Factors and SAT Themes Plastic Pollution in Bangkok
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AuthorEnabling FactorsThemes
Inhibitor / Enabler
SATUpstream or DownstreamStructural: refers to the physical and social environment in which people live; both the natural environment (things like air quality or drought) and built environment (housing, a transportation system) as well as political, social and economic institutions and infrastructure (the electoral system, legal system, economic policy, labor unions, church associations).
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SKAwareness campaigns for plastic wasteNew social awarenessIStructuralUpstreamWhat are the institutions, infrastructures in society that structure the system e.g. laws, economy, police, teachers – tangible
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SKsocially responsible consumer behaviourIAttitudinalUpstream
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What are the attitudinal forces? e.g. widely held beliefs, values, social relationships between groups – tension between groups? Ethic of problem-solving, do the cooperate
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SKGovt campaign to get consumers to reduce plastic bag use. Don't use a bag for 2 or less items with 7/11 storesGovernmental InterventionsITransactionalUpstreamAttitudinal: refers to widely held beliefs, values, norms and intergroup relations that affect how large groups of people think and behave (ethnic tensions, social capital, fears, group trauma, religious beliefs, and attitudes like trust in government or a belief in ‘rugged individualism’).
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SKSocial entrpreneurs tackling plastic recyclingSocial entrepreneurial/ Business InterventionsITransactionalUpstreamWhat are the transactional forces? Impact of leaders, formal and informal. Motivate or stop people from doing things – behavior of these key people and how they effect issues care about.
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SKCurrent opportunities for plastic recyclingIStructuralDownstreamTransactional: refers to the processes used by and interactions among key people (leaders at all levels) as they deal with important social, political and economic issues (important negotiations, violence, problem solving, influence, leadership). Key transactional factors might include things like lobbying by human rights activists, the influence of a community elder, mediation by a member of Parliament, or extreme political rhetoric by a religious leader.
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SKSupermarkets with express lanes for reusable bags (i.e. if you do not take a plastic bag you can chek-out quicker at Lotus)IStructuralDownstream
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Upstream – all the things that cause it to happen e.g. cost of living
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SKEx Thai King respect for natureSocial respect for nature and not pollutingI
Attitudinal/Structural
Upstream
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Downstream – all the things that it effects
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BDThai consumer perspectives https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/jp/Documents/consumer-business/cp/jp-cp-ci2016tl-eng.pdf
Consumer use of plastic
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Structural/Attitudinal
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SKConsumer expectation of packagingEAttitudinal Upstream
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SKConsumer expectation to receive plastic bagEAttitudinal Upstream
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SFindustry leader policy (supermarkets and malls consider plastic containers as premium service items)EStructuralUpstream
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SFconsumer food culture (thais drink softdrinks, carry soup and sauces in bags)EStructuralUpstream
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SFvested business interests (producers)EStructuralUpstream
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SFconsumerism (plastic is core material in many disposable consumer products)EStructuralUpstream
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SKLack of alternatives for consumer (have to take a plastic bag)EStructuralUpstream
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SFtourism industry / tourist behavior (souvenirs, litter, etc) EAttitudinal Upstream
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SKPlastic not included in deposit systems. (e.g. deposit for glass bottles)EStructuralUpstream
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SFhygiene (straws used ubiquitously)EAttitudinal Upstream
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SFSocial norms towards sustainabilitySocial apathy towards the problem of plastic wasteEAttitudinalUpstream
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SFAttitude towards littering / availability of (empty) bins or recycle unitsEAttitudinalDownstream
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SFattitudes towards recycling (nonexistent)EAttitudinalDownstream
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SKLack of intitiaitves to solve the problemEStructuralDownstream
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BDgovernment policies regarding pollution both espoused and actualGovernment?Structural
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SKNo taxes on use of plasticLack of Government interventionsETransactionalDownstream
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SKDifficulties in seperating plastic waste for recyclingLack of end-of-life opportunities (reuse/recycle)EStructuralUpstream
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SKnon-biodegradability of foosil-fuel based plasticsEStructuralUpstream
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SKPlastic waste has a very low price making collection unworthwhileEStructuralUpstream
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SKPlastic bags exacerbate the effects of floods, choking drains and causing buildupEStructuralDownstream
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SFPoor plastic removal operations (cleanups from waterways and streets)EStructuralDownstream
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SKwildlife interacting with plastic wasteEStructuralDownstream
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BDrapid urbanizationMacro economic demographicEStructuralUpstream
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BDinternal migration from rural communitiesEStructural
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BDinfluence of ChinaEStructural
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BDsize of China's plastic waste streamEStructural
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BDwaste management infrastructure in Bangkok and ThailandInputs of plastic waste from Industrial/Business?StructuralUpstream
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BDindustrial business perspectives?Structural
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SFenormous construction industry with heavy plastic demands (sheeting etc)EStructuralUpstream
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BDemployment dependent up exportsEStructural
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SFthai festivals (eg: songkran the country goes nuts for plastic water pistols, cannons, etc)Social respect involving use of plasticE
Attitudinal/Structural
Upstream
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SFbuddhism (promotes the donation of food, animals, and other gifts - often required to be 'new' ie wrapped in plastic)E
Attitudinal/Structural
Upstream
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SKLow price of plastic (make it disposable and unworthwhile to collect)
Large Supply of Plastics
EStructural Upstream
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SFLack of good alternatives for firms (canvas bags etc)EStructural Upstream
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SKwidespread availability of cheap plasticsEStructural Downstream
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