Good job, Thank youSpoken to more than one person while they are perfoming a desired action
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πάντεςeveryone, everybodyThis is the nominative plural form of πᾶς (all, every). It can be used to address a group of people, as a vocative plural.
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ἅμα + verbtogether, at the same timeUsed as an adverb to describe joint action
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ἅμα + dativeat the same time as ...Used as a preposition ἅμα takes a dative case object.
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πάντες ἅμα, ἅμα πάντεςall together, everyone at the same time
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λέγεspeak, sayThis is the present imperative singular form. Use it to instruct someone to begin speaking.
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λέγετεspeak, sayThis is the present indicative and imperative plural form. Use it to instruct the group to begin speaking.
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λέγωI say, I speak
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ὃ λέγω λέγετεSay what I say. Repeat what I say.Command given to a group of people
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μετά + genetivewith
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ἐμοῦ (genitive of ἐγώ)me, my
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μετ' ἐμοῦwith me
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μετά + accusativeafter
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ἐμέ (accusative of ἐγώ)me
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