SERC - Scripture Engagement Research Compendium
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Scripture Engagement Research Compendium (SERC)
Coordinator: Jed Carter
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The Scripture Engagement Research Compendium (SERC) provides brief, comparable descriptions of SE research projects. It is a helpful starting point for those desiring to learn from SE research and for anyone planning SE research.
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There are two views of this data: a Table view (on this tab) and a Reading View (on the second tab).
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Please read the FAQ (on the third tab) for more information
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Title
Author/Compiler
MetadataPIQUE Description
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What is the title of the report?Last NameFirst NameYearCountriesLanguages
Link to Research
Purpose (Prose)Purpose (Categories)InformantsQuant/QualitativeUnit of AnalysisExtentComments on PIQUEResearch MethodsWhich of Dye's eight conditions?About SE?Results SummaryQuestions/CommentsEntry Author
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Bible translation in Christian mission: A case study of the spiritual and socio-cultural impact of the bible translation strategy of the Ghana Institute of Linguistics, Literacy and Bible translation on the Dega people of Ghana
Atta-Akosah
Thomas2004Ghana1/Deg [mzm]
http://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/handle/10413/1642
"After the people have been given the Scriptures, what
happens?" "to ascertain the impact that the Bible translation strategy of GILLBT has had on the Dega people of Ghana, especially their socio-cultural and spiritual lives."
measure impact or transformation
church leaders, community members
entirely qualitativeindividuals
multiple communities within one target population
"interviews, observation, and participation" (p. 9)
"The focus of this dissertation has been mainly historical. Documentary resources from three archival centres in Ghana were consulted." (p. 9)
also "a focus group seminar" p. 9
Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely
"It is evident that there has been more impact at the individual level rather than at the community and inter-community levels ... It can, therefore, be concluded that there is substantial evidence to demonstrate that when a people have the Scriptures translated into their mother tongue, it impacts their spiritual and socio-cultural lives and consequently enhances their integral human development." (p. 132)
I did not confirm the summary be reviewing the data.
Zachariah Yoder
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Research Report: The Mayogo Vernacular Scripture-Use. Unpublished.
BagambaBukpa Araali2010DRC1/Mayogo [mdm]
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Facilitating a Renewal of Discipleship Praxis Amongst Burkinabé Leaders and Learners.
ClementsJohn Benham2012
Burkina Faso
None
https://jbclements.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/clements_final-umi.pdf
"to understand the perceptions and perspectives of Burkinabé leaders and learners, ... to ascertain their evaluation of contextually and biblically appropriate theological education and discipleship praxis" (p. 54)
"a set of recommendations for facilitating the equipping of Burkinabé leaders and learners for a life of scripturally based Christian discipleship." (abstract)
theory-oriented
branch directors or regional directors, church leaders
mostly qualitativeindividuals
no communities (research collected from outsiders)
questionnaires (which did not provide the desired qualitative information), group interviews
Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Partially"Burkinabé leaders and learners identifying strongly with the concept of discipleship, combined with a deeply felt need to embrace a more effective and holistic praxis of forming disciples." p. 151

"Christian conversion has historically been insufficiently transformative. " p. 99. Several specific conclusions drawn on the efficacy of theological education such as "Pedagogical vitality of both illustrations and group discussion." and "Strong commitment to literacy and expanding literacy programs." p. 99
Zachariah Yoder
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The African Agent Discovered: The recognition and involvement of the African biblical interpreter in Bible translation. University of Pretoria (South Africa), 2007. 0819606.
Coertze
Stephen Victor
2007Africa
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267203711_The_African_agent_discovered_The_recognition_and_involvement_of_the_African_biblical_interpreter_in_Bible_translation
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An Ethnohistory of Bible Translation Among the Maya. Fuller Theological Seminary, School of World Mission, 1978
Coke
Hugh Milton, Jr
1978Central America
https://www.worldcat.org/title/ethnohistory-of-bible-translation-among-the-maya/oclc/4065333
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Now I Know that Jesus can Speak Nunggubuyu' The Missio Dei for the Australian Church: Imagining God from an indigenous perspective. University of Dubuque Theological Seminary, 2011, 284 pages
DuncanGerald Allan2011Australia
1/Nunggubuyu [nuy]
Hatcher https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf; https://issuu.com/biblesocietyau/docs/e102__all_pages_final; referenced here: http://troddenmissions.blogspot.com/
can't find article
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The Bible Translation Strategy: an analysis of its spiritual impact
DyeWayne1979
Mexico, Philippines
15/confidential, 7 projects in Philippines, 8 projects in Mexico
https://www.academia.edu/26406178/BIBLE_TRANSLATION_STRATEGY_AN_ANALYSIS_OF_ITS_SPIRITUAL_IMPACT
To analyze the "spiritual" results of SIL Bible translation, i.e. the number and quality of Jesus followers that resulted. From the initial request for such research, "An in-depth examination of Wycliffe field procedures is urgently needed, to give a rational evaluation of results to date, to identify the factors making for or deterring a successful outcome of individual tribal programs; " (Dale Keitzman, quoted in BTStrategy, p. 18.) Factors were primarily what the translators did; "successful" was entirely the number and quality of the resulting believers.
measure impact or transformation, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
branch directors or regional directors, translation team members, church leaders, community members
mostly qualitative
target community (dialect or language) - the unit at which a translation project was aimed
multiple communities from multiple target populations
This project does not fit well into the model. We need a conversation.
Informal interviews with anyone with knowledge of the projects studied, from community members to senior project staff; data from records and reports; observations
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith
Completely
Broadly, there were four conclusions:
1. Scripture engagement does not just happen; it requires definite action on the part of Christians, primarily the translators themselves.
2. One crucial factor is the relevance of Christian teaching as it was provided to the needs and concerns of the converts and potential converts.
3. The second factor is the match between the project and the local situation. This encompasses most of the conditions.
4. When people do engage with the Scriptures, the spiritual impact is profound.
This was the original research of this type within SIL, completed 20 years before the 8 Conditions were first postulated.
T Wayne Dye
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Transforming Nations - Impact Assessment Report
EngelerMartin2014
Burkina Faso, Cameroon
21/Buamu [box], Dagara [dgi], Lyélé [lee], Nuni [nnw and nuv], Puguli [pug], Sìcìté [sep], Sissala [sld], Toussian [wib], Turka [tuz], Aghem, [agq], Awing [azo], Babungo [bav], Bum [bmv], Lamnso [lns], Mofu-Gudur [mif], Ngomba [jgo], Nomaande [lem], Oku [oku], Cuvok [cuv], Tunen [tvu]
https://independent.academia.edu/MartinEngeler, http://www.scripture-engagement.org/sites/default/files/Impact%20Assessment%20Report%20-%20OneBook%20ANTBA%20CABTAL%202014.pdf
We wanted to find out if we are really transforming communities and what project parameters contribute or hinder such a transformation. "To measure the impacts of translated Scriptures, literacy and Scripture engagement programs on marginalized minority language communities, to discern whether certain hypotheses are true and to better understand which program practices yielded the post positive impacts." p. 12 Abridged hypotheses: The most effective projects in transforming people groups are led and implemented by nationals, and have strong literacy programs. Effective literacy programs bring positive community transformation. Use of the mother-tongue Scriptures will foster church growth. Nationals led the most effective and efficient programs in transforming communities.
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology, mesure community and church ownership
translation team members, church leaders, community members
mostly quantitative
target community (dialect or language) - the unit at which a translation project was aimed
multiple communities from multiple target populations
Structured interview using questionnaire (p. 25)
Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
MostlyWe found that both projects led by nationals and ex-pat missionaries can be highly transformational. Key was community ownership and that the local church leadership selected the project workers and were engaged themselves in the activities of the project. High levels of literacy and SE activities were crucial. Effective literacy programs lead to community transformation and good access to and availability of a multitude of Scripture materials will foster church growth. "The main findings were that the mother tongue is alive and well in most of the communities and that a very large proportion of the communities prefers the Scriptures presented in their mother tongue" p. 12. Community ownership across denominations was more important than community leadership. Amount of literacy material did not predict Scripture impact. "Church size grew rapidly where mother-tongue Scripture reading and preaching was in the mother tongue." p. 14Martin Engeler
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Local Ownership in a Language Development Program: Will It Lead to Sustainable Use of Scripture?
FederwitzDavid M.2008
26 LBT projects in 11 countries: “Liberia (6), Nigeria (6), Sierra Leone (4), Papua New Guinea (3), Côte d’Ivoire (1), Mexico (1), Ecuador (1), Botswana (1), Cameroon (1), Guatemala (1), and Brazil (1)” (Federwitz, 43).
26/Anyi [any], Bandi [bza], Bine [bon], Bokyi [bky], Cañar Quichua [qxr], E Je Grebo [gbo], Eleme [elm], Gokana [gkn], Kalanga [kck], Krio [kri], Kuwaa [blh], Limba [lia], Loko [lok], Mada [mxu], Mende [men], Samba [ndi], Southern Kisi [kss], Texmelucan Zapotec [zpz], Ukele (Kukele) [kez], Uspanteco [usp], Vai [vai], Wayampi Cuc [oym], Western Krahn [krw], Yala [yba], Yamano (Yessan-Mayo) [yss], Yawu [yss]
https://www.diu.edu/documents/theses/David_Federwitz-thesis.pdf; http://www.scripture-engagement.org/content/local-ownership-language-development-program-will-it-lead-sustainable-use-scripture
“Determine whether or not there is a relationship between local ownership in a language development program that gives emphasis to the translation of Christian Scripture and the sustainable use of that Scripture and, if possible, to indicate the relative importance of local ownership” (Federwitz, 1). “Also looks at some of the commonly held beliefs regarding local ownership and sustainability” (Federwitz, 40). “Thirteen other factors” (Griffis, 19).
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
program managers, translation team members
mostly quantitative
target community (dialect or language)
no communities (research collected from outsiders)
international effort assessing LBT efforts in 11 countries
written questionnaires, statistical analysis of results
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely“The overall claim of this paper is that the degree of local ownership correlates positively with the sustainable use of Scripture in a language development program” (Federwitz, 15). "In the end, it was discovered that indigenous language learning by expatriate language development program workers, capacity building for indigenous language development workers and the length of time since the completion of a language development program were important indicators of sustainable Scripture use" (Federwitz, abstract).Jed Carter
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Using Audio Bibles to Make Disciples in Oral Cultures. Viability, reproducibility, and long term results
FisherGregory2011Africa
http://www.scripture-engagement.org/content/using-audio-bibles-make-disciples-oral-cultures
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Transformational Scripture engagement among the Budu of Congo–Kinshasa
GottschlichBettina2013
Democratic Republic of Congo
1/Budu [buu]
http://www.scripture-engagement.org/content/transformational-scripture-engagement-among-budu-congo-kinshasa
"This qualitative research identifies and documents Scripture resources that enable life–transforming Scripture engagement among Budu believers from their point of view. It further identifies measurable indicators that determine what constitutes verifiably effective engagement."
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, theory-oriented
church leaders, community members
entirely qualitativeindividualsone community
"The research methodology consisted of qualitative methods to collect and grounded theory to analyze the data from 36 interviews and 36 focus groups, participant observation and document research, representing the whole of the Budu region and its church leadership." p. ii
Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely"The major themes of 'People' as Scripture Resources include transformed lives, especially the lives of leaders, transformed church and communities, transformed events, and communal versus individual preference. The major themes of 'Ministry' Scripture Resources include the distribution of written and oral Scripture resources, the preference of oral or written media, and the means of communication including language issues."Zachariah Yoder
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Missionary Strategy and Scripture Reception: A case study among the Huli of Papua New Guinea (Bible, Translation, Melanesia)
Gould
Sydney William
1986PNG
http://www.langlxmelanesia.com/LLM%20Vol.%2029%202011%20SYD%20GOULD.pdf; Hatcher https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf
Carter has article
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Vernacular Scripture Use in Two Cameroonian Language Communities: Kom and Bafut
GriffisVincent W.2011Cameroon
2/Kom [bkm], Bafut [bfd]
abstract at https://www.sil.org/resources/archives/43899; login required: search at https://buprimo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com
Discover factors that interact with VSU (Griffis, ix). What can be done to promote greater SU (Griffis, ix) and be more efficient (Griffis, 4-5). To what degree is SIL Cameroon achieving its purpose (Griffis, 3)?
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
church leaders, community members
mostly quantitativeindividuals
multiple communities from multiple target populations
Used locals trained to conduct the research to minimize observer's paradox.
Individual interviews and participant observation data (Griffis, x), participant observation form completed during Sunday morning service (Griffis, 73) church leader interview (Griffis, 73; Appendix E)
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith
Completely“Established a base line for Scripture use to which future studies from other communities can be compared” (Griffis, x). "Demonstrated a positive correlation between vernacular literacy rates and regular interaction with vernacular Scripture. Whether the engagement was reading Scripture, listening to Scripture, being read, or attending audio listening groups, vernacular literacy proved to be a predictor of interaction with the Scripture" (Hatcher, 88). "Suggests that while high levels of multilingualism were somewhat of a barrier to mother tongue Scripture engagement in main church services, it was not a barrier to overall vernacular Scripture engagement in either group. Increased multilingualism did not lead to decreased vernacular language Scripture engagement" (Hatcher, 89). "Griffis concluded that his research verified several of Dye's conditions – appropriate language, acceptable translation, accessible form, and availability – and did not contradict any of Dye's other conditions" (Hatcher, 90). "He identified the languages of pastors from outside the language group and the language or theological training to [be] [sic] significant predictors of Scripture use within main church services" (Hatcher, 90).Jed Carter
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The Qur'an in Urdu as a Resource for Bible Translation in Muslim Contexts: A case study in the translation of "spirit" and "spirits" in Urdu.
HigginsKevin S2013
Hatcher https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf
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Are Vernacular Scriptures Being Used? Kabiye Research Results
HillHarriet2012Togo1/Kabiye [kbp]
http://www.ubs-translations.org/bt/practical_papers/past_issues/april_2012_vol_63_no_2/
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure
church leaders, community members
entirely quantitativeindividuals
multiple communities within one target population
no
An Instrument we developed
Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely[read the article and fill this in]Harriet Hill
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Bible at Cultural CrossroadsHillHarriet2006Côte d'Ivoire1/Adioukrou [adj]
https://www.amazon.com/Bible-Cultural-Crossroads-Translation-Communication-ebook-dp-B00LVRW3U6/dp/B00LVRW3U6
to determine the role of context in communication and BT
theory-oriented, to determine how much a translation communicates without the originally intended context.
church leaders, community members
mostly quantitativeindividuals
multiple communities within one target population
An instrument we developed
Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer
Completely[see book]Harriet Hill
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Toward a Bible Translation Strategy for the Chokosi Church in Northern Ghana
HolmanMary E1990Ghana
https://www.sil.org/resources/archives/9346
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A comparison of two translations of the New testament: lahui Si and Lahu Na
JasaUpai2018Thailand2/Lahu Si [lhi] and Lahu Na [lhu]
there were two main purposes mentioned in this article. the first one was to compare the two translations (Lahu Si and Lahu Na) to determine how they are different. The second purpose stated was to Determine which of the translation is preferred by the Lahu Si Speakers
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, theory-oriented, Comparison of two Bible translation languages and prefered bible translation by the lahu Si speaking community
community members
mostly quantitative
target community (dialect or language) - the unit at which a translation project was aimed
one community
Because one of the Authors was part of the translation team for Lahu Si version, someone else (not mentioned) was hired to do the survey and collect data around the Lahu Si region.
The collected information were analyzed in percentages.
The targeted audience were the Lahu Si speakers only.
The surveyor used Bible scripture (Acts and Jude) recordings both in Lahu Na and Lahu Si languages for the research. There were a total of 60 subjects for each research categories. They were asked to listen to the recording and answer questions.
Reported text Testing and Individual/group interview
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer
Completely
"The authors compare two translations of the Bible into related languages. One is Lahu Na, which is widely used by Lahu Si speakers. The other translation is in Lahu Si, which was recently completed but is not yet widely used. The authors explain the differences between the translations, and describe the results of a survey of Lahu Si speakers regarding which translation they prefer when given the opportunity to listen to both." (Doty and Jasa)
Lahu Na and Lahu Si according to Morris (2008, p.4) are mutually unintelligible."Yet, because Lahu Na is the lingua franca for the Lahu Si people in Thailand, most Lahu Si people have learned Lahu Na and understand it well" (Jasa, 2009, p. 5). However, this paper has shown that the Lahu Si speakers prefer there own bible translation then the Lahu Na.
Napa Yanderave
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A Participatory Assessment of Kinamayo: A Language of Eastern Mindanao
KellerSusan2011Philippines1/Kinamayo [kyk]
https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/98/06/74/98067405996536042787013356954672148969/silesr2011_035.pdf
To learn what languages and scripture materials are currently being used in the Kinamayo region. To identify the hopes of pastors and other congregational leaders for greater use of their language. To study the current sociolinguistic situation of the Kinamayo speaking people. This study was only SE in part.
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, understanding aspirations related to SE
church leaders, community members
mostly qualitative
village/individual community
multiple communities within one target population
Participatory tools: Domains of language use in Ministry, Cause and Effect Tree, Appreciative Inquiry
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members
PartiallyKinamayo Christians of all denominations expressed a desire to use their language more in singing, praying and by translating and using the Word of God.Susan Keller
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Scripture Engagement Among the Vee
KnottDavid2013South Asia
1/Vee (Pseudonym)
https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Knott_Case_Study.pdf
"The objective of this project is to provide a three year scripture engagement plan to a translation team for use in their language development work among the Vee (pseudonym) people of South Asia. This analysis is based on Dr. Dye’s framework (2009)"
theory-oriented
translation team members
mostly qualitative
target community (dialect or language)
no communities (research collected from outsiders)
Guessing the informant since it is not explicitly mentioned.
Interview (probably with a single individual)
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely"For the Christian audience, ... appropriate language and acceptable translation seem like the most significant impediment to usage. ... For the Hindu audience, ... Spiritual hunger and freedom to commit will receive the most attention." p. 14Zachariah Yoder
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Language Use in Church Survey Part 1: Brazzaville
Kouka
Jessica Lebold
2015
Republic of Congo (Brazzaville)
4/Lingala [lin], Kituba [mkw], Kikoongo [kng], French [fra]
The study was conducted to discover areas in church activities were minority Congolese languages would be considered appropriate and welcome.
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
church leaders, community members
even mix quant/qual
individual churches/congregations
one community from each of multiple target populations
Apart from the Purpose, the research hypothesis was: The language use (scripture use) in the context of church activities varies by the location of church congregation and by denominations.

Most of the informants for this research were the church members or congregation. Since there are no option given or provided for church members or congregation I select community members as the informant for this research.

Because the study was conducted in the city, it involved many languages. However, the LWC that the research covered were; Lingaga [lin], Kituba [mkw], Kikoongo [kng] and French [fra]. Other languages are used in the domains of music only.
The study used a qualitative research method and the survey tools were; Pastor interview, Individual questionnaire, Sunday morning observation from and Sunday morning general practice questionnaire.
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Partially
The result demonstrate that; Lingala & Kituba along with French & Kikoongo are accepted in Church activities, while other languages are used in domain of music only. The two most predictors of choice of language are church denomination and the location of the congregation.
Many people either hesitate to use or are unfamiliar with the Scriptures that already exist in Kituba and Lingala. Promotion of vernacular language Scriptures is not likely to succeed if even the national languages Scriptures are not being used. It was recommended that opportunities to learn and to read in Lingala and Kituba is provided, that opportunities to practice Scripture reading be found, and that some training on key Scripture terms in Lingala and Kituba be offered. Also pastors be encourage to set example by using the Lingala Bible or the Kituba New Testament in both their churches and in their personal and family devotional times.
Sampling method used was a multi-layered quota sampling. We chose quartiers within cities and sampled X number of churches from each of the major denominations present in the Republic of Congo. Within each church, we used a quota method to gather information from both lay leaders and pastoral staff.
Karl Kama, Annette Harrison
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Patronage and Usage of the Mother-Tongue in Kumasi, Ghana
Kuwornu-Adjaottor
Jonathan2012Ghana
http://ir.knust.edu.gh/bitstream/123456789/4599/1/PATRONAGE%20AND%20USAGE%20OF%20THE%2
0MOTHER%20TONGUE%20BIBLE%20IN%20KUMASI%20GHANA.pdf; http://www.scripture-engagement.org/content/patronage-and-usage-mother-tongue-bibles-kumasi-ghana
The purpose of the research was to give an overall presentation of the prevailing situation regarding the usage of the mother-tongue bibles in Kumasi, Ghana. whether they are being used by Christians; Which ones were being used; the number of Christians who have copies; and also which churches in Kumasi uses them.
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
community members
mostly quantitative
individual churches/congregations
one community
It is noted that 55% of the respondents had eight Ghanaian language Bibles. From those eight, the two that were not captured were: the Nzema [nzi] Bible and Eshahie (Sefwi [sfw]) New Testament.
The Descriptive Survey method was used with the aid of questionnaires that were administered
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials
CompletelyThis study discovered that 32.8% of the 4,650 respondents read the mother-tongue Bibles once a week. This was presumed that members who fell in that category had active engagement with the mother-tongue bible only during church service and that the probable reason for doing so was their inability to read and comprehend in their own mother-tongues

The researcher strongly recommended that churches should organize literacy classes for people who are not literate in their own mother-tongues so that they can read their mother-tongue Bible.
Roger Maikei
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Analysis Project 1984-8 Some Factors Which Influence Success or Failure in Vernacular Language Programs
LandinDavid1990
14 countries 150 SIL language programs globally
≈150/Miniafia [aai], Angave [aak], Abidji [abi], Achi, Cubulco [acc], Achi, Rabinal [acr], Agarabi [agd], Agta, Central Cagayan [agt], Aguacateco [agu], Ama [amm], Anyi [any], Apalai [apa], Apurina [apu], Araona [aro], Ashaninca Campa [as*], Atta Pamplona [att], Auyana, Awiyaana [auy], Au [avt], Barasano, Northern [bao], Bena-Bena [bef], Bete (Guiberoua) [bet], Biangai [big], Bahinemo [bjh], Bontoc Eastern [bkb], Bassar [bsc], Barasano, Southern [bsn], Baruya [byr], Chorti [caa], Carib, Black [cab], Cakchiquel, Central [cak], Chipaya [cap], Caluyanun [cau], Carapana [cbc], Chavakano [cbk], Cacua [cbv], Kagayanen [cgc], Lealoa Chinanteco [cle], Chinanteco, Lalana [cnl], Coreguaje [coe], Chinanteco, Sochiapa [cso], Cubeo [cub], Desano [des], Dogon [dog], Eastern Kagayan Agta [duo], Ese Ejja [ese], Gahuku [gah], Gadsup [gaj], Ga'dang [gdg], Guajajara [gub], Guajiro [guc], Guahibo/Guajibo [guh], Guarani, Brazilian [gun], Guayabero [guo], Guanano [gvc], Guarayu [gyr], Hewa [ham], Huitoto, Meneca [hto], Ifugao Batad [ifb], Isnag [isd], Ibatan [ivb], Ixil, San Juan Cotza [ixl], Karaboro [kar], Kamano-Kafe [kbq], Kekchi [kek], Kaiwa [kgk], Kalam [kmh], Limos Kalinga [kmk], Kamasau [kms], Kanite [kmu], Kalinga Guinaang [knb], Kankanaey [kne], Kogi [kog], Kol [kol], Komba [kpf], Kwanga [kwj], Kayabi [ky*], Kayabi [kyz], Karang [kzr], Satere-Mawe [mav], Menye [mcr], Maleu [mgl], Magar, Eastern [mgp], Mixteco, San Juan Co [miz], Mamanwa [mmn], Mbula [mna], Mopan Maya [mop], Dadibi [mps], Mianmin [mpt], Mundani [mun], Mam,Western/Occident [mvc], Mam,Todos Santos [mvj], Munduruku [myu], Macuna [myy], Patep [mzi], Narak [nac], Nafaanra [nfr], Ngbaka [nga], Nyabwa [nia], Koozime [nje], Ngyemboon [nnh], Numanggang [nop], Nso [nso], Tepehuan, Northern [ntp], Orokaiva [ork], Oiampi [oya], Parecis [pab], Paumari [pad], Tenharim/Parintintin [pah], Paez [pbb], Podoko [pbi], Piapoco [pio], Pocomam, Eastern [poa], Central Pokomam [poc], Popoloca, Eastern [poe], Podopa [ppo], Sth Bolivian Quechua [qul], Canela [ram], Sambali Botolan [sbl], Sursurunga [sgz], Saija [sja], Sama, Pangutaran [slm], Tina Sambal [sna], Siriano [sri], Surui [sru], Sama Balangingi [sse], Takia [tbc], Tboli [tbl], Ticuna [tca], Terena [tea], Tifal [tif], Tikar [tik], Timbe [tim], Tacana [tna], Totonaco, Coyutla [toc], Mam, Tectitan [ttc], Tuyuca [tue], Tucano [tuo], Kayapo [txu], Urubu-Kaapor [urb], Uspanteco [usp], Iduna [viv], Usan [wnu], Wobe [wob], Waskia [wsk], Yamba [yam], Yucuna [ycn], Yele [yle], Zulgo [zul]
https://www.dropbox.com/sh/3cvjbsrcf31moxm/AAACyVfRnj4Bba-tyV7JDmK_a?dl=0
To look at a wide variety of mature SIL projects to see what factors might lead to "success" in the area of Scripture use. Looked at a number of untested SIL myths regarding successful programs to see which if any had significant impact. Discover how “the language philosophy and use of the many Christian agencies now present in areas where we work… affect the outcome of our programs" (Landin, 1).
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure
translation team members
mostly quantitative
target community (dialect or language)
no communities (research collected from outsiders)
data collected from experienced translation personnel
One-to-one interviews lasting about 2 hours each, with experienced translators, using a detailed questionnaire.
Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
MostlyMost language locations where SIL members work have other mission agencies operating. The vast majority of the other agencies do not use vernacular (local) language. They prefer to use the lingua franca in their communications with local people. They rarely learn or speak local languages. They establish churches using the national or trade language. The language used in most of these Churches is lingua franca not local language. This radically (negatively) affects take-up and use of vernacular language scriptures. "S.I.L. is in a changing environment on the fields, an environment where there is constantly increasing activity by other churches and missions. These churches and missions often hold the key to success or failure of S.I.L. programs, and this key is closely related to their degree of use and encouragement of the vernacular languages. S.I.L. may ignore these changes because our work can continue without regard to our environment. S.I.L. is not like a corporation dependent upon sales for its continued existence. We are in fact market insensitive. There is no natural economic feedback mechanism as there would be in a commercial corporation, where falling sales can mean corporate death. But in SIL whether or not the consumer wants our product, we can and will continue to produce it.
But if we ignore the key role which other Churches play in the success or otherwise of S.I.L. programs, we will find feedback of another type, which can have the same detrimental effect on our corporation as falling sales would in a commercial corporation. That feedback will come from increasing numbers of translators returning disillusioned from the field, because their translation was not accepted and used" (Landin, 10-11 of 'Analysis Project Reset, 2000).
David Landin
31
Contextualised Language CHOICE in the Church in Kenya.
LuchiviaJohn2012Kenya
multiple languages used in the four churches studied
http://www.scripture-engagement.org/content/contextualised-language-choice-church-kenya
Looking at factors that determine how multilingual people decide which language to engage with Scripture in.
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, language choice
church leaders, community members
mostly qualitative
individual churches/congregations
multiple communities from multiple target populations
besides individual churches and congregations, I looked at denominations and individual members as well.
Focus groups, Participant observations, interviews
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 5. Availability of materials
CompletelySeveral factors determine how people choose a language(s) to engage in. This is different for individuals and congregations as well.John Ommani
32
Early engagements with the Bible among the Gogo people of Tanzania : historical and hermeneutical study of ordinary "readers" transactions with the Bible.
MagombaMote Paulo2004Tanzania1/Gogo [gog]
https://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/handle/10413/2099
How the Gogo people have "encountered" and interpreted the Bible traced through history. Also a comparison of "early readers" and "present ordinary readers" perceptions of what the Bible is.
measure impact or transformation, theory-oriented
church leaders, community members
entirely qualitativeindividuals
multiple communities within one target population
I think we may need to add "historical archives" as an informant (this is popular when tracing impact of Scriptures on conversion to Christianity)
"archival research and local field work have been done in the earliest mission centres in Mpwapwa, Kongwa, Mvumi, Buigiri and in Dodoma"
Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members
Completely"In central Tanzania today, perceptions of the Bible as the Word of God and an object charged with power are as equally prevalent as they were about seventy years ago." p. 182Zachariah Yoder
33
From Scripture Access to Scripture Engagement: What Facilitates and Hinders Scripture Engagement in the Minyanka Churches of Mali?
MargettsRichard2013Mali
1/Minyanka (Sénoufu, Mamara) [myk]
http://www.scripture-engagement.org/content/from-scripture-access-to-scripture-engagement
"This paper evaluates the factors that have facilitated and hindered the process of interacting with God's Word. It includes an examination of the role of Bible understanding, literacy and methods of oral communication as well as the relationship between the Bible agency and the local churches" (p. ii.) and the paper also aims "to propose practical suggestions to assist the [Minyanka] Bible translation team and churches in recalibrating their strategies and highlighting areas for attention" (p. 3).
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology, theory-oriented
translation team members, church leaders, community members
even mix quant/qual
individuals
multiple communities within one target population
"Explorative approach" which examines existing literature and initial interviews to develop a research questionnaire used in local churches. Those results are interpreted using follow-up interviews with Malian Bible translators, pastors and expatriate colleagues. Also documentary research on SE in Minyanka church in the past and present.
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely"The availability of the Scriptures in the mother tongue, Minyanka, has been a major factor in facilitating engagement with God’s Word. It has helped both in terms of understanding the Scriptures better and in enabling people to relate to God by means of their own language" (p. 54). Pastors are seen as the main ones to handle God's Word, but their parishioners also want to be equipped. Teaching the Bible's grand narrative is one key task for pastors to focus on more. Churches need to do more to help young people grow in their knowledge of the Bible. "Minyanka Christians appreciate having access to the Bible in a variety of ways" (p. 56). The audio NT by FCBH was launched only three months after the release of the print NT, which has been instrumental in people engaging with Scripture. Respondents said they would like their pastors to continue and add more activities that are both literate and oral. The translation team has been predominantly Malian, from the largest Protestant evangelical church in the area, supporting ownership and good integration of SE activities within church structures. Need to address whether ongoing SE initiatives can remain sustainable because they were started using significant outside funding. The Minyanka church needs to examine how to reawaken spiritual passion that is paling in comparison to the original movement to Christ that came with demonstrations of power many years ago, when there was Bible access only through a second language.Charlie Hanawalt
34
PNG findings from the SIL International (2005) Scripture Use Research Project
MattocksRich2005
Papua New Guinea
4/Ubir [ubr], Gwahatike [dah], Sinaugoro [snc], Kamano-Kafe [kbq]
None.
1. Conduct research into factors that most crucially affect the acceptance and use of Scriptures within church communities where translated Scriptures are available.
2. Where the crucial factors are not already present, discover what activities are most successful in bringing the desired level of Scripture use.
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
translation team members, church leaders, community members
mostly quantitativeindividuals
multiple communities from multiple target populations
The unit of analysis was individuals, churches and denominations. We also looked at factors and environments (Church, home, school etc) to try to understand how multilingual people decide which language to engage with Scripture.
Questionnaire in individual interviews 30 min to 1.5 hours each. Four languages were selected in PNG based on the International criteria: 39 churches were interviewed, 16 denominations, 272 church members (47 questions for each member); 72 pastors and leaders (58 questions for each pastor) and 33 focus groups (14 discussion questions for each discussion group).
Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely
By focusing early on in programs on relationships and material development that have the strongest pull for the community to use, language teams can have a high impact over time on the eventual use of the local language (LL) Scripture in PNG. These materials need to be produced prior to publishing large passages of Scripture. There is a direct correlation between the use of hymn books (and easily recorded hymn tapes) and LL Bible use in church, literacy, and sales of the New Testaments.
Wayne's Dye's 8 conditions were 7 conditions at the point of this research. After the research I strongly encouraged Wayne to add "Accuracy and quality of the translation." I am noticing a higher use of Scriptures translated by expats who came from multi-lingual environments/upbringing. I would like to see a study of high and low use of translations led by expats by examining whether the expat lead translator was raised in a mono or multi-language environment (This could be done based on nationality).
Rich Mattocks
35
Bible Translation as Contextualization: The role of oral performance in New Testament and African contexts. Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 2008
MaxeyJames2008Africa
https://www.biblicalperformancecriticism.org/index.php/2011-08-26-20-28-44/articles-mainmenu-37/articles/2-maxey-precis/file
36
An Analysis of the Reception and Appropriation of the Bible by Manobo Christians in Central Mindanao
McMahonWilson David2017Philipines
8/Cebuano [ceb]
Manobo, Ata [atd]
Manobo, Matigsalug [mbt]
Manobo, Dibabaown [mbd]
Manobo, Catabato [mta]
Manobo, Obo [obo]
Manobo, Agusan [msm]
Saragani, Blaan [bps]
https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/28958/McMahon2018.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y; https://omf.org/blog/2018/10/09/mother-tongue-translation-versus-lingua-franca-some-thoughts-on-a-missiological-mainstay/?fbclid=IwAR2ymB3DpusF1htXRidO0VDpfKNVTGQj6aZoXgEXXVEzOTSD1oeSwfvOIK0
The purpose of this thesis is to examine how Christians, within a minority people in the southern Philippines, view the Bible conceptually as a source of spiritual authority and also how they read and interpret the Bible, both privately and within the context of community worship. Reading and studying the Bible is now a universal phenomenon, resulting from the expansion of Christianity through the efforts of the Christian missionary movement.
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, evaluate a Scripture engagement methodology
translation team members, church leaders, community members
entirely qualitativeindividuals
multiple communities within one target population
Qualitative Research Methods and tool are used in this research. Primary sources are: personal prayer letters, journals, magazines and annual reports, interviews (individual and group) and recordings. The sampling of research includes the Manobo Bible Church Association of Mindanao (MABCAM) church members, Sunday School and Youth Bible Study Recordings, and other churches that the translators in the translating team are from. The church leaders were asked to pick interviewees from their churches and they (church leaders) helped with the interview.
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members
MostlyThe research shows that there is a decline interest in vernacular scripture, this is because of education and prestige, demography, pastoral training and the translation itself. The shift from traditional way of life to modernity which include education, migration of other language speaker in their community after WW1 and pastors being trained in the Language of Wider Communication are some of the reasons that is causing little to no engagement with vernacular scriptures.

What the author believe from his own research and wider reading suggest is that absolutizing the “translation principle” is not a sustainable option for mission strategy. The potential of a mother tongue translation of the Bible should be determined by context and, in particular, how indigenous peoples interact with their LWC, rather than by uncritical loyalty to a supposedly inviolable principle.
Beautlyn Eliab
37
The Use of Local Language Materials in Southwest Tanzania
MitterhoferBernadette2019Tanzania8/Kinga [zga], Malila [mgq], Ndali [ndh], Nyakyusa [nyy], Nyiha [nih], Safwa [sbk], Sangu [sbp] and Vwanji [wbi]
"The main purpose of the survey was to investigate to what extent local people use already produced materials in their languages, both on a personal level and on a communal level, which materials are used and to explore the different factors which influence people's use of local language materials."
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure
church leaders, community members
even mix quant/qual
individuals
multiple communities from multiple target populations
Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials
MostlyBernadette Mitterhofer
38
A Strategy for Promoting the Use of the Vernacular Scriptures in the Cameroon Baptist Convention Churches in Nso’ Tribe, Cameroon: A Biblical Perspective
NgehShey Samuel2015Cameroon1/Nso' [lns]
https://www.sats.edu.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Ngeh_MThThesis_Final_Oct2015.pdf
"to devise a strategy for promoting Lamnso’ scriptures for extensive use" in Baptist Churches among the Nso' speakers. (Other denominations use the Scriptures more)
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, theory-oriented
church leaders
even mix quant/qual
individual churches/congregations
multiple communities within one target population
Questionnaires sent to churches (more than fifty) and interviews with a few church pastors
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials
CompletelyThe author presents detailed results but no clear summary. Challenges with languages choices in the church, awareness and availability of materials, and illiteracy are highlighted.Zachariah Yoder
39
Vernacular Scripture Evangelism in the Multilingual Context of Northern Nigeria: Application of Sociolinguistic Theory to Scripture Promotion.
Niyang
Stephen Dakan Jel
1996Nigeria11/Hausa [hau], Kanuri [kau], Tiv [tiv], Fulani [fuq], Nupe [nup], Anga [hag], Berom [bom], Kamwe (Higi) [hig], Jju (Kaje) [kaj], Mumuye [mzm], Mwaghavul [sur]
“This study explores the factors affecting the use of vernacular Bibles among
people speaking minority languages”
“To see the maximum effect of vernacular translations in the multilingual
churches in Northern Nigeria”
measure impact or transformation, theory-oriented
church leadersentirely qualitativeindividuals
multiple communities from multiple target populations
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture
CompletelyCondition 1: P. 124
1. Ethnic languages used for African traditional religions and festivals
2. Hausa is used for Christianity
3. Arabic is used for Islam
4. English is used for education and government
Condition 2: P. 101
"Every church has a large geographical area and is mixed and if you insist on your own language the church will split and the church will be tribalized based on linguistic boundaries."
Vernacular scriptures could be used in villages and where there is a single tribe. But it could not be used in churches (pp. 63-64)
Condition 3: P. 78
Niyang ran tests to see how people were able to comprehend the current (1932) Bible translation in Hausa.
Joseph Carter
40
Umuhimu wa Biblia: An investigation into how Tanzanian Christians perceive and engage with God’s Word.
O'DonnellKatherine2013Tanzania
4/Vwanji [wbi], Bena [bez], Malila [mgq], Safwa [sbk]
http://scripture-engagement.org/content/umuhimu-wa-biblia
"This study examines both what Tanzanian Christians think about the Bible and the way they engage with it, through a review of the literature on Bible use in Africa and primary research in the Mbeya-Iringa Cluster Project of SIL International. Data was gathered through a mixed method approach using questionnaires (with respondents selected through purposive sampling across four language areas) and a group interview (with the Literacy/Scripture Use Coordinators who administered the questionnaires)."
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, theory-oriented
church leaders, community members
even mix quant/qual
individuals
one community from each of multiple target populations
States "as from a constructivist stance I was more interested in descriptive rather than quantitative results" p. 27, and includes both quantitative and qualitative results.
Questionnaires & semi-structured group interview
Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members
Completely
"The research revealed that Tanzanians commonly see the Bible as the Word of God, though what they mean by this is less clear. Preaching, prayer meetings, Bible seminars and songs were most commonly ranked as very important for growing in faith. Further, respondents most frequently engaged with the Bible by reading or listening to it at church (80%), reading alone (55%), singing (47%) or praying (45%). There was a clear discrepancy between their level of Bible engagement and the importance they ascribed to it. Only 63% owned a complete Swahili Bible, while far fewer used mother-tongue Scriptures. Most people seemed to interpret the Bible simply and directly, but not always contextually or accurately, and saw the Bible’s central message as being one of judgement, sin or salvation. Variations were sometimes found between genders, denominations and language areas. Amongst other things, the findings suggest that Scripture Engagement workers should use methods appropriate for oral and communal societies, provide training for pastors and lay Christians in hermeneutics and other Bible engagement tools and facilitate the distribution of Christian literature."
This research was done as part of an MA Dissertation.
Katherine O'Donnell
41
Ikwo Culture: Its impact in communicating the Scriptures. Fuller Theological Seminary, School of World Mission, 1991
OvuobaJohn Igwe1991Nigeria
Hatcher https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf; https://books.google.com.pg/books/about/Ikwo_Culture.html?id=xnswHwAACAAJ&redir_esc=y
42
Impact & Outcome Instrument Development: Phas I and Phase II Reports
ReesorAllen2009Ghana
9/Siwu [akp], Tuwuli [bov], Selee , Sekpele, Avatime, Deg, Anufo, Buli, Kusaal
mailto://info@metadigmgroup.com
"In Phase One of this project, the following four domains were identified as predictors of high end use of TSC translation projects: Cultural Adjustment, Social Capital, Community Empowerment1, and Leadership. In Phase II of this project, the Metadigm Group conducted a literature review to identify indicators that could serve as measurements of these four domains." p. 4 Validation field research: "Objectives 1. Garner feedback on survey instrument and administration from technical and impact partners. 2. Administer survey instrument to intended audiences for validation purposes. 3. Gather anecdotal feedback on project progress to calibrate survey and ensure proper scoring. 4. Finalize survey instrument for further reliability testing in multiple countries." p. 19
measure impact or transformation
program managers, translation team members
mostly qualitative
target community (dialect or language)
one community
Research seems to have been collected in a central site where project staff from the various researches met one group at a time with the outside staff. Not sure how many communities this represents.
Survey completed by 6-8 members of project staff followed by focus groups giving anecdotal feedback.
Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely
The report doesn't include a summary interpreting the results. My own summary is that people found the OTFI (instrument) easy to engage with but that it didn't seem to get consistent results with the anecdotal information.
Phase III, completed in 2010, was not included in this review.
Zachariah Yoder
43
Bena Scripture Use Survey ReportRichardsonDan2009
Papua New Guinea
1/Bena [bef]
"Investigate how much [the Bena New Testament] is being used, begin to identify which barriers to Scripture use are most likely in place, and recommend possible ways to address those barriers."
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, Identify specific barriers to Scripture engagement
church leaders, community members
even mix quant/qual
individuals
multiple communities within one target population
Individual interviews with church leaders, group interviews with community members, observation of church services, word list elicitation
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith
Completely"The major factors causing low levels of Scripture use in the Bena language area are language and
dialect, appropriate media, appropriate translation and obtainability."
Juliann Bullock
44
Gwahatike SU SurveyRuppertRachel2017
Papua New Guinea
1/Gwahatiketo ascertain the level of VSU throughout the Gwahatike language area and to identify any factors helping or inhibiting VSU
community members and church leaders
even mix of quant/qual, with more data collected in qualitative methods and converted to quantitative scores for comparability and analysis
individuals (for questionaires) and village/ individual communities (for the participatory tool)
9 villages within the Gwahatike language area
questionaires and a new participatory tool: Rivers and BridgesVSU was low in Gwahatike. Dialect differences, low literacy, pooor distribution, and attitudes about the translation and the translation project were all factors inhibiting VSU.Rachel Ruppert
45
Factors in Cameroonian Christian leadership for Bible translation. Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Intercultural Studies, 2013
Shultz
George Frederick
2013Cameroon
https://www.silcam.org/fr/resources/archives/54069; https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf; https://books.google.com.pg/books/about/Ikwo_Culture.html?id=xnswHwAACAAJ&redir_esc=y
46
Scripture Use Analysis and Plan Done for the Pouye of Papua New Guinea
SmuckerSamuel2012
Papua New Guinea
1/Pouye [bye]
https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Smucker_Case_Study.pdf
This applied Wayne Dye's "8 conditions of Scripture Use" to the Pouye translation project and suggested a road map ahead for improved Scripture Use. "To define barriers and give solutions to Scripture use among the Pouye people of Papua New Guinea. " p. 1
Evaluate a language group and suggest ways to improve Scripture Engagement. Measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, theory-oriented.
translation team members
entirely qualitative
target community (dialect or language)
no communities (research collected from outsiders)
Interviews
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 4. Background Knowledge of the Hearer, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
CompletelyFour of the eight conditions (1, 2, 3, and 8) were a six or higher on the Welser scale. The other four were a four or lower. Most significant conditions lacking are Availability and Spiritual Hunger. "As can be seen, the major issues fall in two categories. 1.Low literacy rates and no oral media 2.Inadequate addressing of “middle level” with Scriptures." (so people turn to Scripture instead of traditional religion) p. 2Sam Smucker
47
The translation of the Bible into Korean: Its history and significance. Drew University, 1993
SoKi Jong1993Korea
Hatcher https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf
48
Impact of Vernacular Bible Translation on the Dagomba and the Konkomba of Northern Ghana in the Light of Lamin Sanneh's Conception of Mission as Translation.
Sule-SaSolomon2011Ghana
2/Dabomba [dag], Konkomba [kon]
https://heartlanguage.org/tag/dagomba/ or mailto://ed.lauber@wycliffe.net
It documents the dramatic impact the translation of the Bible has had in two languages in northern Ghana, the Konkomba and Dagomba.
measure impact or transformation
church leaders
even mix quant/qual
individual churches/congregations
multiple communities within one target population
I extrapolated this information a bit from a single comment on a blog stating "He and his fellow researchers had collected information about all the churches in every city, town, village and hamlet in Ghana." I don't have the original work.
"It documents the dramatic impact the translation of the Bible has had in two languages in northern Ghana, the Konkomba and Dagomba. Before the translation, both peoples rejected Christianity, seeing it as a faith of outsiders. Numerous attempts to evangelize them failed. But once the Bible was translated, many Konkomba and Dagomba put their trust in Christ." (From a blog about the work)
I have written to request the original work. Plan to update this when I get it.
Zachariah Yoder
49
Theological Implications of Some Translations of the Old Testament. University of Pretoria (South Africa), 1987
Swanepoel
Francois Arnoldus
1987
Hatcher https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf
50
Bible translation and social literacies among four Nso' churches in Cameroon: an ethnographic study
TrudellJoel2004CameroonNso'Carter has report
51
SURAM final report
van den Berg
René2017
Papua New Guinea
11 languages
contact languagesurvey_png at sil.org
Investigate the use or non-use of vernacular Scriptures in 11 languages in PNG, and find out about the factors that help and hinder such use. "SURAM (Scripture Use Research and Ministry) attempted to address the following three questions: 1) To what extent are the vernacular Scripture translations produced by SIL in Papua New Guinea (PNG) actually used? 2) What are the crucial factors that help or hinder Vernacular Scripture Use (VSU) in a given language community? 3) What can SIL PNG (and other entities within SIL International) learn from these findings, leading to better practices/strategies and more effective and sustainable outcomes?" (6)
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, identify factors that help or hinder VSU (Vernacular Scripture Use)
translation team members, church leaders, community members
even mix quant/qual
target community (dialect or language)
multiple communities from multiple target populations
Data collection was primarily via qualitative methods, data quantified on the field by consensus decision-making according to pre-defined scale descriptions.
Interviews using a variety of questionnaires (general, church leaders, school staff), observations, group discussions using participatory methods. Scores given to pre-defined scales for factors assessed by SURAM, informal history-retelling, literacy tests, quality of translation test/evaluation
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
Completely1. VSU is every uneven in PNG. Out of the 11 target communities there was low or no VSU in 6, fair VSU in 2 and good VSU in 3 communities.
2. Members of SIL have underestimated the barriers to starting a vernacular NT.
3. Some of SIL's traditional assumptions need to be reassessed (e.g. SIL can focus exclusively on a quality product, since the local church will take responsibility for distribution and use after the dedication). Of 11 languages, found 3 good, 2 fair, 6 low vernacular Scripture use. 4 conclusions and 15 recommendations resulted. Incomplete answers to the 14 hypotheses/factors.
4 conclusions: “1. VSU is very uneven in PNG. 2. We in SIL have probably underestimated the barriers to start using a vernacular NT. 3. Some of SIL’s traditional assumptions need to be reassessed. 4. New and important VSU factors that emerged during the research: Reading fluency levels. Time spent by the expat translators on VSU activities after the dedication. 5. The effect and outcome of a translation project is never guaranteed" (2-page SURAM summary).
recommendations from 2-page summary: “1. Engage firmly with church leaders in current projects. 2. Projects should not be viewed as completed when the NT is finished. 3. Re-engage with ‘finished’ projects. 4. Visit the whole language area regularly. 5. Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of current translation projects. 6. The SIL translators and the SIL administrators have a joint responsibility to remain engaged with the language community after the NT dedication to work on Scripture Engagement. 7. Use progressive engagement for the remaining 280 languages in PNG without vernacular Scripture. 8. Recruit or develop distribution specialists. 9. Avoid simplistic messages in publicity and recruitment materials. 10. Do similar VSU research in other countries.”
René van den Berg
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Bible translation and the Church: Toward an integrated approach, with special emphasis on Pokoot (Kenya). Fuller Theological Seminary, School of World Mission, 1990
van Steenbergen
Gerrit Jan1990Kenya
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/36295754_Bible_translation_and_the_church_toward_an_integrated_approach_with_special_emphasis_on_Pokoot_Kenya; https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf
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A critical examination of translation and evaluation norms in Russian Bible translation. University of South Africa (South Africa), 2002
WehrmeyerJennifer Ella2002Russia
http://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/1763; https://www.diu.edu/documents/gialens/Vol7-2/Hatcher_Introduction.pdf
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The Impact of Vernacular Scriptures: Assessing the Benefit of Local Language Scriptures among the Bilingual Malila and Nyiha Communities of Tanzania
WoodwardMark2014Tanzania
2/Malila [mgq], Nyiha [nih]
http://scripture-engagement.org/sites/default/files/Woodward%20M%202014%20Impact%20of%20Vernacular%20Scriptures.pdf
"This dissertation will focus on multilingual communities, investigating how they engage with Scriptures in both Swahili and their local language, and how these Scriptures are perceived. The aim will be to assess what benefit, if any, multilingual communities receive from having access to Scriptures in their local language in addition to Swahili, to provide insight into the strategic planning of current and future local language translation projects" (pg. 11-12).
measure impact or transformation, measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, theory-oriented
church leaders, community members
mostly qualitativeindividuals
multiple communities from multiple target populations
The author states that he used participatory action research rather than a quantitative or qualitative method.
Participatory action research from an applied theological approach using church leader interviews, a survey of what Scriptures people own and observation of language choices and how people engaged with Scripture
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials
CompletelyTranslations helped bring improved comprehension in both language communities, depending on how well an individual knows Swahili. Respondents seemed to prefer the local language Scriptures over the Swahili for emotional reasons. They affirmed that translation into the local language itself carried great importance, showing God's desire to communicate to them. Respondents also saw translation as helping develop and preserve local language and culture. Church leaders did not see local language use in church as a threat to church unity in multi-ethnic church contexts.Charlie Hanawalt
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YoderZachariah2013Nigeria"Discover what factors influence the extent of Scripture use within Nigerian communities that have had BT projects."
"People who were sufficiently knowledgeable about the community to give impressions about the use of Scripture in these languages." (Mostly mother tongue programme managers and translators)
even mix of quant/qual,
target community (language)
A few individuals from within community
Single questionnaireZachariah Yoder
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A Scripture Engagement Research in *
2013Asia1/*
"to find out the history of the * Bible, its use in the churches and the issues for not using it" and "[to find] ways to address the issues of Scripture Engagement" (p. 1)
measure usage of products or frequency of exposure, discover the history of a product
church leaders, community members
entirely qualitativeindividuals
multiple communities within one target population
individual and group interviews using questions based on Dye's Eight Conditions and direct tests of people's reactions to * Bible stories, and group planning discussions
Condition 1. Appropriate Language, Dialect and Orthography, Condition 2. Appropriate Translation, Condition 3. Accessible Forms of Scripture, Condition 5. Availability of materials, Condition 6. Spiritual Hunger of Community Members, Condition 7. Freedom to Commit to Christian Faith, Condition 8. Partnership Between Translators and Other Stakeholders
CompletelyMany older Christians see the * language as tied to Hinduism and themselves use Hindi. Newer believers are excited about a * translation. Most * Christians are unaware that a translation exists, though, because 95% of the original 10,000 printed Bibles were distributed to non-Christians and the translation was not promoted in the churches. Christian leaders who do know about the translation do not promote it for several reasons, including lack of acceptance of the Hindu translators and mixing of dialects. At the follow-up planning meeting for pastors, all pastors indicated positive attitudes towards using * in evangelism. They said they would like materials for believers (songs & revised NT and OT) and for non-believers (audio NT and JESUS Film).Charlie Hanawalt
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