Snake Oil - Cannabis
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health conditionalternate namehealth conditionevidenceone to watch?popular interestscientific interestCBDsimple English notesnoteslinkother International review board or metastudyindividual studymain study source nameother sources
Health condition or claim made for supplement (appears in bubble)the type of conditionour score. 0 = harmful 1 = no / insufficient evidence, 2 = slight, 3 = conflicting / inconclusive, 4 = promising , 5 = good, 6 = strong few studies / trials but positive potential. 2 trials or fewer, at least 1 with positive hits (search format: condition+cannabis) data retrieved 1st Aug 2018Number of citations on Google Scholar (2000-2017) search format: condition+cannabis
ADD/ADHDmental health1y458000824CBDAnimal studies show improved social behaviour and reduced hyperactivity, but no effect on attention span. Pretreatment with the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (3 mg/kg) not only normalised social investigative behaviour but increased it beyond control levels...Both cannabidiol and clozapine inhibited MK-801-induced hyperactivity. However, there were no effects of pretreatment on impairments to attention span. Our findings reinforce several aspects of the validity of the MK-801-induced model of social withdrawal and hyperactivity and also support the use of this novel set-up for further investigations to assess the antipsychotic potential of novel compounds.' of Psychopharmacology
Adolescenceneurological0982000103000Use during adolescence appears to affect important cognitive functions. In one large population study, cannabis use, but not alcohol consumption, showed lagged (neurotoxic) effects on inhibitory control and working memory and concurrent effects on delayed memory recall and perceptual reasoning (with some evidence of developmental sensitivity). Cannabis effects were independent of any alcohol effects. A review of studies found that early-onset cannabis use (i.e. before age 16-18) is associated with worse cognitive consequences than adult cannabis use, including poorer attention & visual search, and reduced IQ & executive function. A Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) study found that one month of abstaining from cannabis use resulted in measurable improvement in memory functions important for learning among adolescents and young adults who are regular cannabis users.;
American Journal of Psychiatry, Frontiers in Psychiatry, Drug & Alcohol Dependence; Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
AIDS-related weight lossimmune system346000029500One small study (participants = 139) of AIDS patients resulted in improved appetite and stabilized weight. The FDA has approved 2 synthetic cannabis drugs for stimulating appetite in AIDS patients. Cochrane claims: 'evidence for the efficacy and safety of cannabis and cannabinoids in this setting is lacking. Such studies as have been performed have been of short duration, in small numbers of patients, and have focused on short-term measures of efficacy. Long-term data, showing a sustained effect on AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and safety in patients on effective antiretroviral therapy, has yet to be presented'. However, 'a clinical trial conducted on 139 patients suffering from AIDS and a weight loss of 2.3 kg or more illustrated that, compared to placebo, oral THC induced a marked, statistically significant stimulation of appetite after 4–6 weeks of treatment. THC tended to stabilize weight, while patients on placebo continued to lose weight.' - Journal of Ethnopharmacology. The FDA has approved dronabinol & nabilone, synthetic analogs of Δ9-THC, to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients with wasting syndrome.,, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, NAP
ALSAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's Disease, Motor Neurone Diseaseneurological25050001420One very small study (13 patients) resulting in reduced appetitie loss, depression, pain, spasticity, and drooling. No effect on speech or swallowing difficulties. Effects were immediate but short-lived (less than 2 hours).Although the small number of people [13] with ALS that reported using cannabis limits the interpretation of the survey findings, the results indicate that cannabis may be moderately effective at reducing symptoms of appetite loss, depression, pain, spasticity, and drooling. Cannabis was reported ineffective in reducing difficulties with speech and swallowing, and sexual dysfunction. The longest relief was reported for depression (approximately two to three hours).' Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine
Alzheimer’sneurological152400019200CBDNo human studies yet. No human studies yet. A review of in-vitro and mouse studies claims, 'the studies discussed here provide promising preliminary data and the translation of this preclinical work into the clinical setting could be realized relatively quickly: CBD is readily available, appears to only have limited side effects (Bergamaschi et al., 2011) and is safe for human use (Leweke et al., 2012).' in Pharmacology
Anorexiamental health221900011100A single study of 25 female patients resulted in small but significant weight gain over 4 weeks. Dronabinol [synthetic cannabis] therapy was well tolerated. During four weeks of exposure it induced a small but significant weight gain in the absence of severe adverse events.' Study on 25 women at a specialized eating-disorder care center. Journal of Eating Disorders
Anxietymental health287200090100CBDCBD reduced anxiety through limiting in-the-moment fear and the memory of fear.Studies show that cannabidiol, the main non-psychotomimetic phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, reduces anxiety via 5-HT1A and (indirect) cannabinoid receptor activation in paradigms assessing innate responses to threat. There is also accumulating evidence from animal studies investigating the effects of cannabidiol on fear memory processing indicating that it reduces learned fear' Journal of Pharmacology
Heart Diseasecardiovascular1y1300016500Animal studies only. Paradoxical results. Smoking cannabis seems to worsen arteriosclerotic heart problems, but careful dosing of synthetic cannabis compounds (cannabinoids) can improve symptoms. Some promise. Human trials needed. Animal studies only. Paradox re cannabis for heart conditions: 'Although there is evidence to suggest that smoking marijuana may decrease the angina threshold and precipitate acute coronary events, there are convincing data from animal models to suggest modulation of atherogenesis by cannabinoids administered systemically in appropriate doses. Based on the studies discussed here, modulation of the cannabinoid system holds promise in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis.' Cardiology
Asthmarespiratory058400026500Smoking cannabis immediately expands the airways, making breathing easier. However, smoking cannabis long-term can cause lung disease and other respiratory problems. Definitely not recommended for asthma sufferers.Short-term exposure to marijuana is associated with bronchodilation. Physiologic data were inconclusive regarding an association between long-term marijuana smoking and airflow obstruction measures. Long-term marijuana smoking is associated with increased respiratory symptoms suggestive of obstructive lung disease.' of the American Medical Association
Autismneurological143000018900Might have some positive impact on autism-type symptoms in mice, and possibly in humans. Howevever, human data is scarce and not of high quality. cannabis cannot be safely recommended for the treatment of developmental or behavioral disorders at this time.'
Current Neuropharmacology, Scientific Reports
Autoimmune Diseaseimmune system1y27300016500Potential treatment for autoimmune diseases, since cannabis suppresses the immune system. Research to date is inconclusive. More studies are needed. Current research in the role of cannabinoids in the immune system shows that they possess immunosuppressive properties. They can inhibit proliferation of leucocytes, induce apoptosis of T cells and macrophages and reduce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines...Studies in human models are scarce and not conclusive and more research is required in this field. Cannabinoids can be therefore promising immunosuppressive and anti-fibrotic agents in the therapy of autoimmune disorders.' Reviews
Bipolar Disordermental health154600032300CBDPossibly might help. But no conclusive studies to date. Clinical trials needed. No conclusive studies yet, but a review suggests: 'There are good pharmacological reasons for believing that the prescription
of synthetic cannabinoids or standardized plant extracts
may have a therapeutic potential in BAD. We suggest that the time
is ripe for carefully managed trials of prescribed cannabinoids to
determine whether they are of value as adjunctive drugs in bipolar
patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by standard
medications.' of Psychopharmacology
Brain Cancercancer114600020300Inhibits tumour growth in animal models. Human trials are very small, but have shown promising results. Bigger trials now needed. The fair safety profile of THC, together with its possible antiproliferative action on tumour cells reported here and in other studies, may set the basis for future trials aimed at evaluating the potential antitumoral activity of cannabinoids.' Journal of Cancer
Breast Cancercancer154900028100Animal and lab studies show inhibited tumour growth in several subtypes of breast cancer. Human studies needed. There is compelling evidence showing that cannabinoids have anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of breast cancer. These data come not only from cell culture systems but also from more complex and clinically relevant animal models. This anti-tumor action is produced by the blockade of several hallmarks of cancer (sustained cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis) rather than by the targeting of a unique process, and the compounds are not only effective but safe.' Treatment Reviews
CachexiaCachexiacancer11090004970CBDA single study of 164 patients with cancer-related weight loss (cachexia) found no difference from placebo.Increased appetite was reported by 73%, 58%, and 69% of patients receiving CE [cannabis extract], THC [delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol], or PL [placebo], respectively...CE at the oral dose administered was well tolerated by these patients with CACS. No differences in patients' appetite or QOL were found either between CE, THC, and PL or between CE and THC at the dosages investigated.' of Clinical Oncology
Chemotherapy related nausea & vomitinggeneral health352700016900Promising evidence showing a reduction in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. The FDA has approved 2 synthetic cannabis drugs for treating chemo-related nausea. Cochrane concludes: ''Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, methodological limitations of the trials limit our conclusions and further research reflecting current chemotherapy regimens and newer anti-emetic drugs is likely to modify these conclusions.' The FDA has approved dronabinol & nabilone, synthetic analogs of Δ9-THC, for treating chemo-related nausea., NAP
Chronic Paingeneral health470200050800Several good quality trials have shown cannabinoids to be modestly effective in treating chronic pain. The harms and side-effects may outweigh the benefits though. Larger and longer trials needed. One major review concluded: 'this systematic review of 18 recent good quality randomized trials demonstrates that cannabinoids are a modestly effective and safe treatment option for chronic non-cancer (predominantly neuropathic) pain. Given the prevalence of chronic pain, its impact on function and the paucity of effective therapeutic interventions, additional treatment options are urgently needed. More large scale trials of longer duration reporting on pain and level of function are required.' A 2018 Cochrane review concluded: 'All cannabis‐based medicines pooled together were better than placebo for the outcomes substantial and moderate pain relief and global improvement. All cannabis‐based medicines pooled together were better than placebo in reducing pain intensity, sleep problems and psychological distress', but pointed out the evidence was low-to-moderate quality. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Cochrane
Cluster Headachesneurological2y34100012100CBDAnecdotal & lab evidence suggest it may reduce cluster headache and migraine symptoms. Large, high quality studies are lacking. Supporting literature suggests a role for medicinal cannabis and cannabinoids in several types of headache disorders including migraine and cluster headache, although it is primarily limited to case based, anecdotal, or laboratory-based scientific research...Cannabinoids appear to modulate and interact at many pathways inherent to migraine, triptan mechanisms ofaction, and opiate pathways, suggesting potential synergistic or similar benefits...Despite the limited evidence and research suggesting a role for cannabis and cannabinoids in some headache disorders, randomized clinical trials are lacking and necessary for confirmation and further evaluation.'
Colitisgastrointestinal 1y41200010000CBDCannabis compounds prevent or improve colitis in mice when injected into the abdomen or taken rectally. No human trials yet.In this model of colitis, THC and CBD not only reduced inflammation but also lowered the occurrence of functional disturbances. Moreover the combination of CBD and THC could be beneficial therapeutically, via additive or potentiating effects.' Journal of Pharmacology
Colorectal Cancercancer12830003910Shown to kill cancer cells in cells. But human trials needed. plant-derived cannabinoid THC induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, and that the induction of cell death is mediated through BAD activation via CB1-dependent RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT pathway inhibition. Given that both these survival signalling pathways are frequently deregulated in colorectal tumours, our results suggest that exploiting the antitumoral properties of the naturally occurring cannabinoid THC, or selective targeting of the CB1 receptor, may represent novel strategies for colorectal cancer therapy.' Journal of Cancer
Crohn's Diseasegastrointestinal 34060005030Conflicting evidence across 3 small studies. One small study (21 participants) compared cannabis cigarettes containing 115 mg of THC to placebo cigarettes. More participants in the cannabis group had improvement in their Crohn's disease symptoms than participants in the placebo group. Participants in the cannabis cigarette group reported improvements in pain, appetite and satisfaction with treatment, but also some mild side effects. Another small study (22 participants) compared cannabis oil (10 mg of cannabidiol twice daily) to placebo oil (i.e. olive oil) in participants with active Crohn's disease. No difference in clinical remission rates was observed. Serious side effects included worsening Crohn's disease in one participant in each group. A study of 50 participants compared cannabis oil (composed of 15% cannabidiol and 4% THC) to placebo oil in participants with active Crohn's disease. Positive differences in quality of life and the Crohn's disease activity index were observed. Cochrane concludes: The effects of cannabis and cannabis oil on Crohn's disease are uncertain. No firm conclusions regarding the benefits and harms (e.g. side effects) of cannabis and cannabis oil in adults with Crohn's disease can be drawn., Medical Journal, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Cochrane
Depressionmental health0111000079800No evidence it relieves depression. Heavy use may trigger depression. Heavy cannabis use and depression are associated and evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that heavy cannabis use may increase depressive symptoms among some users. It is still too early, however, to rule out the hypothesis that the association is due to common social, family and contextual factors that increase risks of both heavy cannabis use and depression. Longitudinal studies and studies of twins discordant for heavy cannabis use and depression are needed to rule out common causes. If the relationship is causal, then on current patterns of cannabis use in the most developed societies cannabis use makes, at most, a modest contribution to the population prevalence of depression.';, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Dermatitisskin13670009830Cannabis compounds (cannabinoids) directly applied to inflamed skin reduced swelling in mice. Topically applied THC can effectively attenuate contact allergic inflammation by decreasing keratinocyte-derived pro-inflammatory mediators that orchestrate myeloid immune cell infiltration independent of CB1/2 receptors. This has important implications for the future development of strategies to harness cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.' Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Diabetic Neuropathyneurological111100010200No more effective than placebo in humans.In this randomized controlled trial, 30 subjects with painful DPN received daily Sativex or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change in mean daily pain scores, and secondary outcome measures included quality-of-life assessments. There was significant improvement in pain scores in both groups, but mean change between groups was not significant. There were no significant differences in secondary outcome measures. Patients with depression had significantly greater baseline pain scores that improved regardless of intervention.' Care
Dystonianeurological11630006740No more effective than placebo for this neurological movement disorder.Only one high quality study was found for review. Conclusion: 'In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial carried on 15 patients afflicted with generalized and segmental primary dystonia, oral nabilone did not show a significant reduction in total dystonia movement scale score compared to placebo. The authors stated that lack of effect of nabilone might have reflected the insufficient dose employed. Further research will be necessary to determine the impact of cannabinoids in the management of different forms of dystonia.' of Ethnopharmacology
Endometrial Cancercancer112500014500Some cell-studies suggest cannabinoids could be used to treat uterine cancers. Human trials are now required. Overall, these data suggest that the specific targeting of VR1 by endogenous cannabinoids or synthetic molecules offers attractive opportunities for the development of novel potent anticancer drugs.' Oncology
Endometriosisreproductive 13250003220Preliminary findings suggest cannabinoids might be helpful in treating the condition, but there is nothing conclusive yet. Recent studies in a rat model and women showed that sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers sprout branches to innervate the abnormal growths. This situation, together with knowledge that the endocannabinoid system is involved in uterine function and dysfunction and that exogenous cannabinoids were once used to alleviate endometriosis-associated pain, suggests that the endocannabinoid system is involved in both endometriosis and its associated pain. Herein, using a rat model, we found that CB1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed on both the somata and fibers of both the sensory and sympathetic neurons that innervate endometriosis’s abnormal growths. We further found that CB1 receptor agonists decrease, whereas CB1 receptor antagonists increase, endometriosis-associated hyperalgesia. Together these findings suggest that the endocannabinoid system contributes to mechanisms underlying both the peripheral innervation of the abnormal growths and the pain associated with endometriosis, thereby providing a novel approach for the development of badly-needed new treatments.'
Epilepsyneurological4y45100030900CBDReduced frequency of epileptic seizures. In June 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex, a new oral cannabidiol drug, for the treatment of seizures in patients 2 years or older. Several studies have shown that cannabis reduces seizures in humans. For example, a study of 214 patients demonstrated a 36.5% reduction in monthly seizures during a sustained course of twice-daily cannabinoids. Another study, of 225 people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (a rare form of epilepsy), found that 20mg/kg/d of cannabidiol twice a day reduced seizures by 41.9%. In a trial of 120 patients with Dravet syndrome, seizures decreased from 12.4 to 5.9 per month with cannabidiol. In June 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex, a new oral cannabidiol drug, for the treatment of seizures in patients 2 years or older.,,,; of Ethnopharmacology, Epilepsy & Behaviour, New England Journal of Medicine, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Fertilityreproductive 063900024900Reduces fertility in both men and women. That human fertility is so sensitive to cannabis suggests it may be a pathway for future fertility affecting medicines. Mammalian conception is a complex process regulated by both sexual behavior and reproductive performance. Alcohol, marijuana and tobacco are among the main factors which affect negatively fertility in women and men. Several studies have demonstrated that marijuana impairs the male copulatory activity, and that smokers of this illegal drug show reduced fertility due, for instance, to decrease in sperm concentration, defective sperm function or alteration of sperm morphology...In conclusion, this review has presented the ECS in males, and its link with sex hormones in controlling fertility in invertebrates, mammals and humans. The detection of endocannabinoids, the presence of specific enzymes for their synthesis and degradation, and the identification of CB receptors in sperm cells and male tissues suggest a critical role for endocannabinoids in modulating sperm functions during fertilization, and open novel perspectives in their therapeutic exploitation for the treatment of male infertility.' and Cellular Endocrinology
Fibromyalgianeurological14790004920No convincing evidence.We found no convincing, unbiased, high quality evidence suggesting that nabilone [synthetic cannabinoid] is of value in treating people with fibromyalgia. The tolerability of nabilone was low in people with fibromyalgia.'
Gastro Intestinal Refluxgastrointestinal 114100017500Reduced symptoms in dog and ferret studies. Two mechanisms involved in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) disease are transient LOS relaxations and gastric acid production; both may be influenced by cannabinoid drugs. CB1 agonists inhibited LOS relaxation and GOR in dogs, and LOS relaxation in ferrets, through central and peripheral vagal mechanisms...Cannabinoids decrease acid production in rodents through activation of CB1 receptors on vagal efferents to gastric mucosa, not by direct effects on parietal cells. CB1 receptor activation is protective in animal models of gastric ulcers.'
Glaucomaeye health349100012000Definitely lowers eye pressure, but only temporarily (3-4hrs). Since Glaucoma is a long-term disease, a LOT of cannabis would be required to maintain low pressure levels. Also, cannabis might cause additional damage to the eye by restricting blood flow to the optic nerve. It has been definitively demonstrated, and widely appreciated, that smoking marijuana lowers IOP in both normal individuals and in those with glaucoma...Although marijuana does lower the IOP temporarily, IOP lowering is only one consideration in slowing the optic nerve damage of glaucoma. For instance, there is a growing body of evidence that inadequate blood supply to the optic nerve may contribute to glaucoma damage. Since marijuana given systemically is known to lower blood pressure, it is possible that such an effect could be deleterious to the optic nerve in glaucoma, possibly reducing or eliminating whatever beneficial effect that conferred by lowering IOP.' Glaucoma Society
Glioblastoma Multiformecancer1404002800CBDCell studies have shown some promise. But human trials needed.we show that the combined administration of THC and temozolomide (TMZ; the benchmark agent for the management of GBM) exerts a strong antitumoral action in glioma xenografts, an effect that is also observed in tumors that are resistant to TMZ treatment...Administration of submaximal doses of THC and cannabidiol remarkably reduces the growth of glioma xenografts. Moreover, treatment with TMZ and submaximal doses of THC and CBD produced a strong antitumoral action in both TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant tumors. Altogether, our findings support that the combined administration of TMZ and cannabinoids could be therapeutically exploited for the management of GBM.' Cancer Therapeutics
Hepatitis Cinfection250400031500CBDStudy of 71 patients showed cannabis reducing the side effects of harsh conventional treatment. No evidence that it affects the virus itself. Seventeen of the 71 study patients (24%) discontinued therapy early, one cannabis user (5%) and 16 non-users (33%) (P=0.01). Overall, 37 patients (52%) were end-of-treatment responders, 14 (64%) cannabis users and 23 (47%) non-users (P=0.21). A total of 21 out of 71 (30%) had a sustained virological response: 12 of the 22 cannabis users (54%) and nine of the 49 non-users (18%) (P=0.009), corresponding to a post-treatment virological relapse rate of 14% in the cannabis users and 61% in the non-users (P=0.009). Overall, 48 (68%) were adherent, 29 (59%) non-users and 19 (86%) cannabis users (P=0.03). Although cannabis users were no more likely than non-users to take at least 80% of the prescribed interferon or ribavirin, they were significantly more likely to remain on HCV treatment for at least 80% of the projected treatment duration, 95 versus 67% (P=0.01). Our results suggest that modest cannabis use may offer symptomatic and virological benefit to some patients undergoing HCV treatment by helping them maintain adherence to the challenging medication regimen. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hiccupsneurological13260001680An old case study in The Lancet (1998) suggested that smoking cannabis stopped intractable hiccups when other medications and procedures had failed. No controlled trials have ever been conducted. Chlorpromazine controlled the hiccups only during sleep. Oral nifedipine, valproate, lansoprazole, and intravenous lidocaine had no effect. Glabellar acupuncture on day six and nine terminated the hiccups for less than an hour. Removal of a hair from the tympanic membrane on day 8 and irrigation of marcaine into the external auditory canal on day nine gave only brief relief. On day eight the patient, who had not smoked marijuana before, smoked marijuana, and his hiccups stopped. They recurred on day nine and on day ten the patient again smoked marijuana; hiccups stopped immediately and did not recur.' Lancet
HIV related inflammationHIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activationgeneral health11720008390Only vague, anecedotal evidence.While the clinical implications are unclear, our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with a potentially beneficial reduction in systemic inflammation and immune activation in the context of antiretroviral-treated HIV infection. Infectious Diseases
HIV-related neuropathygeneral health21720008390Smoking cannabis is much more effective than placebo in reducing sensory neuropathy pain and other symptoms. Smoked cannabis was reported to be superior to placebo in reducing DDS [a pain scale] from baseline to end of treatment day five in the PP population.' The review did not state whether cannabis was more or less effective than conventional pain medication. In one of the two studies, many of the participants were unintentionally 'unblinded', i.e. they realised they were smoking cannabis rather than a placebo cigarette, undermining the quality of the study. ONE
Huntington's Diseaseneurological1y10500013100CBDAppears to slow disease progression in rats. No human studies.this study provides preclinical evidence in support of a beneficial effect of the cannabis-based medicine Sativex as a neuroprotective agent capable of delaying disease progression in HD, a disorder that is currently poorly managed in the clinic, prompting an urgent need for clinical trials with agents showing positive results in preclinical studies.' of Neuroscience Research
Hypertensioncardiovascular153000032300Studies on rats and mice found that a certain cannabis compound (AEA) was effective against hypertension when injected. AEA was shown to be involved in the regulation of hypertension. Intravenous AEA injection to rats and mice leads to a characteristic, triphasic response of the cardiovascular immediate transient decrease in heart rate and cardiac contractility accompanied by a fall in blood pressure...AEA acts on calcium channels located in the vascular intima and on the specific TRPV1 receptors...a more prolonged decrease in blood pressure accompanied by a marked decrease in cardiac contractility and a slight decrease in total peripheral resistance occurs...Detailed studies demonstrated that only AEA influences the cardiovascular system in such a complex manner.' of Physiology and Pharmacology
Idiopathic Intracranial HypertensionBenign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH), Pseudotumor Cerebri (PTC)neurological1613005520In a single ancedotal case study the patient claimed that cannabis treatment resolved the condition.A case is presented in which a woman diagnosed with a longstanding history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension reported improvement of frontal headaches, photophobia, transient blindness, enlarged blind spots, and tinnitus after smoking marijuana. All these symptoms and signs were associated with increased intracranial pressure (220–425 mm of water). Treatment with dronabinol at a dose of 10 mg twice a day, then reduced to 5 mg twice a day, relieved all of her symptoms. Previously noted papilledema and enlargement of blind spots also resolved, and this, in the absence of psychoactive effect or weight gain.' of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)gastrointestinal 3y646000986Animal studies suggests cannabis compounds (cannabinoids) reduce inflammation. Humans anecdotally report that their symptoms improve with smoking marijuana. Full trials now needed. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) anecdotally report symptom relief from smoking marijuana...In well-established models of IBD in rodents...several lines of evidence suggest endocannabinoids may limit intestinal inflammation in vivo...Cannabinoid agonists may also reduce motility in the inflamed intestine...In summary, cannabinoids reduce response to gut inflammation via CB1 and/or CB2 activation by direct suppression of proinflammatory mediators, inhibition of intestinal motility and diarrhoea, and attenuation of visceral sensitivity.'
Insomniageneral health552100023400CBDLarge studies have shown that cannabis compounds improve sleep quality, particularly in patients who suffer from chronic conditions that have sleep-disrupting symptoms (e.g. pain). Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep...Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I–III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40–50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life.' and Biodiversity
Leukemiacancer143300018300CBDOnly cell studies. No human trials.Two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (CBD-DMH), induced apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cell line. Apoptosis was determined by staining with bisBenzimide and propidium iodide. A dose dependent increase of apoptosis was noted, reaching 61 and 43% with 8 μg/ml CBD and 15 μg/ml CBD-DMH, respectively, after a 24 h treatment. Prior exposure of the cells to γ-irradiation (800 cGy) markedly enhanced apoptosis, reaching values of 93 and 95%, respectively. Human monocytes from normal individuals were resistant to either cannabinoids or γ-irradiation. Caspase-3 activation was observed after the cannabinoid treatment, and may represent a mechanism for the apoptosis. Our data suggest a possible new approach to treatment of AML.' & Lymphoma
Libidoreproductive 190200014500Cannabis users have 20% more sex, but no evidence it's the cannabis that's causing the uplift.In a study of 50,000 Americans of reproductive age, it was found that cannabis users have 20% more sex. This applied to people of all genders, age groups, health backgrounds etc. Authors suggest there might be a connection between cannabis and stimulation pathways. However, there is no evidence of causation at this stage. Journal of Sexual Medicine
Lung Cancercancer153300029500THC inhibits tumour growth in certain types of lung cancer. Human trials are needed. THC inhibited EGF-induced growth, chemotaxis and chemoinvasion. Moreover, signaling studies indicated that THC may act by inhibiting the EGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and AKT. THC also induced the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at tyrosine 397. Additionally, in in vivo studies in severe combined immunodeficient mice, there was significant inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor growth and lung metastasis of A549 cells in THC-treated animals as compared to vehicle-treated controls. Tumor samples from THC-treated animals revealed antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of THC. Our study suggests that cannabinoids like THC should be explored as novel therapeutic molecules in controlling the growth and metastasis of certain lung cancers.'
Lymphomacancer140900014400Animal studies showed reduced tumours and spread and increased survival rates in mice. Human studies are needed. Studies show that exposure of murine lymphoma tumors EL-4,
LSA, and P815 to D(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in vitro led to a
significant reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis,
and EL-4 tumor–bearing mice led to a significant reduction in
tumor load, increase in tumor-cell apoptosis, and increase
in survival of tumor-bearing mice...These data suggest that targeting CB1 and CB2 receptors by their agonists may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of
lymphoma.' Research
Malariainfection143600012800CBDA single animal study showed cannabis protecting the brain from malaria-related damage.CBD treatment resulted in an increase in BDNF expression in the hippocampus and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus (TNF-α) and prefrontal cortex (IL-6). Our results indicate that CBD exhibits neuroprotective effects in CM model and might be useful as an adjunctive therapy to prevent neurological symptoms following this disease.'
Meth addictionmental health132100016800A single animal study showed cannabis protecting the brain from methamphetamine (meth)-related damage.although comorbid cannabis and METH use might worsen mental health problems in drug users, this study provides the first evidence that Δ9-THC reduces METH-induced brain damage via inhibition of striatal nNOS expression by both CB1-dependent and -independent mechanisms and of striatal and cortical astrocyte activation by CB1-independent mechanisms only.' ONE
Migraineneurological2y45300011300CBDCan reduce cluster headache and migraine symptoms in some people. But large, high quality studies are lacking. Supporting literature suggests a role for medicinal cannabis and cannabinoids in several types of headache disorders including migraine and cluster headache, although it is primarily limited to case based, anecdotal, or laboratory-based scientific research...Cannabinoids appear to modulate and interact at many pathways inherent to migraine, triptan mechanisms ofaction, and opiate pathways, suggesting potential synergistic or similar benefits...Despite the limited evidence and research suggesting a role for cannabis and cannabinoids in some headache disorders, randomized clinical trials are lacking and necessary for confirmation and further evaluation.'
Motion Sicknessgeneral health115000017900Cannabis may mitigate motion sickness.These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid activity. Enhancing ECS signaling may represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for motion sickness in individuals who do not respond to currently available treatments.' ONE
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)neurological5483000083002 studies involving a total of 790 subjects showed positive results. Improved muscle spasms, pain, sleep quality, and mobility. Cannabis drug Sativex is approved for use in MS patients in 30 countries.Review of 2 studies with a total of 790 subjects: 'they observed an objective improvement in mobility with oral THC and a subjective improvement in spasticity, muscle spasms, pain, sleep quality and general condition, as well as a decrease in hospitalizations for relapses with the two types of cannabinoids.' AND 'a statistically significant reduction in spasticity with the cannabis extract compared to placebo, a statistically significant subjective improvement in sleep quality with the cannabis extract compared to placebo; a statistically insignificant objective improvement in mobility and vesical dysfunction with the cannabis extract compared to placebo.' An oral spray, Sativex, has been approved for treating MS-associated spasticity in 30 countries. of Ethnopharmacology
Obesitygeneral health157000030800Cannabis users appear less likely to be obese, but the reasons for this are not understood. Studies have shown that despite evidence that cannabis stimulates appetite, people who use cannabis are less likely to be obese than those who don't. However, the nature of this link is not understood, and hasn't been proven to be causal. Additionally, available studies are small or of low quality.; Hypotheses, American Journal of Epidemiology, Trends in Clinical Practice
Osteoarthritisgeneral health23360008380CBDMay reduce osteoarthritis symptoms, but the studies are of poor quality & results are inconsistent. Two RCTs of 2 and 4 weeks duration respectively with nabilone, including 71 FMS patients, one 4-week trial with nabilone, including 30 spinal pain patients, and one 5-week study with tetrahydrocannbinol/cannabidiol, including 58 RA patients were included. One inclusion criterion was pain refractory to conventional treatment in three studies. No RCT with OA patients was found. The risk of bias was high for three studies. The findings of a superiority of cannabinoids over controls (placebo, amitriptyline) were not consistent. Cannabinoids were generally well tolerated despite some troublesome side effects and safe during the study duration. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for recommendation for any cannabinoid preparations for symptom management in patients with chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases.' Schmerz
Pancreatic Cancercancer13520007070Cannabis compound shown reduced tumour growth in cell studies. But that's a long way from credible effects on humans.We show that cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human pancreatic tumor cell lines and tumor biopsies at much higher levels than in normal pancreatic tissue. Studies conducted with MiaPaCa2 and Panc1 cell lines showed that cannabinoid administration (a) induced apoptosis, (b) increased ceramide levels, and (c) up-regulated mRNA levels of the stress protein p8...Cannabinoids also reduced the growth of tumor cells in two animal models of pancreatic cancer. In addition, cannabinoid treatment inhibited the spreading of pancreatic tumor cells.' Research
Parkinson’sneurological147900019000CBDDid not improve the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.In a review of 2 studies, it was found that 'oral administration of a cannabis extract (2.5 mg of THC and 1.25 mg of cannabidiol per capsule) resulted in no objective or subjective improvement in parkinsonism or dyskinesias.' of Ethnopharmacology
Prostate Cancercancer155900017300Only very preliminary evidence.We have recently shown that the expression levels of both
cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are significantly higher in
human prostate cancer cells compared with normal prostate
epithelial cells. Based on this observation, LNCaP cells were treated
with WIN-55,212-2, which resulted in inhibition of cell growth and
induction of apoptosis...treated mice exhibited significant inhibition in the tumor growth with remarkable reduction of prostate-specific antigen secretion in
the serum' Research
Prostatitisreproductive 21330001610Subjective, anecdotal evidence that it may improve mood, pain, muscle spasms & sleep in prostatitis patients, but not weakness, fatigue, numbness, urination or movement. Proper studies are required. Almost 50% of respondents reported using cannabis (clinic n = 49; online n = 89). Of the cannabis users, 36.8% of clinic and 75% of online respondents reported that it improved their symptoms. Most of the respondents (from the clinic and online groups) reported that cannabis improved their mood, pain, muscle spasms, and sleep. However, they did not note any improvements for weakness, fatigue, numbness, ambulation, and urination. Overall, the effectiveness of cannabis for CP/CPPS was “somewhat/very effective” (57% clinic; 63% online)...These are the first estimates in men suffering from CP/CPPS and suggest that while cannabis use is prevalent, its medical use and benefit are unknown. This is an understudied area and the benefit or hazard for cannabis use awaits further study.' Urological Association Journal
Psoriasisskin1882006880Might help reduce symptoms of psoriasis by reducing keratin production, but we don't really understand how yet. Psoriasis is a common skin disorder characterized by hyper proliferation of keratinocytes. Although the exact pathophysiology of psoriasis is not entirely understood, immune system and its interaction with nervous system have been postulated and investigated as the underlying mechanism. The interaction between these two systems through cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and also endocannabinoid system, may suggest cannabinoids as potential addition to antipsoriatic armamentarium.' Clinical Pharmacology
PTSDmental health264400021900Probably helps to relieve symptoms of PTSD (nightmares, flashbacks, poor sleep etc). But, due to its known adverse psychological effects, its not recommended for PTSD.Preclinical and clinical studies generally support the biological plausibility for cannabinoids’ potential therapeutic effects, but underscore heterogeneity in outcomes depending on dose, chemotype, and individual variation. Treatment outcome studies of whole plant marijuana and related cannabinoids on PTSD are limited and not methodologically rigorous, precluding conclusions about their potential therapeutic effects. Reported benefits for nightmares and sleep (particularly with synthetic cannabinoid nabilone) substantiate larger controlled trials to determine effectiveness and tolerability...nown risks of marijuana thus currently outweigh unknown benefits for PTSD. Although controlled research on marijuana and other cannabinoids’ effects on PTSD remains limited, rapid shifts in the legal landscape may now enable such studies, potentially opening new avenues in PTSD treatment research.'
Depression and Anxiety, Annals of Internal Medicine
Rheumatoid Arthritisimmune system139600010500CBDWeak evidence that cannabis reduces arthritis pain. The side-effects seemed to outweigh any small reduction in pain. There is currently weak evidence that oral nefopam, topical capsaicin and oromucosal cannabis are all superior to placebo in reducing pain in patients with RA. However, each agent is associated with a significant side effect profile. The confidence in our estimates is not strong given the difficulties with blinding, the small numbers of participants evaluated and the lack of adverse event data. In some patients, however, even a small degree of pain relief may be considered worthwhile. Until further research is available, given the relatively mild nature of the adverse events, capsaicin could be considered as an add-on therapy for patients with persistent local pain and inadequate response or intolerance to other treatments. Oral nefopam and oromucosal cannabis have more significant side effect profiles however and the potential harms seem to outweigh any modest benefit achieved.', Der Schmerz
Schizophreniamental health043900018000CBDDoes not seem to have antipsychotic properties. In fact, inconclusive evidence suggests a link between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Results are limited and inconclusive due to the small number and size of randomised controlled trials available and quality of data reporting within these trials [...] Currently evidence is insufficient to show cannabidiol has an antipsychotic effect.' In fact, cannabis use has been connected with schizophrenia, although whether the relationship is causal is still unknown. The largest study yet found evidence that those who are genetically predisposed to schizophrenia are more likely to take up marijuana use, not the other way around. However, the authors did not exclude the possibility of a cause and effect relationship.;;, Molecular Psychiatry, Psychological Medicine, American Journal of Psychiatry, Nature
Senile Dementianeurological148100016600No evidence of any beneficial effect.This review finds no evidence that cannabinoids are effective in the improvement of disturbed behaviour in dementia or in the treatment of other symptoms of dementia. More randomized double-blind placebo controlled trials are needed to determine whether cannabinoids are clinically effective in the treatment of dementia.'
Skin Cancercancer151500029800Cannabis compound kill skin cancer cells in lab and mouse studies. No human trials, though. In vitro studies showed that activation of cannabinoid
receptors induced the apoptotic death of tumorigenic epidermal
cells, without affecting the nontransformed epidermal cells.
Administration of WIN-55,212-2 or the selective CB2 agonist JWH-
133 was shown to result in growth inhibition of malignant tumors in
nude mice (ref. 6 and references therein). Another study showed
that activation of these receptors decreased tumor growth,
angiogenesis and metastasis of melanomas in mice, and inhibited
proliferation via inhibition of Akt pathway and hypophosphorylation
of retinoblastoma in melanoma cells' Research
Strokecardiovascular0276000021300Numerous case reports & population studies show that cannabis use may trigger stroke. There were 34 case reports on 64 patients. Most cases (81%) exhibited a temporal relationship between cannabis exposure and the index event. In 70%, the evaluation was sufficiently comprehensive to exclude other sources for stroke. About a quarter (22%) of patients had another stroke after subsequent re-exposure to cannabis. Finally, half of patients (50%) had concomitant stroke risk factors, most commonly tobacco (34%) and alcohol (11%) consumption. Many case reports support a causal link between cannabis and cerebrovascular events. This accords well with epidemiological and mechanistic research on the cerebrovascular effects of cannabis.
BMJ, Journal of the Neurological Sciences, AHA, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS)neurological, skin2y349011CBDA very small study saw reduced seizures and improved quality of life, with neglible side-effects.Four subjects had data through Week 14; one of whom initially withdrew for lack of efficacy, but because of other benefits re-enrolled with a lower dose. Two subjects at Week 14 and three bilaterally brain involved subjects at last visit had greater than 50% seizure reduction, reported improved quality of life, and remain on CBD 63 to 80 weeks after starting drug. Three subjects reported mild side effects considered related to CBD. This study suggests that CBD may be well-tolerated as adjunctive medication for seizure management and provides initial data supporting further study of CBD in SWS patients.' Neurology
Tinnitusneurological14000004700Unclear. Has some impact on tinnitus, but it's unclear whether it makes the symptoms better or worse in humans. The effects of Cannabis itself on tinnitus in humans and animals are still unclear. However, CB1 receptors do exist in the CN and they are functional. Although cannabinoids have been shown to exert anti-epileptic effects in many parts of the brain, the function of CB1 receptors in the circuitry of the DCN, at least, suggests that they might have the potential to facilitate increased excitation rather than inhibit it, which, if neuronal hyperactivity is part of the cause of tinnitus, might exacerbate tinnitus rather than relieve it. Along those lines, the only animal study of the effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists in tinnitus suggests that tinnitus might be aggravated [42]. Although another study showed that CB1 receptors were downregulated in the VCN in an animal model of tinnitus [30], it is not clear whether this might be part of the cause of tinnitusrelated neuronal hyperactivity or a compensatory response to it. Therefore, at this stage, it is very unclear whether cannabinoid drugs that activate the CB1 receptor would make tinnitus worse or better. Determining this will require a much greater understanding of the functional significance of the endocannabinoid system in the CN and elsewhere in the central auditory system.' of Pharmacology and Drug Metabolism
Tourette’sneurological21240006950Tic reduction without hindering brain performance.In 2 small randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (one with 24 patients, but only 7 completed the trial, the other with 12 patients), oral THC reduced tics and 'did not impair neuropsychological the contrary, the authors even found a trend towards a significant improvement during and after therapy while evaluating immediate verbal memory span.' of Ethnopharmacology
Trichotillomaniamental health22040001610Reducing hair-pulling in a small study of 12 women over 12 weeks. Promising but proper trials are needed. This study, the first to examine a cannabinoid agonist in the treatment of trichotillomania, found that dronabinol demonstrated statistically significant reductions in trichotillomania symptoms, in the absence of negative cognitive effects. Pharmacological modulation of the cannabinoid system may prove useful in controlling a range of compulsive behaviors. Given the small sample and open-label design, however larger placebo-controlled studies incorporating cognitive measures are warranted.'
Wilson's Diseaseeye health119300018900In a single case study, a Wilson's Disease patient improved on cannabis and worsened when he stopped taking them. But the worsening could have been due to cannabis withdrawal. Better, clinical trials needed. Our patient obtained significant clinical improvement of his dystonic symptomatology under the effects of [cannabis] sativa. This improvement could be explained as a consequence of activation of cannabinoid receptors in the basal ganglia. However, we cannot rule out the possible contribution of an incipient withdrawal syndrome to the clinical worsening of his generalized dystonia observed 24 hours after stopping marijuana intake, as he presented irritability...Although the report of an isolated case is merely anecdotal, we feel that the above findings afford grounds to encourage considering the use of cannabinoid agonists as a potential therapeutic option in the management of some forms of dystonia. Properly designed and powered studies are required to allow a statistically valid recommendation based on objective evidence. Disorders