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Duplessis, Georges Victor AntoineMarch 19, 1834Chartres, FranceMarch 26, 1899Paris, FranceCurator Print Room Bibliothèque nationale; self-trained specialist in the history of engraving. The father of Duplessis was Pierre Alexandre Gratet-Duplessis (1792-1853), who had held positions of <em>recteur </em>at the academies of Douai and Lyon between 1827 and 1830. After his retirement, in 1841, he settled in Paris, where he devoted himself to the education of his son. The younger Duplessis had an exceptional passion for images and prints. He attended the Lycée Saint-Louis in Paris. After his father's death, in 1853, he entered the Print Room of the Bibliothèque nationale as an intern. His first years of service in this institution already were significant. As soon as 1855 he published a new edition of <u>Le Livre des peintres et graveurs par Michel de Marolles, abbé de Villeloin </u>(1600-1681). With Anatole de Montaiglon he co-authored a study on the French sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon in the <u>Revue universelle des arts</u> (1855-1856), and he was an art critic for engraving at the 1855 Salon. His catalog of the oeuvre of the seventeenth-century French engraver Abraham Bosse appeared in the <u>Revue universelle des arts</u> (1859). Duplessis was a contributor to the <u>Gazette des Beaux-Arts</u> and <u>Magasin pittoresque</u>. In addition to the edition of several catalogs and inventories, he wrote a number of monographs on engraving, his main field of interest. Duplessis earned the Prix Bordin from the Académie des Beaux-Arts for his 1861 study, <u>Histoire de la gravure en France</u>. He then traveled to Rome. He wrote an overview on historic costumes for a two-volume plate book of engravings after drawings by Edward Lechevallier-Chevignard, published in 1867, <u>Costumes historiques des XVIe, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles</u>. In 1869 a more popularizing book followed, <u>Les merveilles de la gravure</u>, which appeared in an English translation a year later. In the tumultuous year of the occupation of Paris (1870) Duplessis was appointed librarian. He held the position of secretary of the Société française de gravure (1873) and of the Société nationale des antiquaires de France (1874). The latter association elected him president in 1882. For the second time, in 1875, Duplessis won the prix Bordin for his monograph <u>De la gravure de portrait en France</u>. He published a monograph on the French caricaturist Paul Gavarni (1804-1866) in 1876, together with fourteen unpublished drawings of the artist. Under <a href="delabordeh.htm">Henri Delaborde</a> Duplessis obtained, in 1876, the position of deputy curator of the Print Room. Between 1877 and 1884 he published the five-volume inventory of the print collection of Michel Hennin (d. 1865). Duplessis published a series of albums of the oeuvre of famous etchers and engravers, such as Van Dyck, Potter, Lorrain, Dürer, Mantegna, Schongauer, and Lucas van Leyden. At the invitation of Maison Hachette, Duplessis wrote a critical overview of the history of engraving in Western Europe, which was published in 1880. It is considered his most important work. Particularly interested in iconography he studied Andrea Alciati's <em>emblemata</em>, <u>Les livres à gravures du XVIe siècle. Emblèmes d'Alciat</u>. He was appointed curator of the Print Room in 1885. With <a href="bouchoth.htm">Henri Bouchot</a> he co-authored the <u>Dictionnaire des marques et monogrammes de graveurs</u>. In 1891 Duplessis was elected a <em>membre libre</em> of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. He retired in 1897 due to poor health and succeeded by Bouchot, who was appointed deputy curator in 1898. Duplessis died in 1899. His widow, who died in 1926, bequeathed the library of her husband to the Académie des Beaux-Arts.FranceLimouzin-Lamothe, R. "Georges Duplessis" in <u>Dictionnaire de biographie française</u>, vol. 12, 1970, p. 395; Bouchot, Henri. <u>M. Georges Duplessis, membre de l'Institut, conservateur des estampes à la Bibliothèque nationale, 1834-1899</u>. Paris: Impr. de Lahure, 1899; Müntz, Eugène. <u>Bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de Paris et de l'Ile-de-France</u> 26 (1899): 74-75; Durand, R. <u>Procès-verbaux de la Société archéologique d'Eure-et-Loir</u> (1901): 138; Martin, Henri. "Notice nécrologique sur Georges Duplessis" <u>Bulletin Société nationale des Antiquaires de France</u> (1904): 79-91. [complete bibliography] "Ouvrages de M. Georges Duplessis" in Bouchot, Henri. <u>M. Georges Duplessis ..</u>., pp 47-48; <u>Le Livre des peintres et graveurs par Michel de Marolles, abbé de Villeloin.</u> Paris: P. Jannet, 1855; <u>La gravure française au Salon de 1855</u>. Paris: E. Dentu, 1855; <u>Histoire de la gravure en France</u>. Paris: Rapilly, 1861; <u>Costumes historiques des XVIe, XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, dessinés par E. Lechevallier-Chevignard, gravés par A. Didier, L. Flameng, F. Laguillermie, etc</u>. Paris: Lévy, 1867; <u>Les merveilles de la gravure</u>. Paris: Hachette, 1869, English, <u>The Wonders of Engraving</u>. New York: C. Scribner & Co, 1871; <u>Eaux-fortes de Antoine van Dyck</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1874; <u>De la gravure de portrait en France</u>. Paris: Rapilly, 1875; <u>Eaux-fortes de Claude Lorrain</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1875; <u>Eaux-fortes de Paul Potter</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1875; <u>Oeuvre de Albert Durer</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1877; <u>Inventaire de la collection d'estampes relatives à l'histoire de France, léguée en 1863 à la Bibliothèque nationale par Michel Hennin</u>. 5 vols. Paris: H. Menu, 1877-1884; <u>Oeuvre de A. Mantegna</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1878; <u>Histoire de la gravure en Italie, en Espagne, en Allemagne, dans les Pays-Bas, en Angleterre et en France, suivie d'indications pour former une collection d'estampes</u>. Paris: Librairie Hachette et Cie, 1880; <u>Oeuvre de Martin Schongauer</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1881; <u>Oeuvre de Lucas de Leyde</u>. Paris: Amand-Durand, 1883; <u>Les livres à gravures du XVIe siècle. Emblèmes d'Alciat</u>. Paris: Librairie de l'Art, 1884; and Bouchot, Henri. <u>Dictionnaire des marques et monogrammes de graveurs</u>. Paris: J. Rouam, 1886-1887.Georges Victor Antoine Gratet-Duplessis; Georges Victor Antoine Duplessis; Georges DuplessisMonique Daniels
Abbott, Jere1897Dexter, Maine, USA1982Dexter, Maine, USAAmericanist art historian; first associate director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Abbott was born to Arthur Abbott and Flora Parkman (Abbott). After attending Dexter High School, Abbott graduated from Bowdin College with a bachelor's degree in science and attended graduate school at Harvard University in physics. At Harvard he met Alfred Barr, Jr., (q.v.) who would become the first director of the Museum of Modern Art. Barr and Abbott spent time in Paris studying art. Barr appointed Abbott to be his first associate director, taking care of much of the day-to-day operations of the museum. In 1932 Abbott accepted a position as Director, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts where he remained until 1946. As director, Abbott was instrumental in acquiring modernist works such as Picasso's cubist <u>Table, Guitar, and Bottle</u> (1919) as he had done for the Museum of Modern Art. He was adjunct faculty at Smith and taught courses in art history. He was a fellow of the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. After his retirement from Smith, Abbott moved to his home town of Dexter, Maine, where his family operated the Amos Abbott Woolen Manufacturing Company. Abbott served as the treasurer for the Company. At his death, Abbott left a $4.3-million acquisition fund to the Colby College Museum of Art.United StatesKantor, Sybil Gordon. <u>Alfred H. Barr, Jr., and the Intellectual Origins of the Museum of Modern Art</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002; Marquis, Alice Goldfarb. <u>Alfred H. Barr, Jr.: Missionary for the Modern</u>. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989; [obituaries:] <u>New York Times</u> July 22, 1982, p. D 19.<u>Lautrec-Redon</u>. Tenth Loan Exhibition. February 1-March 2, 1931. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1931.
Walter Halsey Abell; Walter Abell;
Abell, Walter 1897Brooklyn, NY1956East Lansing, MIArt educator and theorist, applied Marxist and psychological approaches to his interpretations of art. Sponsored by Barnes Foundation to study in France. Taught: Antioch College, 1925-27; Acadia University (Canada), 1928-43; Michigan State University, 1943-56.United StatesKleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. (Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2). Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, 101; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, 74; <u>Who Was Who in American Art</u> . New York: R.R. Bowker, 1956: 2.<u>Collective Dream in Art: A Psycho-Historical Theory of Culture based on Relations between the Arts, Psychology, and the Social Sciences</u>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957; <u>Representation and Form: A Study of Aesthetic Values in Representational Art</u>. New York: Scribners, 1936; <u>Canadian Aspirations in Painting</u>. Quebec: Culture, 1942; <u>Pleasure From Art : a Guide to Reading</u>. Ottawa: Canadian Legion Educational Services, 1944.
Abraham, Pol1891Nantes, France1966Paris, FranceArchitect and historian of medieval building, noted for his assertion that Gothic architecture's system of ribbed vaulting was unnecessary for structural reasons. Abraham served as a soldier in World War I. After the war, he worked on the reconstruction of monument destroyed by the war in the north of France. He trained in the architectural studio of Pascal et Recoura at the Ecole des beaux-arts in Paris, graduating in 1920. He further studied at the l'Ecole du Louvre between 1921 and 1924. He was briefly the editor of the periodical L'Architecte from 1923 to 1924 before opening a partnership with the architect Paul Sinoir in Paris. He was responsible for several buildings in the Ile-de-France. In 1930, he and Henry Jacques Le Même (1897-1997). The two designed sanitariums, notably at Plateau d'Assy en Haute-Savoie, Roc des Fiz (1932), de Guébriant (1932-33), de la Clairière (1934). Shortly before and after World War II, he was part of a team responsible for the reconstruction of the section of Orléans known as "Ilot IV," a combination of prefabrication and concrete according to classical design. In 1933, Abraham wrote a controversial thesis for the Ecole des beaux-arts arguing that the ribbed vault construction of the Gothic was not structurally necessary and that Gothic architecture's vaults, ribs and arches were designed to appear strong. This challenged the long-accepted views of Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-Le-Duc (q.v.) and set off a debate among intellectuals of France that went to the core humanistic methodology. Abraham argued against Viollet-Le-Duc's notion that Gothic architecture sprang from rational necessity. His 1933 (published in 1934) thesis focused on the intersecting ribs of the Gothic vaults, the croissée d'ogives. Abraham argued that gothic ribs were illustionistic, not structural. The debate it touched in France fascinated the Annalistes historians, a school of interdisciplinary historic thinking founded by Marc Bloch (1886-1944) and Lucien Le Febvre (1878-1956). Another Annaliste historian Louis Lecrocq published his support of Abraham's thesis in their journal Annales d'histoire économique et sociale in 1935.FranceHeyman, Jacques. The Stone Skeleton: Structural Engineering of Masonry Architecture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 66, 88; Sanabria, Sergio L. "Perils of Certitude in the Structural Analysis of Historic Masonry Buildings." Annals of Science 57, no. 4 (October 1, 2000): 447-453; Long, Pamela O. "The Annales and the History of Technology." Technology and Culture 46 (January 2005): 184-185; Lecrocq, Louis. "Un process en revision: Le problème de la croissée d'ogives." Annales d'histoire économique et sociale 7 (November 1935): 644-646; [obituary:] L'Architecture d'Aujourd'hui 36 (February 1966): xxiii;"Nouvelle explication de l'architecture religieuse gothique." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6 no. v, part 11 (May 1934): 257-71; Viollet-Le-Duc et le rationalisme médiéval. Paris: Vincent, Fréal & cie, 1934; and Focillon, Henri, and Godfrey, Walter H. Le problème de l'ogive. Paris: 1939.
Hippolyte Abraham
Abraham, Karl 1877Bremen, Germany1925Berlin, GermanyPsychiatrist and disciple of Freud; earliest scholar to employ psycho-analytic method to an artist (Giovanni Segantini). Abraham was born into a wealthy, cultured, Jewish family. His father, Nathan Abraham, initially a Hebrew religion teacher, and his mother were first cousins. Karl Abraham rejected religion early in his life. His early interests in philology and linguistics lead to a life-long interest in humanities. After home schooling, he entered medical school in 1896 at the universities in Würzburg, Berlin and finally Freiburg im Breisgau. After graduating in 1901, he took a position initially at an asylum in Berlin and then at the Burghölzi Mental Hospital in Zürich under P. Eugene Bleuler (1857-1939) in 1904. He became a devoted Helvetian, embracing mountain climbing and the art of another expatriate to Switzerland, the artist Giovanni Segantini. During that time he met the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl G. Jung (1875-1961) who introduced him to the psychoanalytic method of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Abraham began writing papers on childhood sexuality and schizophrenia. He married Hedwig Burgner, in 1906. He met Freud the following year. A rift developed between Jung and Abraham and Abraham left Zurich for private practice in Berlin in 1907. An interest in symbols and myths resulted in a 1909 paper on mythology and wish-fulfillment.. As Freud experimented with psychoanalytic interpretation of art (his <u>Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci</u>, 1910), Abraham did the same for Segantini in 1911, his book <u>Giovanni Segantini: ein psychoanalytischer Versuch</u>. He employed the same historic approach to a paper on the iconoclast Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep IV, Akhenaten. Abraham was mobilized as the head of the psychiatric unit for the German military in World War I, attached to the 20th Army. There he became interested in war neuroses, but also contracted dysentery which weakened him greatly. After the war, he returned to private practice, psychoanalyzing numerous important patients. Abraham addressed modern art one last time in a paper (never published in his lifetime) [100]. He developed a pneumonia and a lung infection for which he underwent surgery, recuperating--and still mountain climbing--in Switzerland. At age 48 he succumbed to related infections. Shortly after his death, his medical papers were translated into English and published by the Bloomsbury publisher Leonard Woolf (1880-1969). His daughter, Hilda C. Abraham, was also a psychiatrist of note. Abraham is most noted as an early theorist in depression and mental illness. His book on Segantini, like Freud's, is more an posthumous psychoanalysis of the artist than the art. Abraham's theories received renewed interest with the art-historical application of the theories of Jacques Lacan in Lacan's book, <u>The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis</u>. Abraham was known as the most loyal of Freud's disciples, never deviating from Freud's classical principles of psychoanalysis. He also collaborated with Freud on research of manic-depression (today known as bipolar disorder), resulting in Freud's paper, "Mourning and Melancholia," 1917.Germany; SwitzerlandBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986 p. 326; <u>Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis</u>. New York: Free Press, 1968, pp. 1-8; <u> Penguin International Dictionary of Contemporary Biography from 1900 to the Present</u>. New York: Penguin Reference, 2001, p. 4; [obituary:] Jones, Ernest. "Karl Abraham 1877-1925." <u>Journal of Psycho-Analysis</u> 7 (April 1926):155-181.[collected medical papers and bibliography:] <u>Selected Papers of Karl Abraham, M.D</u>. London: L. & Virginia Woolf, 1927, bibliography, vol. 4, ; <u>Giovanni Segantini: ein psychoanalytischer Versuch</u>. Leipzig: F. Deuticke, 1911, reissued in French in, "Giovanni Segantini, essai psychanalytique." in, <u>Rêve et mythe: G. Segantini, Amenhotep IV, études cliniques</u>. vol. 1 (1907-1914) of <u>Oeuvres complètes</u>. Paris: Payot, 1965.
Ackerman, Gerald M.1928Alameda, CAGérôme and 19th-century French art scholar. Ackerman graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1952 with a B.A. He moved to Munich where he studied at the Maximillien University under Hans Sedlmayr (q.v.) between 1956-1958 before returning to the United States where he began teaching as an art history lecturer at Bryn Mawr. He received his MFA at Princeton University in 1960, continuing for his Ph.D. in 1964 with a thesis, written under Erwin Panofsky (q.v.) and Rensselaer Lee (q.v.), on the <u>Trattato</u> of Giovanni Lomazzo (q.v.). Ackerman was appointed assistant professor at Stanford University in 1965. In 1971 he moved to Pamona College as associate professor, becoming full professor in 1976. He was Fullbright Professor, University of Leningrad, in 1980. Ackerman taught as Appleton Distinguished Professor at Florida State University in 1994.United States<a href="http://www.geraldmackerman.com">http://www.geraldmackerman.com</a> [personal web page]; <u>Who's Who in American Art</u>, 1980.Introduction. Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904). Dayton, OH: Dayton Art Institute, 1972; Vie et l'œuvre de Jean-Léon Gérôme. Courbevoie, Paris: ACR édition, 1986, English, The Life and Work of Jean-Léon Gérôme: with a Catalogue Raisonné. New York : Sotheby's Publications, 1986; and Parrish, Graydon. Charles Bargue drawing course: with the collaboration of Jean-Léon Gérôme. Paris: ACR Edition, 2003.Gerald M. Ackerman; Gerald Martin Ackerman
Ackerman, James S.1919San Francisco, CAArchitectural historian and professor of Fine Arts, Harvard University, 1960-. Ackerman's father, Lloyd Stuart Ackerman (1882-1968), was a prosperous San Francisco attorney and his mother, Louise Sloss (Ackerman) (1888-1983), was later a librarian at the San Francisco Museum of Art (today the SF Museum of Modern Art). Art as a child, he was exposed to art when his family toured European museums in 1932. At age 15, he read <u>Vision and Design</u> by <a href="fryr.htm">Roger Fry</a>, which opened him to the formal interpretation of art. Ackerman attended Yale University, where the courses of <a href="focillonh.htm">Henri Focillon</a> "mesmerized" him. He received his A. B. in 1941. During World War II he served in the U.S. Army Signal Intelligence Service in Italy from 1942 until 1945 "Monuments Division." There he was assigned to retrieve an archive, hidden for safety, in the renaissance Carthusian monastery of Certosa of Pavia near Milan. He became fascinated with Italy and renaissance art. When his brother, Lloyd Stuart Ackerman, Jr., was killed in the War, Ackerman's parents established a library at the SF Museum in his memory in 1945. After discharge from the service, Ackerman entered New York University earning his M.A. in 1947 with a thesis written under <a href="krautheimerr.htm">Richard Krautheimer</a>. He married Mildred Rosenbaum (d. 1986), a dancer, the same year, and joined Yale University as an instructor in 1948. Ackerman was a research fellow at the American Academy in Rome between 1949 and 1952 and a Fulbright fellow for the 1950-1951 year. His Ph.D. from NYU was awarded in 1952, writing a dissertation also supervised Krautheimer on the Cortile del Belvedere, the courtyard between the Vatican Villa and the palace. He joined the University of California, Berkeley, as an assistant professor in 1952. He rose to associate professor in 1956 and ultimately professor of architecture and art in 1959. During the same years he acted as editor-in-chief of the <u>Art Bulletin</u> (1956-1960). After a visiting lectureship at Harvard University during the 1958-1959, year, he was appointed professor of fine arts at Harvard University in 1960. Ackermann won the Hitchcock Medal from the College Art Association in 1961 for his book, <u>The Architecture of Michelangelo</u>, a topic urged on him by <a href="blunta.htm">Anthonly Blunt</a> and <a href="wittkowerr.htm">Rudolf Wittkower</a>. During this time he was a member of the board of directors of the Renaissance Society of America. Together with <a href="carpenterr.htm">Rhys Carpenter</a>, Ackerman wrote <u> Art and Archaeology</u>, 1962, a handbook for practitioners of the discipline of art history. He was named chairman of department of Fine Arts at Harvard in 1963. He was a visiting fellow at the Council of the Humanities, Princeton University for the 1960-1961 year. Ackerman turned his attention to the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio, writing two books, <u>Palladio</u> and <u> Palladio's Villas</u> in 1966 and 1967, respectively. He taught as Slade Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge University, for the 1969-1970 year. In 1976 he produced a film with <a href="weilgarrisk.htm">Kathleen Weil-Garris</a>, <u>Looking for Renaissance Rome</u>. In 1983 Ackerman was named Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Fine Arts. He delivered the Mellon lectures at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, in 1985, published in 1990 as <u>The Villa: Form and Ideology of Country Houses</u>. In 1986 his wife died and he remarried Jill Rose Slosburg (b. 1948), a sculptor/jeweler, in 1987. In 1990 he was named professor emeritus from Harvard. His students include Daniel Abramson, John Archer, David Friedman, Alice Friedman, Thomas Da Costa Kaufmann, Elizabeth MacDougall, Loren Partridge, Stephen Tobriner, Franklin Toker and Rochelle Ziskin. Ackerman's dissertation signaled his methodological approach as an architectural historian: the determining of design responsibility of an architectural monument. His most important book the 1961 <u> Architecture of Michelangelo</u> reframed notions of the genesis of Michelangelo's buildings. Building on the work of <a href="freyk.htm">Karl Frey</a>, <a href="thodeh.htm">Henry Thode</a> and the more recent research of <a href="tolnayc.htm">Charles de Tolnay</a>, Ackerman brought out Michelangelo as a significant and thoughtful architect (Lein). His book on Palladio remains his most well-known work. A documentary historian, he explained architecture as solved problems rather than through stylistic analysis. His book <u>Art and Archaeology</u> is still a useful primer for the discipline of art history, defining the methodologies of connoisseurship, criticism, iconography, etc.United Statespersonal correspondence, 2006-2007; [transcript] James Ackerman. <u>Interviews with Art Historians, 1991-2002</u>. Getty Research Institute, Malibu, CA, 1994; Welsh, Marjorie. "To the Villa Born." <u>Art News</u> 87 (February 1988): 126-129; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 435; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, pp. 121-122, 158; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 51 mentioned, 70 cited, 88, 102, 35n.74; Howard, Christopher. "Centennial Celebration: An Interview with James Sloss Ackerman." <u>CAA News</u> (July 2010): 12-15; Lein, Edgar. "James S[loss] Ackerman: The Architecture of Michelangelo." Naredi-Rainer, Paul von. <u>Hauptwerke der Kunstgeschichtsschreibung</u>. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner, 2010, pp.1-4. [dissertation:] <u>The Cortile del Belvedere</u>. New York University, 1952, published as, <u>The Cortile del Belvedere, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana</u>. Vatican City: Biblioteca aspostolica vaticana, 1954; [collected essays and selected bibliography:] <u>Distance Points: Essays in Theory and Renaissance Art and Architecture</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991; <u>Palladio</u>. Baltimore and Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966; <u>Palladio's Villas</u>. Locust Valley, NY: J. J. Augustin/Institute of Fine Arts, 1967; "Science and Visual Art." <u>Seventeenth Century Science and Arts</u>. Edited by Hedley Rhys. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1961.; <u>The Architecture of Michelangelo</u>. 2 vols. London: 1961; and Carpenter, Rhys. <u>Art and Archaeology</u>. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963; <u>Palladio</u>. Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1966; <u>Palladio's Villas</u>. Locust Valley, NY: Institute of Fine Arts/J. J. Augustin, 1967; Edited, <u>The Garland Library of the History of Art</u>, (one hundred fifty-two articles in fourteen volumes), Garland (New York, NY), 1976ff.; and Weil-Garris, Kathleen. <u>Looking for Renaissance Rome</u> [video]. New York: Fogg Fine Arts Films, 1976; <u>The Villa: Form and Ideology of Country Houses</u>. A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts 1985. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990; and Slosburg-Ackerman, Jill. <u>Origins, Imitation, and Conventions: Representation in the Visual Arts</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.James Ackerman; James Sloss Ackerman
Acland, James H.19171976Architectural historian; wrote most complete study to date on Gothic vaulting systems (Bazin 287)CanadaBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986 pp. 281, 287<u>Medieval Structure: The Gothic Vault</u>. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972.
Adams, Henry1838Boston, MA1918Washington, DCSocial historian, novelist; author of a book on medieval architecture. Adams' parents were the diplomat and congressman Charles Francis Adams, Sr. (1807-1886) and shipping heiress Abigail Brooks Adams (1808-1889); he was the grandson of President John Quincy Adams and great-grandson of President John Adams. Adams attended Dixwell School before Harvard College--an experience he valued little--graduating in 1858. Among his life-long friends he met at Harvard was the future architect Henry Hobson Richardson. Adams then made a "grand tour" of Europe following his education like many children of the well-heeled. When Abraham Lincoln appointed his father as ambassador to England, the young Adams accompanied him. There he met British political and intellectual figures including Queen Victoria, Prime Minister Henry Palmerston, the political philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), Robert Browning (1812-1889), and Charles Dickens (1812-1870). Adams returned to the United States after the Civil War in 1868, working in Washington, DC, as a freelance journalist for the <u>North American Review</u>, the <u>Nation</u>, documenting the corrupt administration of Ulysses S. Grant. In 1870 he joined Harvard teaching courses in medieval and early U.S. history. Two years later he married Marian "Clover" Hooper (1843-1885). Adams resigned from Harvard in 1877 for greater personal freedom and to research early nineteenth century American History. The couple returned to Washington DC, making extensive trips to Europe for research of his books. After publishing several biographies and anonymously published works of fiction, his wife, who suffered from severe depression, committed suicide in 1885; Adams never fully recovered from this tragedy. Adams issued his nine-volume <u>History of the United States during the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison</u> beginning in 1889. He embarked on a world voyage between1890-1892 with the artist John La Farge, but remained in Paris. From thenceforth, Adams spent summer and autumn there each year, the remainder of his time in Washington. In Washington, Adams struck a close friendship with the former presidential secretary and later United States secretary of state John Hay (1838-1905). The two commissioned adjoining houses on Lafayette Square in Washington in the 1880s from Richardson. In the 1890s, Adams wrote the two books for which he is most associated, both initially privately published, <u>The Education of Henry Adams</u>, 1904 (published in 1918) and <u>Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres</u>, 1905 (publicly offered in 1913). Adams' summers and falls in France had rekindled his fascination with French Gothic architecture. <u>Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres</u> is an idealistic view of the medieval age, rich with observation and political contrast to his modern era. Hay died in 1905 and Adams suffered a stroke in 1912, though he recovered substantially. A second stroke took his life at home home in Washington. He is buried in Washington's Rock Creek Cemetery, marked by a large bronze statue of a grieving woman by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, commissioned for his wife's grave. <u>Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres</u> remains a glimpse of the romanticized nineteenth-century view of the middle ages. Although written as guidebook for the literate, the book is an encomium to what Adams and much of the era saw as the golden age of humankind, especially set against the events of their own age. Adam's belief that the nineteenth century lacked intellectual and spiritual unity was contrasted by the idealistic vision of the unity of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (as symbolized by the Virgin of Chartres). However, Adam's book is rich with personal observation, both moral and art-historical, and was augmented by the scholarship of the two principal architectural historians to work on his subject, Edouard Corroyer (q.v.) and Paul Gout, as well as by the major nineteenth-century medieval architectural historian, Viollet-le-Duc (q.v.). Unlike so many literati approaching the medieval, he was not influenced by John Ruskin (q.v.). Impressed by Mill's <u>Consideration on Representative Government</u> (1861), Adams adhered to the notion that the masses needed to be guided by a moral and intelligent elite. United StatesWriting on Adams is legion. For art-historical importance, particularly, see, Samuels, Ernest. [trilogy] 1) <u>The Young Henry Adams</u>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1948, 2) <u>Henry Adams: The Middle Years</u>. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press1958, 3) <u>Henry Adams: The Major Phase</u>. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press1964; Levenson, <u>The Mind and Art of Henry Adams</u> (1957); Scheyer, Ernst. <u>The Circle of Henry Adams: Art & Artists</u>. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1970; Mane, Robert. <u>Henry Adams on the Road to Chartres</u>. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971; Contosta, David R. "Adams, Henry" <u> American National Biography Online</u>. Kirstein, Lincoln. <u>Memorial to a Marriage: an Album on the Saint-Gaudens Memorial in Rock Creek Cemetery Commissioned by Henry Adams in Honor of his Wife, Marian Hooper Adams</u>. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art,1989; Chalfant, Edward. <u>Better in Darkness: a Biography of Henry Adams: his Second Life, 1862-1891</u>. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1994;
Henry Brooks Adams; Frances Snow Compton, pseudonym
Adepegba, Cornelius Oyeleke19412002Ibadan, Oyo State , NigeriaHistorian of Nigerian art and director, Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan. Adepegba attended graduate school at Indiana University, receiving his Ph.D. in 1976 in art history under the supervision of Roy Sieber (q.v.). He pursued an active research agenda writing on a range of Nigerian art topics. His over 40 works include a paper on Nok terracottas, the Yoruba concept of art, and contemporary Nigerian art. His books include <u>Nigerian Art: Its Traditions and Modern Tendencies</u> (1995), <u>Yoruba Metal Sculpture</u> (1991), and <u>Decorative Arts of the Fulani Nomads</u> (1986). He received several fellowships and grants, including a Fulbright Fellowship (1993-94), a senior fellowship at the Smithsonian Museum of African Art (2002-3) and a Getty Collaborative Grant (2002-3). He was known for his intellectual energy, academic integrity, and wry sense of humor.Nigeria[obituary:] Professor C.O. Adepegba <u>[H-AFRARTS@H-NET.MSU.EDU</u> posting Friday, October 04, 2002 Elisha Renne<u>Nigerian Art : Its Traditions and Modern Tendencies</u>. Ibadan: Jodad, 1995; <u> Osogbo: Model of Growing African Towns</u>. Ibadan: Institute of African Studies, 1995; <u>Yoruba Metal Sculpture</u>. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1991; "A Nigerian treasure in Ibadan: the Museum of the Institute of African Studies, Nigeria." <u>Museum International</u> 46 no3 (1994): 42-5.
Adey, More 1858Wotton under Edge, Gloucerstershire, United KingdomJanuary 29, 1942Bristol (?), United Kingdom<u>Burlington Magazine</u> Joint Editor, 1914-1919. Adey initially worked translating of Scandinavian literature. He joined the circle of followers of Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), whose numbers included the writers Max Beerbohm (1872-1956) and Reginald Turner (1869-1938), the artist William Rothenstein and, most significant for Adey, Robert (Robbie) Baldwin Ross (1869-1918). He and Ross shared a house together for fifteen years. In 1900 the two joined the management of the Carfax Gallery in London. This small avant-garde gallery, founded two years before, focused on British artists such as Augustus John, Walter Sickert and Rothenstein as well as recent French painting and sculpture. In 1903, Adey met the Bloomsbury artist and art historian <a href="fryr.htm">Roger Fry</a>, who was exhibiting in a solo show--Fry's first--at the Gallery. Fry had founded the <u>Burlington Magazine</u> that same year. Adey became a contributor to the Magazine in 1908 providing anonymous reviews and articles. In 1911 Adey was made assistant editor and, by 1914, added as a joint editor with a former National Portrait Gallery director <a href="custl.htm">Lionel Cust</a> and Fry. His first signed pieces for the magazine date from this time. Adey was responsible for running the magazine during the difficult years of the First World War. In May 1919, however, Cust and Adey fell into strong disagreement with Fry over the magazine's management, resigning in a very public manner. An official announcement in the (London) <u>Times</u> read: "Mr. Lionel Cust, C.V.O., and Mr. More Adey have severed their connexion with the Burlington Magazine Company (Limited). Mr. Lionel Cust having ceased to be a managing director of the company, and Mr. Lionel Cust and Mr. More Adey having ceased to be editors of the Burlington Magazine." In later years Adey survived many of his close friends. He was committed to a mental institution, perhaps Brislington House, Bristol, where he died at age 83. Some personal correspondence is held by UCLA (Oscar Wilde material) As an art writer, Adey's strong interest in the subject matter of the art about which he wrote and his particular expertise in hagiography contrasted with Fry's formalist approach (Pezzini). A diffident man, his contribution to art history remains the articles he wrote for the <u>Burlington Magazine</u>.United Kingdom<u>Times</u> (London) July 14, 1919; Nicolson, Ben. "The Burlington Magazine." <u>Connoisseur</u>, (1976): 176-183; Borland, Maureen. <u>D. S. MacColl</u>. Harpenden, UK: Lennard Pub 1995, pp. 118, 242; Elam, Caroline. "A More and More Important Work: Roger Fry and The Burlington Magazine." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 145, no. 1200 (March 2003): 142-152; Borland, Maureen. "Ross, Robert Baldwin (1869-1918)." <u>Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</u>. 2004; Pezzini, Barbara. personal correspondence, March 2010; [obituaries] "More Adey." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 80, no. 468 (March 1942): 77; "Mr. More Adey." <u>Times</u> (London) April 6, 1942.edited, Wilde, Oscar. <u>After Reading: Letters to Robert Ross</u>. London: s.n., 1921.William More Adey Adey
Adhémar, Jean 1908Paris, FranceJune 20, 1987Paris, FranceMuseum department director, print specialist and editor of the <u>Gazette des Beaux-Arts</u> (1956-1987); established a genre of art-historical research exploring the importance of classical culture to that of the Middle Ages. Adhémar was descended from a distinguished legal family of the French Midi (southern France). His father, a lawyer of the Cour de cassation (French Supreme Court), allowed his son to follow scholarship rather than study law. The younger Adhémar studied art history initially under <a href="aubertm.htm">Marcel Aubert</a> at école des Chartes, where he gained a life-long appreciation of documents, and then under <a href="focillonh.htm">Henri Focillon</a> at the Sorbonne. His dissertation, completed in 1929, was on antique influences in medieval art in France. He married his wife, Hélène, during this time. Julien Cain (1887-1974), director of the Bibliothèque nationale invited him to join the the library in 1932 in the prints and photography division (Cabinet des Estampes et de Photographie). His 1935 exhibition for the library of the prints of Goya was particularly notable. During this time he acted as the library's correspondent and principal French contact for <a href="saxlf.htm">Fritz Saxl</a> at the Warburg Institute. Adhémar adopted Saxl's methodology in part; rewriting his doctoral thesis and publishing it in 1939 (through the Warburg Institute) as <u>Influences antiques dans l'art du moyen âge français</u>. He assisted in the move of the Cabinet to the former Salomon de Rothschild residence at the Rue Berryer in the late 1930s. He was appointed director of the Cabinet in 1961. His tenure saw the expansion of the prints collection and particularly photographs and innovatively, posters. During that time he edited Diderot's Salon reviews into book form with <a href="seznecj.htm">Jean Seznec</a>. He was appointed editor of the <u>Gazette des Beaux-Arts</u> in 1956 by it owner, the art dealer and historian <a href="wildensteing.htm">Georges Wildenstein</a>. He broadened the scope of the <u>Gazette</u> to include articles on the history of collecting and 19th-century caricature. The magazine, under his leadership, became a vehicle for publishing documents (e.g., the diary of Prince Eugen of Sweden and extracts of the journal of <a href="champfleuryj.htm">Champfluery</a>). Adhémar founded the serial <u>Nouvelles de l'estampe</u> in 1965. He supervised the dissertation work of <a href="robertsjonesp.htm">Philippe Roberts-Jones</a>. He retired from the Bibliothèque nationale 1977 and the editorship of the <u>Gazette</u> in 1987, the year of his death. Following his death the <u>Gazette</u> featured an entire issue devoted to his life and scholarship. <u>Influences antiques dans l'art du moyen âge français</u> was Adhémar's masterpiece. In it he achieved nothing less than a history of the medieval reception of and mentality toward the ancient world (Rainer and Rainer). In this, as most of his writing, he stressed the relationship of literature to the art--as opposed to simply linking visual similarities of the two ages. Using a vast and disparate variety of antique written sources <u>Influences antiques dans l'art du moyen âge français</u> links the known classical monuments of the middle ages with French medieval art. He demonstrated profoundly what was generally known, that the first renaissance of the classical world in Europe came with the Romanesque (Krautheimer). His knowledge and love of literature led him to issue studies on Diderot, Flaubert, Baudelaire and Zola. His curatorial interest was on the French Renaissance, particularly patronage.FranceKrautheimer, Richard. "[Review of] Influences antiques dans l'art du moyen âge français." <u>Art Bulletin</u> 22, no. 4 (December 1940): 280-281; "Jean Adhémar." <u>Apollo</u> 101 (January 1975): 70; Adhémar, Jean. "A Personal Postscript." <u>The Artist and the Writer in France: Essays in Honour of Jean Seznec</u>. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 151; <u>The Dictionary of Art</u> 1: 154; Rainer, Michael, and Rainer, Thomas. "Jean Adhémar: Influences antiques dans l'art du moyen âge français." Naredi-Rainer, Paul von. <u>Hauptwerke der Kunstgeschichtsschreibung</u>. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner, 2010, pp. 4-7; [obituaries:] Sutton, Denys. "Jean Adhémar." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 129, no. 1015 (October 1987): 669; "Hommage à Jean Adhémar." [entire issue] <u>Gazette des Beaux-Arts</u>, (January/February) 1988; Hofmann, Werner. "Jean Adhémar (1908-1987)." <u>Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte</u> 52 no. 2 (1989): 296-297.<u> Influences antiques dans l'art du moyen âge français: recherches sur les sources et les thèmes d'inspiration</u>. Studies of the Warburg Institute 7. London: Warburg Institute, 1939; <u>Lithographies de paysages en France à l'époque romantique</u>. Archives de l'art français, nouv. période 19. Paris: A. Colin, 1939; edited, with Seznec, Jean. Diderot, Denis. <u> Salons</u>. 4 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957-1966; <u>La Gravure originale au XVIIIe siècle</u>. Paris: A. Somogy, 1963, English, <u>Graphic Art of the 18th Century</u>. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964; <u>Toulouse-Lautrec: lithographies, pointes sèches, oeuvre complet</u>. Paris: Arts et métiers graphiques, 1965, English, <u>Toulouse-Lautrec: His Complete Lithographs and Drypoints</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1965; <u>Gravure originale au XXe siècle</u>. Paris: A. Somogy, 1967. English, <u>Twentieth-century Graphics</u>. New York: Praeger,1971; <u>Imagerie populaire française</u>. Milan: Electa, 1968; <u>Chronologie impressionniste: 1863-1905</u>. Paris: Editions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1981; "In Praise of Lithography." In, <u>Lithography: 200 Years of Art, History & Technique</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1983.Jean AdhémarLee Sorensen
Adler, Friedrich 1827Berlin, Germany1908Berlin, GermanyArchitectural historian, architect and archaeologist; specialist in ancient excavations, and medieval German architecture. Adler attended the Berlin Kunstakademie beginning in 1841. In 1846 he continued at the University of Berlin (Bauakademie). From 1854 he taught there under Ferdinand von Arnim (1814-1856) and from 1859 as a <i>Dozent</i> for the history of architecture. He was made professor at the Akademie in 1861 succeeding in the position previously held by Wilhelm Lübke (q.v.). Between 1874 and 1881 he was a participant in Olympia excavations (1875-81) conducted by Ernst Curtius (q.v.). Because of his architectural training, he was responsible for the design of the original 1883 museum at Olympia. From 1877 onward, he returned to the practice of architecture, as section director responsible for church construction in Prussia. Adler was one of the first to understand the importance of Heinrich Schliemann's excavations. He wrote an admiring introduction to Schliemann's 1886 book, <u>Tiryns</u>. Adler's art-historical writings included <u>Das Pantheon in Rom</u> (1871) and <u>Das Mausoleum zu Halikarnass </u>(1900). His students included his future son-in-law, Wilhelm Dörpfeld (q.v.).Germany<u>Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassichen Archäologen deutscher Sprache</u>. Reinhard Lullies, ed. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1988: 53-54; Hammerschmidt, Valentin W. <u>Anspruch und Ausdruck in der Architektur des späten Historismus in Deutschland: 1860-1914</u>. Frankfurt am Main: P. Lang, 1985; <u>Deutsches Künstler-Lexikon der Gegenwart in biographischen Skizzen auf Grund persönlicher einsendungen bearb</u>. Geistige Deutschland am Ende des XIX. Jahrhunderts 1. Leipzig: C. G. Röder, 1898, p. 8; <u>The Dictionary of Art</u> 1: 159-60; Traill, David. "Johann Friedrich Adler." <u>Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology</u>. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, p. 7; <u>Saur Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon</u> 1: 388.<u>Mittelalterliche Backstein-Bauwerke des preussischen Staates</u>. 2 vols. Berlin: Ernst & Korn, 1862-1898; and Curtius, Ernst. <u>Olympia: Die Ergebnisse der von dem Deutschen Reich veranstalteten Ausgrabung</u>. 5 vols. Berlin: A. Asher, 1890-97; <u>Baugeschichtliche Forschungen in Deutschland</u>. 2 vols. Berlin: Ernst & Korn, 1870-1879; <u>Das Pantheon zu Rom</u>. Berlin: Archäologischen Gesellschaft & W. Hertz , 1871.
Johann Heinrich Friedrich Adler
Adler, Bruno1889Karlsbad, Bohemia1968London, United KingdomEarly friend and exponent of German Expressionist artists.GermanyWendland, Ulrike. <u>Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler</u>. Munchen: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 1-3.
Ady, Julia1851Edgcote, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom1924Oxford, United KingdomArt critic and historian of Italian renaissance. Cartwright was the daughter of Richard Aubrey Cartwright and Mary Fremantle (Cartwright) (d. 1885). She was privately schooled. Her earliest exposure to art may have come from her uncle William Cornwallis Cartwright (d.1915), an art collector, who allowed her early access to his library and gallery at Aynhoe, Northamptonshire. She toured France, Austria, and Italy with her family in 1868. After an 1871 article in <u>Aunt Judy's Magazine</u>, she contributed regularly to the <u>Monthly Packet</u>, as well as "The Lives of the Saints" series. Cartwright began reading art histories of renaissance art, including those of Anna Jameson (q.v.), John Ruskin (q.v.), Charles Eastlake (q.v.), Walter Pater (q.v.), and particularly the <u>New History of Painting in Italy</u> by Joseph A. Crowe (q.v.), and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle (q.v.). In 1873 she attempted to become an art writer by submitting a researched article on Giotto to <u>Macmillan's Magazine</u>. Although it was denied publication, it later appeared in the<u> New Quarterly</u> in 1877. She expanded her interest to include contemporary art, especially Turner, Landseer, and Whistler. Cartwright continued to write art criticism for journals such as <u>Portfolio</u> and the <u>Magazine of Art</u>. She visited Italy at least three times in the 1870s. Cartwright married (William) Henry Ady (1817-1915), an Episcopal minister, in 1880. The following year, Cartwright, now known as Mrs. Ady, published her first art history, <u>Mantegna and Francia</u>. Now, too, she began an interest in contemporary art, including the Pre-Raphaelites, D. G. Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones as well Watts, Millet, Bastien-Lepage, and Puvis de Chavannes. In 1894 Ady met Bernard Berenson (q.v.), and in 1897 toured Siena with Mary Costelloe (later Mary Berenson, q.v.) under the guidance of Herbert Horne (q.v.). The effects of these eminent art historians on Ady in her later monographs on artists. In 1903 her book on Botticelli appeared and a reissued form in 1904. The following year she published a book on Raphael. Ady also published biographies of women during this time, one on Dorothy Sidney, Edmund Waller's mistress in 1893 and in 1894, on Charles II's sister Henriette, duchess of Orléans. Her biography on the renaissance art patron Isabella d'Este (1903), though thoroughly researched, avoided many of the intrigues of the woman in order to paint a more positive picture of her. In 1908 Ady published her biography of Baldassare Castiglione, still a standard work on the coutier, although omitting some of the court evils of the man and time. Though positive about some forms of modern art, Ady was shocked at the famous 1912 Post-impressionism exhibition which Roger Fry (q.v.) mounted at the Grafton Galleries. A biography of the art-loving Danish expatriate <u>Christina of Denmark</u> was published in 1913. In 1914 Ady published a collection of her articles as The Italian Gardens of the Renaissance and other Studies. Through her daughter, the renaissance historian Cecilia Ady (1881-1958), she met the Oxford-trained art historian Joan Evans (q.v.). After her husband's death in 1915, Ady moved to Oxford where she died in 1924. Ady's art criticism reflects that of Pater and Giovanni Morelli (q.v.), whom she read in the 1880s, and her friendship with the writer and art author Vernon Lee (q.v.). Although not an outward feminist (she only embraced women's suffrage issues late in her life), Ady raised the importance of woman as figures in the history of art by demonstrating Isabella d'Este's contribution toward renaissance patronage. Though she was never employed as an art historian, she was, initially through the medium of art criticism, able to raise the prominence of women as art writers. Her views of art do not depart from those of Victorian England: appreciating Raphael and disparaging Post-Impressionism.United KingdomEmanuel, Angela , ed. <u>A Bright Remembrance: the Diaries of Julia Cartwright, 1851-1924</u>. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1989; Mitchell, Rosemary. "Cartwright , Julia Mary (1851-1924)." <u>Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</u>, 2004.<u>Christ and his Mother in Italian Art</u>. London: Bliss, Sands, 1917; <u>The Painters of Florence from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century</u>. New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1916; <u>Raphael in Rome</u>. London: Seeley1895; <u>Christina of Denmark, Duchess of Milan and Lorraine, 1522-1590</u>. London: J. Murray, 1913; <u>Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of Mantua, 1474-1539: a Study of the Renaissance</u>. 2 vols. New York : E.P. Dutton, 1903; <u>Baldassare Castiglione, the Perfect Courtier: his Life and Letters, 1478-1529</u>. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1908; <u>Italian Gardens of the Renaissance, and Other Studies</u>. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1914; <u>Sandro Botticelli</u>. London: Duckworth & Co., 1903.
Julia Mary Cartwright Ady, née Julia Mary Cartwight
Aglionby, William1705Earlier British writer, authored a history of art and artists' biography, 1685. Aglionby traveled the continent and recorded his recollections on art, among other topics. In 1685, Aglionby published his <u>Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues</u> based heavily on the <u>Vite de' pittori, scultori ed architetti moderni</u> by Giovanni Bellori (q.v.) published in 1672. Aglionby, noted that in the Netherlands, paintings were common everywhere, even in the homes of tradesmen. He lamented England's failure to produce "an Historical Painter, Native of our own Soyl". He was the earliest English writer to desribe free, vigorous and natural execution in painting <i> Picturesque</i>, which he noted the Italians call, "a la pittoresk'". United KingdomMontanari, Tomaso. "Introduction." <u>Giovan Pietro Bellori: The Lives of the Modern Painters, Sculptors and Architects: A New Translation and Critical Edition</u>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 1, 4.<u>Painting Illustrated in Three Diallogues; Containing some Choice Observations upon the Art Together with the Lives of the Most eminent Painters from Cimabue to the Time of Raphael and Michael Angelo: with an Explanation of the Difficult Terms</u>. London: John Gain/Walter Kettilby and Jacob Tonson, 1686 [actually 1685]
Agostini, Leonardo1593Grosseto, Italy1669/70Rome (?) ItalyNumismatist and gem scholar. Agostini worked during the reign of Pope Urban VIII as the antiquarian to the Barberini family. His letters, written to the family while in exile (1646-50) today form a trove of information on the archaeological activity of the time. After the return of the Barberini, Agostini continued to collect for them, arranging their collection into one of the most comprehensible schemas of the time. He was appointed commissioner of collections under Pope Alexander VII, directing the excavations of the Roman Forum and baths near San Lorenzo in Panisperna. His writing on carved gems, <u>Le Gemme antiche figurate</u> (1657) was issued with the assistance of Giovanni Bellori (q.v.). The work organized gems according to theme, identifying them by subject matter. Adolf Furtwängler (q.v.) cited him in his <u>Die Antike Gemmen</u> of 1900.Italy"Agostini, Leonardo." <u>Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology</u>. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 10-11.<u>Le gemme antiche figurate</u>. Rome: Apresso dell autore, [part I,] 1657, [part II] 1669; <u>Gemmae et sculpturae antiquae depictae</u>. Amsterdam: Apud Abrahamum Blooteling, 1685.
Aguilar y Cuadrado, RaphaelPublished the volume on Alcalá de Henares and Guadalajara, in the "Art in Spain" series by the Hispanic Society of America.SpainGuadalajara. Alcalá de Henares. <u>Art in Spain, [published] under the Patronage of the Hispanic Society of America</u>. Barcelona: Hijos de J. Thomas, 1913.
Ainalov, Dmitrii Vlas'evich18621939Byzantine iconographic scholar, pupil of <a href="kondakovn.htm">N. P. Kondakov</a>. Ainalov weighed in with the important Byzantinists <a href="strzygowski.htm">Josef Strzygowski</a> and <a href="moreyc.htm">Charles Rufus Morey</a> in contending that early Christian stylistic forms were drawn from western Asian sources and not principally Rome.RussiaKleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 61 mentioned; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 23 mentioned, 22 n. 42; Mango, Cyril. "Preface." <u>Hellenistic Origins of Byzantine Art</u>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1961; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 168; Gutmann, Joseph. "Early Christian and Jewish Art." in Attridge, Harold W., and Hata, Gohei, eds. <u>Eusebíus, Christianity, and Judaism</u>. Cleveland: Wayne State University Press, pp. 270-271.<u>Ellinisticheskie osnovy vizantiiskogo iskusstva</u>. St. Petersberg, 1900, [published in 1900-1901 in the <u>Bulletin of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society</u>], English: <u>Hellenistic Origins of Byzantine Art</u>. Cyril Mango, ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1961. Dmitrii Vlas'evich Ainalov
Alberdingk Thijm, J. A.1820Amsterdam, The Netherlands 1889Amsterdam, The Netherlands Merchant; art critic, poet; professor at the Amsterdam Rijksacademie, 1876-1889; central figure in the emancipation process of the Roman Catholics of the Netherlands. Alberdingk Thijm received no higher education. He initially went into business. In 1842 he began writing art criticism for <u>De Spectator</u>. He married Wilhelmina Anna Sophia Kerst in 1846. In 1852 he founded the <u>Volks-almanak voor Nederlandse katholieken</u> (The People's Almanac for Dutch Catholics), and in 1855 the Catholic periodical <u>Dietsche Warande</u>. Thijm's writings reveal his interest in specific Catholic aspects of national history, literature, and esthetics. In his essay on mediaeval church architecture, "De Heilige Linie", first published in <u> Dietsche Warande</u>, he explained that the Gothic style in particular visualized essential values of Christianity. As the promoter of the revival of this style he inspired the Dutch architect Pierre Cuypers (1827-1921), who designed many neo-gothic Catholic churches all over the country. The latter also designed the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum between 1876 and 1885, in close collaboration with Thijm. The project was supervised by the head of the Department of Arts and Sciences of the Ministry of Interior, the influential authority Victor de Stuers (1843-1916), who also was a Catholic. The dominant Gothic character of this national landmark clearly represented Catholic values, which aroused a controversy. In 1876 Thijm published <u>Portretten van Joost van den Vondel</u>. This famous Dutch poet, who converted to Catholicism in 1641, became one of Thijm's icons of the national past. Also in 1876 Thijm obtained the position of professor of art history at the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam. In a three-year period he taught the complete history of European art. He paid special attention, however, to what he saw as the higher esthetical values of Christian art before the Reformation, a view that often aroused protests among his students. Thijm served the academy until his death. He was succeeded by Jan Six (q.v.) in 1890. Thijm's youngest son Karel Joan Lodewijk, generally known as Lodewijk van Deyssel, wrote a biography of his father in 1893 under the pseudonym A. J. His sister Catharina used her father's letters as the main source of a biographical sketch, which appeared in 1896. Thijm is generally known as the promoter of the Catholic revival in the Netherlands. His position as general art history professor, however, was rather exceptional in the Netherlands. At the same time, his colleague at the Municipal University of Amsterdam, Allard Pierson (q.v.), mainly taught Greek and Roman art history. Jan Six succeeded both Thijm and Pierson in 1890 and 1896 respectively. In 1907 the position of Art History was officially established at the State Universities of Utrecht and Leiden. MD The NetherlandsVan Deyssel, Lodewijk. <u>J. A. Alberdingk Thijm</u>. Amsterdam: Loman & Funke, 1893; Alberdingk Thijm, Catharina. <u>J. A. Alberdingk Thijm.in zijn brieven geschetst als Christen Mensch Kunstenaar</u>. Amsterdam: C. L. van Langenhuysen, 1896; Hoogenboom, Annemieke. "De introductie van kunstgeschiedenis aan de Nederlandse universiteiten: de voorgeschiedenis van de leerstoel van Willem Vogelsang." in Bevers, Ton, et al. <u>De Kunstwereld. Produktie, distributie en receptie in de wereld van kunst en cultuur</u>. Hilversum: Verloren, 1993, pp. 85-87; Tibbe, Lieske. "Alberdingk Thijm en de beeldende kunsten. Zijn hoogleraarschp aan de Rijksacademie 1876-1889" in Geurts, P. A. M. et al., eds. <u>J. A. Alberdingk Thijm 1820-1889. Erflater van de negentiende eeuw: een bundel opstellen</u>. Baarn: Arbor, 1992, pp. 157-174; Van Hellenberg Hubar, Bernadette C. M. <u>Arbeid en bezieling: de esthetica van P. J. H. Cuypers, J. A. Alberdingk Thijm en V. E. L. de Stuers, en de voorgevel van het Rijksmuseum</u>. Nijmegen: University Press, 1997. <u>Over de kompozitie in de kunst: eene aanwijzing der aesthetische verhoudingen in de architectuur, de muziek, de poëzie, de schilder-, beeldhouw-, en gebarenkunst</u>. Amsterdam: C. L. van Langenhuysen, 1857; <u>De Heilige Linie. Proeve over de oostwaardsche richting van kerk en autaar als hoofdbeginsel der kerkelijke bouwkunst</u>. Amsterdam: C. L. van Langenhuysen, 1858; <u>Geen kerkelijke bouwkunst zonder oriëntatie: een woord tot allen die belang stellen in onze hedendaagschen kerkbouw</u>. Amsterdam: C. L. van Langenhuysen, 1859; <u>Portretten van Joost van den Vondel. Eene laatste aflevering tot het werk van Mr. Jac. Van Lennep</u>. Amsterdam: C. L. van Langenhuysen, 1876; <u>Openingsrede bij de aanvaarding van het hoogleeraarsambt aan de Rijks-Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten, den 4e december, 1876</u>. Amsterdam: C. L. van Langenhuysen, 1876; <u>Gerard Lairesse</u>. Amsterdam: Loman, 1879; <u>De beeldhouwer Louis Royer</u>, 1880; <u>Over nieuwere beeldhouwkunst, vooral in Nederland</u>. Rotterdam: Nijgh & van Ditmar, 1886.
Joseph A. Alberdingk Thijm
Aldred, Cyril1914Fulham (London), United Kingdom1991Edinburgh, ScotlandEgyptologist and art historian. Aldred was the son of Frederick Aldred and Lilian Ethel Underwood (Aldred). After attending the Sloane School, Chelsea, he studied English at King's College, London, and then art history at the Courtauld Institute of Art. While a student, he met Howard Carter (1874-1939), the archaeologist who discovered the Tutankhamen tomb, in 1933. He graduated from the Courtauld in 1936. In 1937 he became an assistant keeper (curator) at the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh the institution he would remain for the rest of his life. He married Jessie Kennedy Morton (b. 1908/9), a masseuse in 1938. During World War II, Aldrich served in the RAF. After returning to Edinburgh in 1946, he approached Egyptology as his sole area of endeavor. In 1949, his book <u>Old Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt</u> appeared. The simple survey connected the monuments of the major period in Egyptian art and became popular. Volumes on the middle and new kingdoms in 1950 and 1952 appeared. These publications established his career as an Egyptologist and art historian of synthetic approach. Essays on fine woodwork and furniture appeared in the <u>Oxford History of Technology</u> in 1954 and 1956. In 1955 he worked as an associate curator for a year in the department of Egyptian art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, under William C. Hayes (q.v.), the curator. Hayes hoped Aldred might become his successor, but Aldred returned to Scotland in 1956. He was promoted to keeper of art and archaeology in 1961, which he held until his retirement. The book <u>Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt</u>, was published by Aldred in 1968. <u>Jewels of the Pharaohs</u> appeared in 1971 from Thames and Hudson. His most significant art-historical writing is the catalog written for the Brooklyn Museum exhibition, "Akhenaten and Nefertiti" in 1973. He retired from the Museum in 1974. Beginning in 1978, Aldred wrote studies for the French <u>L'univers des formes</u> surveys of Egyptian art (other volumes appearing in 1979 and 1980). Though Aldred published his <u>Egyptian Art</u>,1980, another substantial popular survey, a scholarly monograph on Egyptian sculpture never appeared. His <u>Akhenaten, King of Egypt</u>, 1988, restated much of his 1968 volume with broader evidence. He died at his home in Edinburgh. Aldred's time in New York brought him a greater interest in the Egyptian sculpture of the Amarna period, the time period of Akhenaten, and the concomitant period of loosening of artistic convention. His 1973 Brooklyn catalog, concentrating on Amarna-era art, organized this problematic time of Egyptian art. United KingdomJames, Thomas Garnet H. "Cyril Aldred." <u>Journal of Egyptian Archaeology</u> 78 (1992): 258-66; Waterston, Charles D. "Cyril Aldred." <u>Year Book of the Royal Society of Edinburgh</u> (1990-91): 32-4; Goring, Elizabeth, and Reeves, Charles Nicholas and Ruffle, John, eds. <u>Chief of Seers: Egyptian Studies in Memory of Cyril Aldred</u>. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1997; <u>The Independent</u> July 6, 1991; <u>The Times</u> (London) July 6, 1991; James, Thomas Garnet H. "Aldred, Cyril (1914-1991)." <u>Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</u>, Oxford University Press, 2004.[collected articles] <u>Ancient Egypt in the Metropolitan Museum Journal, Volumes 1-11 (1968-1976): Articles</u>. [ by Cyril Aldred]. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977; <u>The Development of Ancient Egyptian Art: from 3200 to 1315 B. C</u>. 3 vols. London : A. Tiranti, 1952; <u> New Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt During the Eighteenth Dynasty, 1590 to 1315 B. C.</u> Published: London, A. Tiranti, 1951; <u>Akhenaten and Nefertiti</u>. New York: Brooklyn Museum/Viking Press, 1973; <u>Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt: a New Study</u>. London: Thames & Hudson, 1968; <u>Egypt to the End of the Old Kingdom</u>. London: Thames and Hudson, 1965; <u>Jewels of the Pharaohs: Egyptian Jewellery of the Dynastic Period</u>. London: Thames and Hudson, 1971; <u>Middle Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt, 2300-1590 B.C.</u> London: A. Tiranti, 1950; <u>Old Kingdom Art in Ancient Egypt</u>. London: A. Tiranti, 1949; <u>The Egyptians</u>. London: Thames and Hudson, 1961; "The Pharaoh Akhenaten: a Problem in Egyptology and Pathology." <u>Bulletin of the History of Medicine</u> 36, no. 4 (July-August 1962): 293-316; L'univers des formes [series]: <u>L'E´gypte du cre´puscule: de Tanis à Me´roe´, 1070 av. J.-C.-IVe siècle</u>. Paris: Gallimard, 1980; <u>L'Empire des conque´rants: l'E´gypte au Nouvel Empire (1560-1070)</u>. Paris: Gallimard, 1979;<u> Le Temps des pyramides: de la pre´histoire aux Hyksos, 1560 av. J.-C</u>. Paris: Gallimard, 1978.
Alexander, Jonathan J. G.Medievalist; manuscripts scholar New York University. Alexander edited the important <u>Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles</u> beginning in 1975.United Kingdom; United StatesCurriculum vitae, <a href="http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/fineart/faculty/alexander.pdf">http://www.nyu.edu/gsas/dept/fineart/faculty/alexander.pdf</a>;edited, <u>Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles</u>, 1975 ff. J. J. G. Alexander; Jonathan James Graham. Alexander
Alfieri, Vittorio1749Asti, Piedmont, Italy1803Florence, ItalyDramatist whose works helped bring about the re-evaluation of Michelangelo. Alfieri was born to a noble and wealthy family. His father was Count Antonio Alfieri and his mother Monica Maillard de Tournonthe marquis di Cacherano of Savoy. Count Alfieri died when Vittorio was less than one year old. His mother married a third husband, the cavalier Giacinto Alfieri de Magliano. Vittorio was privately tutored under Don Ivaldi, a priest whose education was poor enough to move him in 1758 to the Military Academy of Turin. Alfieri heard his first opera in 1762 in Turin and thereafter became a devotee. He studied civil and canon law in 1762, achieving a law degree in Turin in1766. In 1776 he became an ensign in the provincial regiment of Asti. His first language was French, in which he kept a diary. Alfieri left the military academy, taking a grand tour of France, England, and Holland for three years (1766-1768). Accompanied by an English tutor, he traveled to Milan, paying a visit to the Ambrosian Library, to Florence and its art galleries and churches, which left him cold, although Michelangelo's tomb in Santa Croce he found compelling. Alfieri proceeded to France and the French theater. He was formally received at Versailles where Louis XV simply stared at him, and Prussia of Frederick the Great, "the infamous trade of soldier, the most infamous and sole basis of all arbitrary authority." In 1771 in Paris, he declined to meet Jean Jacques Rousseau, but purchased a thirty-six volume collection of Italian authors, many of whose names he had never heard. He had never seriously read Dante, Petrarch, Ariosto, Boccaccio, or Machiavelli. Alfieri's few friends included Francesco Gori Gandellini, a wealthy and erudite merchant interested in literature and history. While traveling in England, Alfieri fell in love with Penelope Pitt, wife of Lord Ligonier. The love affair ended in a duel with the lady's husband and the divorce of the Lady. Alfieri's first play, Cleopatra, was staged in Turin in 1775. Cleopatra was acclaimed for its vigorous and original style, and when its popularity soared. In 1777, he fell in love with Louise Stolberg, countess of Albany, wife of the pretender Charles Edward Stuart, the last of the English Stuarts. In 1784 she obtained a legal separation. Alfieri and countess remained together for the rest of Alfieri's life. Four of his tragedies were printed in Siena in 1782, and six more toward the end of the same year. In 1787, Alfieri returned to France to supervise the printing of the complete edition of his tragedies, now numbering nineteen, by the publisher Didot. Although at first a supporter of the Revolution he quickly changed when observing the mob violence. Alfieri spent the last ten years of his life in Florence. The city was occupied in 1796 by French troops. He directed and acted in a few plays. Alfieri is buried in the church of Santa Croce in Florence in a tomb designed by Antonio Canova, near Michelangelo and Machiavelli.ItalyKultermann, Udo. <u>The History of Art History</u>. New York: Abaris, 1993, p. 124; Gantner, Joseph. <u> Michelangelo: Die Beurteilung seiner Kunst von Lionardo bis Goethe. Beiträge zu einer Ideengeschichte der Kunsthistoriographie</u>. Ph.D, dissertation, Munich, 1922; <u>The Life of Vittorio Alfieri, Written by Himself</u>. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1953.
Alinari, Giuseppe1836FlorencePhoto-documentarian, early participant of the Fratelli Alinari photoarchive together with his brothers. The son of an engraver, Alinari grew up in a Florentine art family. His older brother, <a href="alinaril.htm">Leopoldo</a> studied with engraver Luigi Bardi and learned the emerging art of photography. After Leopoldo established a photography studio in 1852 in Florence, Giuseppe joined him together with his brother, Romualdo (1830-1891) renaming the venture "Fratelli Alinari, Fotografi Editori." Giuseppe and Romualdo managed the business while Leopoldo traveled, photographing monuments in Rome, Florence, Naples, Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy. By the 1860s Fratelli Alinari were receiving commissions for photo documentation. Prince Albert of Britain commissioned them to photograph the drawings of Raphael in Florence, Vienna and Venice. The business expanded to a portrait studio and then publishing firm. After Leopoldo's death, the remaining brothers expanded Alinari subjects to document daily life in Florence, which was then the seat of government for Italy. Alinari photographs form a core of historic images of art historical monuments, some of which were subsequently destroyed or "restored" from their original use. The photographs also capture architecture in an environment more contemporary to its original than modern images do.Italy"Photographs" (Letter from Italy). <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 79 (May 1964):427-8; International Center of Photography. <u>Encyclopedia of Photography</u>. New York: Crown Publishers, 1984, pp. 22-24; Zevi, Filippo, ed.. <u>Alinari: Photographers of Florence, 1852-1920</u>. London: Alinari Edizioni/Scottish Arts Council, 1978; <u>Gli Alinari Fotografi a Firenze 1852-1920</u>. Florence: Fratelli Alinari Editrice, 1985. [no bibliography]Giuseppe AlinariLee Sorensen
Alinari, Leopoldo1832Florence, Italy1865Florence, ItalyPhoto-documentarian, founder of the Fratelli Alinari together with his brothers. The son of an engraver, Alinari grew up in a Florentine art family. Leopoldo studied with engraver Luigi Bardi and learned the emerging art of photography while training in the 1840s. In 1852 he established a studio in the Via Nazionale in Florence. Two years later, his brothers <a href="alinarig.htm">Giuseppe</a> and Romualdo (1830-1891) joined him in the venture which they then named "Fratelli Alinari, Fotografi Editori." Giuseppe and Romualdo managed the business while Leopoldo traveled, photographing monuments in Rome, Florence, Naples, Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy. By the 1860s Fratelli Alinari were receiving commissions for photo documentation. Prince Albert of Britain commissioned them to photograph the drawings of Raphael in Florence, Vienna and Venice. The business expanded to a portrait studio and then publishing firm. After Leopoldo's death, the remaining brothers expanded Alinari subjects to document daily life in Florence, which was then the seat of government for Italy. Alinari photographs form a core of historic images of art historical monuments, some of which were subsequently destroyed or "restored" from their original use. The photographs also capture architecture in an environment more contemporary to its original than modern images do.Italy"Photographs" (Letter from Italy). <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 79 (May 1964):427-8; International Center of Photography. <u>Encyclopedia of Photography</u>. New York: Crown Publishers, 1984, pp. 22-4; Zevi, Filippo, ed.. <u>Alinari: Photographers of Florence, 1852-1920</u>. London: Alinari Edizioni/Scottish Arts Council, 1978; <u>Gli Alinari Fotografi a Firenze 1852-1920</u>. Florence: Fratelli Alinari Editrice, 1985. Romilly John AllenLeopoldo AlinariLee Sorensen
Allen, J. Romilly1847Regent's Park, London, United Kingdom1907London, United KingdomArchaeologist and historian of early British medieval iconography. Allen was the son of a landed Welshman, George Baugh Allen (1821-1898), a barrister (known as a "pleader") of the legal association ("Inner Temple") in Narberth, Pembrokeshire, Wales, and his mother, Dorothea Hannah Eaton (Allen) (d. 1868). Allen graduated from King's College School, London, in 1860 and Rugby School in 1863 before attending King's College, London between 1864 and 1866. He made his living as a civil engineer, first as an engineer-in-chief to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, London, and then, in 1870, as a resident civil engineer to the railways construction project for Baron Julius de Reuter (1816-1899). He supervised the docks building at Leith, near Edinburgh, Scotland, and at Boston, Lincolnshire, in England. Allen used his leisure time to study archaeology, especially pre-Norman art and artifacts. While employed in Leith, he visited various Scottish archaeological sites. In 1873 he published an initial article in the journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, <u>Archaeologia Cambrensis</u>. Allen became a member of the association in 1875 and elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1883. In 1885 presented the lecture, "Early Christian Symbolism in Great Britain and Ireland before the Thirteenth Century," as the SAS's Rhind lecturer in archaeology, which he published in 1887. In 1889 he published his first book on monuments, the small <u>Monumental History of the Early British Church</u>. The same year he was appointed co-editor of <u>Archaeologia Cambrensis</u>, rising to editor by 1892. Allen quit his job as an engineer--his family's wealth was enough for support--to devote all his energies to archaeology. Several additional Rhind lectures followed. He was appointed editor of the <u>Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist</u> in 1893, succeeding J. Charles Cox (1843-1919). In England he became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1896, collaborating on a book with Arthur G. Langdon on Cornish cross sculpture the same year. He was Yates lecturer in archaeology in University College, London, for 1898. The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland funded his excavations in Scotland. In 1899 he published the article "Early Christian Art in Wales" in the journal, the first systematic account of nascent Christian Welsh material culture. Allen and another Rhind lecturer, Joseph Anderson (1832-1916), published <u>The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland</u>, in 1903, an analysis and classification of ornament of early medieval sculpture which became a model for medieval art methodology in England. He followed this with <u>Celtic Art in Pagan and Christian Times</u> in 1904. He died at his home in London in 1907. His notes are held in the British Library. Allen's knowledge of various media, metalwork and manuscript illumination, enabled him to make a comparative study of art in disparate media, allowing him to establish the first serious chronology of early indigenous art in Britain. His iconographical typology formed the basis of later art indexes and modern visual collections. As an engineer, Allen employed scientific methods of description as the basis of an esthetic appreciation of his objects. He was an early exponent of historic preservation, advocating casting, photographing, drawing and other forms of documenting monuments which were weathering away. His writing was often critical of museum curators, who, he thought, ignored early Christianity in Britain and were aloof from the public.United KingdomHenderson, Isabel. "The Making of <i>The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland</i>." in Allen, John Romilly and Anderson, Joseph, <u>The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland</u>. vol.1 Balgavies, Forfar: Pinkfoot, 1993, pp. 13-40; [obituary:] <u>The Times</u> (London) July 13, 1907.<u>Celtic Art in Pagan and Christian Times</u>. London: Methuen & Co.,1904; <u>Early Christian Symbolism in Great Britain and Ireland before the Thirteenth Century: the Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1885</u>. London: Whiting & Co., 1887; <u>The Monumental History of the Early British Church</u>. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1889; and Langdon, Arthur G. <u>Old Cornish Crosses</u>. Truro: J. Pollard, 1896; and Anderson, Joseph. <u>The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland: a Classified, Illustrated, Descriptive List of the Monuments, with an Analysis of their Symbolism and Ornamentation</u>. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Society of antiquaries of Scotland/Neill & Co., 1903.
John Romilly Allen
Alloway, LawrenceSeptember 17, 1926Wimbledon, London, United KingdomJanuary 2, 1990New York, NYArt educator, museum curator and art historian; early exponent of postwar American art to the European public and coiner of the term "pop art." Alloway was the son of a bookseller. As a child he contracted tuberculosis which interrupted his formal education. While a teenager he wrote short "filler" book reviews for the Sunday London <u>Times</u>. He attended classes at the University of London Birbeck night college, but he never received a degree. He lectured on art to laborers who belonged to the Workers Education Association, beginning a life-long association with art education and a commitment of art for the masses. While working as a docent (visiting lecturer) at the Tate Gallery and the National Gallery, Alloway joined an informal association of artists known as the the Independent Group in 1952. Comprising artists, architects, art historians and critics who endorsed liberal and pluralistic attitudes towar art, the group frequently met at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, then on Dover Street, off Piccadilly, London. He wrote as British correspondent for the <u>Art News</u> beginning in 1953 (to 1957), edited by <a href="hesst.htm">Thomas Hess</a>, who was using it as a vehicle supporting Abstract Expressionism. Alloway married an artist, Sylvia Sleigh (b. 1916) in 1954 and mounted "Collages and Objects" a landmark exhibition (designed by John McHale). He was appointed assistant director of the Institute of Contemporary Art the following year (held until 1957). His well-organized shows and informed critiques of avant-garde artists brought him high profile, lecturing on film and art. His frequently arrogant manner and quixotic pronouncements on art became a hallmark of the nascent modern-art style. He and McHale convened a series of meeting at the IG (ultimately the last) on the mass media as part of the "Aesthetic Problems of Contemporary Art". During his years as director of the ICA, Alloway shortened the phrase ''popular art'' to "Pop Art" in his writing, creating the dominant term for the new art that dealt with consumer images. In 1958 he received a scholarship by the United States Government to study American art in the U.S. He met Barnett Newman. In 1961 he and his wife moved to the United States to teach at Bennington College; the following year the Guggenheim Museum appointed him curator. Alloway joined <u>The Nation</u> as art critic in 1963 (to 1971). In 1966 the Smithsonian Institution invited the Guggenheim to make selections for the United States submissions to the Venice Biennale. Alloway clashed with the new director of the Guggenheim, <a href="messert.htm">Thomas Messer</a>, over the choices and Smithsonian withdrew the invitation. Alloway was removed from the museum, taking on editorial roles with <u>The Nation</u> (1968-1980) and <u>Artforum</u> (1971-1976). In 1968 (to 1981) he was appointed professor of art history at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Long Island. There he co-founded the magazine <u>Art Criticism</u> with the critic <a href="kuspitd.htm">Donald Kuspit</a>. His collected essays appeared in 1975 as <u>Topics in American Art Since 1945</u>. Alloway wrote the Museum of Modern Art catalog for the Robert Rauschenberg retrospective in 1977. He developed a neurological disorder in 1981, leaving teaching and thereafter requiring the use a wheelchair. A second set of collected essays, <u>Network: Art in the Complex Present</u>, appeared in 1984. Although a pro-socialist and pro-feminist-issue writer, he argued publicly with <a href="pollockg.htm">Griselda Pollock</a> in a review of her book which set off a debate in the <u>Women's Studies Journal</u>. He was engaged in a catalog for a forthcoming show of work by his wife when he died suddenly of cardiac arrest at his Manhattan home at age 63. Alloway was one of the earliest European champions of American postwar art (Glueck). A provocative writer, his varied tastes were at odds with a strict theory of modern esthetics and those who espoused specific ideologies of art. His work with the Independed Group helped form a radically inclusive understanding of culture, incorporating science fiction, Hollywood films, and game theory (<u>The Independent Group</u>, 1989). He maintained an anti-academic stance toward art his whole career. A 1990 ICA retrospective exhibition about The Independent Group underscored that critical writings of the group, Alloway's, Richard Hamilton, Reyner Banham and the Smithsons, "were far more radical and fertile than the artworks they created" (Hall). His coining of the term "pop art" was meant to refer to the mass media; when later a style of painting emerged with the same title, Alloway considered this a second phase of the art form (<u>The Independent Group</u>, 1989). LS §SIUnited Kingdom; United States"Lawrence Alloway." in, Robbins, David, ed. <u>The Independent Group: Postwar Britain and the Aesthetics of Plenty</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989, pp. 163-164; Sun-Young Lee, and Barrett, Terry. "The Critical Writings of Lawrence Alloway." <u>Studies in Art Education</u> 32, no. 3 (Spring, 1991):171-177; Hall, James. "Who Am I to Criticise? Art critics are often criticised most recently by Lord Palumbo but are they as bad as they're painted? <u>Guardian</u> (London) December 6, 1993, p. 5; Massey, Anne. <u>The Independent Group: Modernism and Mass Culture in Britain 1945-1959</u>. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1995, pp. 56, 70, 109-122; personal information; [obituaries:] Whitham, Graham. "Lawrence Alloway." <u>Independent</u> (London), January 10, 1990, p. 28; Glueck, Grace. "Lawrence Alloway Is Dead at 63, Art Historian, Curator and Critic." <u>New York Times</u> January 3, 1990, p. D19.<u>European Art Today: 35 Painters and Sculptors</u>. Minneapolis: Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, 1959; <u>The Venice Biennale, 1895-1968; from Salon to Goldfish Bowl</u>. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1968; <u>American Pop Art</u>. New York: Macmillan, 1974; <u>Adolph Gottlieb, a Retrospective</u>. New York: Arts Publisher, Inc./Adolph and Esther Gottlieb Foundation, Inc., 1981; <u>Network: Art and the Complex Present</u>. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1984; <u>Modern Dreams: the Rise and Fall and Rise of Pop</u>. Cambridge MA: MIT Press/The Institute for Contemporary Art, 1988.Lawrence Alloway
Almagro Basch, MartínAuthor of the first volume in the important <u>Ars Hispaniae</u> series (1947).Spainand García y Bellido, Antonio.<u>Arte prehistórico, Colonizaciones Púnica y Griega, El arte Ibérico, El arte de las tribus Célticas</u>. Madrid: Editorial Plus-Ultra, 1947.
Alpatov, Mikhail Vladimirovich1902 or 1903Moscow1986MoscowHistorian of Russian art, particulary the traditional Russian art forms of medieval, renaissance and 18th and 19th centures. Responsible for general histories of art reflecting the ideals of the Soviet period and several histories of Russian art. Professor at the Theatre and Architecture institutes (Moscow University) and the Academy of Art. Associated with Oskar Wulff (q.v.), Viktor Lazarev (q.v.) and N. I Brunov.Russia<u>The Dictionary of Art</u> 1: 684-5; [Danilova, I. Y. ed.] <u>Vospominaniia : tvorcheskaia sud'ba, semeinaia khronika, gody ucheniia, goroda i strany, liudi iskusstva</u> . Moscow: "Iskusstvo", 1994.<u>Le problème de la renaissance dans l'ancienne peinture russe</u>. Firenze: Sansoni, 1967; <u>Istoriografiia vseobshchei istorii; sbornik statei</u>. Moscow: Nauka, 1966 ; <u>Russian impact on art</u>. New York: Philosophical Library, 1950.
Alpers, SvetlanaFebruary 10, 1936Cambridge, MA Scholar of Dutch baroque art; professor of History of Art, UC Berkeley,1962-1994; exponent of the "new art history." Born Sventlana Leontief, she graduated from Radcliffe College with a B.A. in 1957. She married the following year, assuming her husband's surname of Alpers. She continued graduate work in art history at Harvard University publishin an article on Vasari's verbal descriptions of art (ekphraseis) in 1960 in the <u>Journal of the Warburg and Coutauld Institutes</u>, which announced her innovative approach to art history. Alpers accepted a teaching position as an associate professor at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1962 while working on her dissertation. She graduated from Harvard in 1965, writing her thesis under <a href="slives.htm">Seymour Slive</a> on the Peter Paul Rubens cycle Torre de la Parada. Her work in Rubens' archives brought her to the attention of Roger d'Hulst, who suggested she turn her dissertation into a volume for the <i>catalogue raissoné</i> on Rubens. She rose to the rank of Professor at Berkeley. In 1971 she was appointed to the Board of Directors of the College Art Associate (remained until 1976). That same year here volume for the Rubens <i>catalogue raissoné</i>, <u>The Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard</u>, number nine, was published. In 1977 an important methodological article by Alpers appeared in <u>Daedalus</u> examining progressive scholarship in art history in contrast with earlier scholarship. During the academic year 1979-80 she was a member at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. In 1983, Alpers co-founded the progressive interdisciplinary journal <u>Representations</u>, publishing the article, "Interpretation without Representation, or, The Viewing of Las Meninas," in the first issue. That year, too, she published the first of her ground-breaking works in art history, <u>The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century</u>. The book's central thesis focused on the the immediacy and simplicity of Dutch painting and the Dutch preoccupation with the description of interiors and domestic scenes, contrasting it with narrative Italian painting. Iconographical approaches to baroque art, she wrote, such as those practiced by <a href="panofskye.htm">Erwin Panofsky</a> and others, were insufficient to understand Dutch imagery. Her book likewise criticized mainstream Dutch scholarship and its reliance on emblems and <i>emblemata</i> books explain Netherlandish still life paining. <u>The Art of Describing</u> was well received, reviewers hailing Alper's mastery of topics as diverse as optics and perspective theory. Critics, however, accused her of selective use of evidence, drawing only from paintings and texts which supported her theories. In 1988, during the era of shocking reattributions of many works of Rembrandt by the Rembrandt Research Project, Alpers published a monograph on the artist, <u>Rembrandt's Enterprise: The Studio and the Market</u> The book examined Rembrandt's market strategies and his modeling his art to appeal to a Dutch consumer base. Her use of economic theory and a concerted avoidance of visual criteria again upset traditionalists in the art world. Alpers co-wrote a book with fellow Berkeley art historian <a href="baxandallm.htm">Michael Baxandall</a> in 1994, <u>Tiepolo and the Pictorial Intelligence</u>. She was named <em>Professor Emerita</em> from Berkeley in 1994. The following year she returned to the art of the low countries with her <u>Making of Rubens</u>. The book looked at Rubens' politics, his later critical reception in France, and theorized specific meaning in the recurring Silenus figures of his later work. Reaction to Alpers was summed up by Walter Liedtke. In an article on American historians of Dutch art, he characterized her work as containing "whole exclusions" of art that did not fit her thesis--such as the Utrecht school--a "typical exercise in American taste dressed up (with some French motifs) as a new analysis of Dutch Art." However, her work <u>Rembrandt's Enterprise</u> was included among the 169 major writings of art history in the 2010 <u>Hauptwerke der Kunstgeschichte</u> for her innovative approach to a central issue of Rembrandt research.United States<u>Presidential Lectures: Svetlana Alpers: CV SVETLANA ALPERS</u>. <a href="http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/alpers/cv.html"> http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/alpers/cv.html</a>; Ross, Alex. "Svetlana Alpers." <u>Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities</u>. <a href="http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/alpers/">http://prelectur.stanford.edu/lecturers/alpers/</a>; Liedtke, Walter. "The Study of Dutch Art in America." <u>Artibus et Historiae</u> 21, no. 41 (2000): 214; Eberlein, Johann Konrad. "Svetlana Alpers: Rembrandt's Enterprise." Naredi-Rainer, Paul von. <u>Hauptwerke der Kunstgeschichtsschreibung</u>. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner, 2010, pp. 7-10.[dissertation:] <u>'Torre de la Parada' Series and Narration in Rubens' Mythological Works</u>. Harvard University, 1965; "Ekphrasis and Aesthetic Attitudes in Vasari's Lives." <u>Journal of the Warburg and Courtald Institutes</u> 23 (1960): 190-215; <u>The Decoration of the Torre de la Parada</u>. Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard, Part IX. New York: Phaidon, 1971; "Is Art History?" <u>Daedalus</u>106, no. 3 (Summer 1977):1-13; <u>The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century</u>. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983; <u>Rembrandt's Enterprise: the Studio and the Market</u>. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988; and Baxandall, Michael. <u>Tiepolo and the Pictorial Intelligence</u>. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994; <u>The Making of Rubens</u>. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. Svetlana Alpers; Svetlana Leontief Alpers; née Svetlana Leontief Lee Sorensen
Alscher, Ludger 1916Münster, Germany1985Berlin, GermanySpecialist in classical Greek and Roman art. Alscher studied under Ernst Buschor (q.v.) at Munich, and was charged with reorganizing the Archaeological Institute at the University of Jena after World War II in 1945. In 1951, he moved to a professorship at the Humboldt University in (East) Berlin, where he was named an <i>ordentliche</i> (full) Professor in 1953. Published a four-volume history of the development of Greek sculpture, that was influenced by his training in the analysis of forms. Germany<u>Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassichen Archäologen deutscher Sprache</u>. Reinhard Lullies, ed. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1988: 319-320. <u>Götter vor Gericht: das Fälschungsproblem des Bostoner "Throns" die klassisch-griechische Kunst und die Archäologen</u>. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1963; <u>Griechische Plastik</u>. 4 vols. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1954-1963.
Amelung, Walther1865Stettin, Germany (now Szezecin, Poland)1927Bad Nauheim, Germany Specialist in ancient Greek sculpture; director and rebuilder of the German Archaeological Institute in Rome after World War I, 1921-1927. Amelung's father was a successful insurance executive and his mother an actress. The younger Amelung studied under the classicist Erwin Rohde (1845-98) in Tübingen and briefly under Johannes Overbeck (q.v.) at Leipzig, before settling in Munich to write his dissertation under Heinrich Brunn (q.v.). His dissertation was on the personification of nature in Hellenistic vase painting. Except for a brief period as a professional actor, Amelung devoted the rest of his career to scholarship. He used his wealth to travel widely within the archaeological world, frequently accompanying Paul Arndt (q.v.). In 1895 he settled in Rome and began to catalog the sculpture collection of the Vatican. The first of these volumes appeared in 1903. A homosexual living the life of a private scholar in Rome, he lead tours and wrote literate guides, translations of Greek drama, and articles for the <u>Realencyclopädie</u>. Forced to return to Germany because of World War I, he occupied his time restoring the university museum's plaster casts of classical sculpture under Ferdinand Noack (q.v.) and settling down with a Hamburg businessman. The war had virtually destroyed the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, which had been seized by the Italians. Amelung was appointed after the war by the Institute to restore the library, which had only been saved by the intercession of Benedetto Croce (q.v.). Amelung reopened the library in just three years to the form it is today on the Via Sardegna. His work cataloging the Vatican collections was taken over by Georg Lippold (q.v.). Amelung was not the broad classical scholar of the previous German tradition. His willingness to confine his interest to sculpture alone, and to limit his analysis to the concept of an artistic individual as the motivator of art, limited his legacy as an art historian. His works were translated into English by Eugénie Sellers Strong (q.v.)Germany<u>Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassichen Archäologen deutscher Sprache</u>. Reinhard Lullies, ed. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1988: 160-161; Calder, William M. III. "Walter Amelung." <u>Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology</u>. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, pp. 40-41.[dissertation]: <u>Personificierung des Lebens in der Natur in der Vasenmalerei der hellenistischen Zeit</u>. Munich, 1888; <u>Katalog der antiken Skulpturen des Vatikanischen Museums</u>. vol.1, 1903. vol. 2, 1908; and Holtzinger, Heinrich. <u>The Museums and Ruins of Rome</u>. London: Duckworth, 1906.
Walther Oskar Ernst Amelung
Amorini, Antonio Bolognini, see Bolognini Amorini, Antonio
Amyx, Darrell A.1911Exeter, CA1997Corinthian vase painting scholar; co-founder of the History of Art department at the University of California, Berkeley. Amyx attended Stanford University where he received a B. A. in classics in 1930. His graduate work was done at Berkeley. An M.A. in Latin was granted in 1932 (with a thesis on Juvenal). He was a fellow at the American School in Athens for 1935-36. His Ph.D., in Latin and classical archaeology was awarded in 1937. His dissertation, on Eretrian black-figure painting, was written under H. R. W. Smith (q.v.). He married Eleanor Wilkinson, a fellow Latin student at Berkeley, in 1936. After completing his Ph.D., he taught Latin at the University of Chicago from 1939 until 1942. The year he joined the war effort for World War II at the Office of Censorship in San Francisco, serving until 1945. Immediately after the war, he joined the faculty at Berkeley (1946) where he remained the rest of his career. He and the medievalist Walter Horn (q.v.) set about creating a History of Art department at Berkeley. In 1957 he was awarded the first two Guggenheim Fellowships (the second was 1973). He was chair of the Art Department 1966-71 and Curator of Classical Art at the Robert H. Lowie Museum of Anthropology at Berkeley (today the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology). From 1968 until 1972 he edited the <u>California Studies in Classical Antiquity</u>. At this time, too, he helped establish the Berkeley excavation at Nemea, Greece. His 1974 <u>Echoes from Olympus</u> is a catalog of an exhibition written by him and his students, the product of an extended seminar. He retired from Berkeley in 1978, acting at a visiting scholar for Indiana University in 1979. In 1988 he was a visiting scholar at the J. Paul Getty Museum. His <i>magnum opus</i>, <u>Corinthian Vase Painting</u>, 1988, was an updating of <u> Necrocorinthia</u> by Humfry Payne (q.v.) of 1931. The personal collection of antique objects he and his wife amassed were donated at his retirement to the museum for which he was curator. Amyx was a connoisseur scholar in the tradition of J. D. Beazley. He used a keen eye to further establish the various "hands" of individual artists of archaic Corinthian pottery, a technique first established for renaissance painting by Giovanni Morelli (q.v.). United Statesmentioned, Boulter, Cedric G. "The Study of Greek Vases." <u>American Journal of Archaeology</u> 85 no. 2. (April 1981):105; Bell, Evelyn E., and Forbes, Barbara A. "Darrell Arlynn Amyx, 1911-1997." <u>American Journal of Archaeology</u> 102, No. 1. (January 1998):179-180.edited, with Barbara A. Forbes. <u>Echoes from Olympus: Reflections of Divinity in Small-scale Classical Art</u>. Berkeley: University Art Museum, 1974; and Lawrence, Patricia. <u>Studies in Archaic Corinthian Vase Painting</u>. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1996; <u>An Amphora with a Price Inscription in the Hearst Collection at San Simeon</u>. Berkeley: University of California press, 1941; and Lawrence, Patricia. <u>Archaic Corinthian Pottery and the Anaploga Well</u>. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1975; <u>Corinthian Vase-Painting of the Archaic Period</u>. 3 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Darrell Arlynn Amyx; "Dick" Amyx
Anderson, James1878Photo-documentarian, founder of the Anderson photoarchive. Born Isaac Atkinson, Anderson was raised in Cumberland, England and settled in Rome in 1838. His intention was to be a painter and, under the signature Nugent Dunbar, submitted several works to the exhibition of the Select Society, London, in 1839. In addition to his paintings and watercolors, he periodically sent back drawings for British newspapers. He switched to photography in 1853 after experimenting with the medium for a number of years. Changing his name to Giacomo Anderson, he set up shop in the Piazza Spagna where his principle livelihood was photographing sculpture for artists. Anderson's interest, however, was in photographing classical antiquities and renaissance sculpture. His son, Domenico, succeeded his father after his death and greatly enlarged the collection, changing the business to principally an archive of photographic negatives of historic art work.United Kingdom; Italy"Photographs" (Letter from Italy). <u>Burlington Magzine</u> 79 (May 1964):427-8.
Giacomo Anderson; né Isaac Atkinson; Nugent Dunbar, pseudonym
Anderson, William J.18641900Wrote an early guide to Italian Renaissance architecture; the 5th edition, posthumously edited by Arthur Stratton (q.v.), was an early text to treat Baroque architecture as an epoch.United Kingdommentioned, "Wohl, Helmut. "Robert Chester Smith and the History of Art in the United States." in, Sala, Dalton, and Tamen, Pedro, et al. <u> Robert C. Smith, 1912-1975: A investigação na História de Arte/ Research in History of Art</u>. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2000, p. 24.5th ed. and Stratton, Arthur. <u>The Architecture of the Renaissance in Italy: a General View for the Use of Students and Others</u>. New York: C. Scribner's Sons/London: B. T. Batsford, ltd., 1927;
William James Anderson
Andreae, Bernard1930Graz, AustriaClassical art scholar and director of the DAI, 1984-. Andreae graduated from the university at Marburg in 1956, where he studied under Friedrich Matz (der Jünger) (q.v.). His thesis focused on the iconography of patrimony in Roman sarcofagi. Between 1956 and 1959 he was assistant professor at the DAI or German archaeological Institute in Rome contributing frequently to the <u>Archaeologische Anzeiger</u>. His 1962 <i>habilitationschrift</i> on Roman funerary objects, <u>Studien zur römischen Grabkunst</u>, was dedicated to his three mentors, Matz, Reinhard Herbig (q.v.) and Ernst Langlotz (q.v.). His study of the Nasoni tomb paintings was a major contribution to the literature of Pompei. Bernard moved to Bonn where he succeeded his mentor, Langlotz. He published his book on the Aldobrandini Wedding in 1962 and another on imitation and originality in the sarcophagi of the third century (1970). Andreae was selected in the 1960s to write with Theodor Kraus (q.v.) the volume on Roman art for the second edition of the Propyläen Kunstgeschichte. In the 1970s he made use of the excavations at Sperlonga (Villa of Tiberio). Andreae was chair of the department of archaeology at Bonn between 1965 and 1977. In 1973 he issued his survey on Roman art, <u>Römische Kunst</u>, which appeared in numerous subsequent editions and translations, including English. From 1974 onward Andreae assumed the editorship of the Corpus of Roman sarcophagi, begun by Carl Robert (q.v.) and continued by Gerhard Rodenwaldt (q.v.) and Matz. He edited a book on the mosaics of Alexander of Pompeii in 1977. He accepted an appointment at the University in Marburg in 1978. In 1985 he returned to Rome to succeed Kraus as the director of the DAI and the <u>Neue Forschungen in Pompeji</u>. His contributions have included a volume hunting scenes and their Hellenistic roots. Since 1977 he has directed (and also published) the "Talks" on the Roman sarcofagi, (1982 Pisa) and (1990 Marburg).Austria; Italy<u>Giudizio della Commissione per l'attribuzione del Premio Galileo Galilei dei Rotary Italiani</u>. <a href="http://www3.humnet.unipi.it/galileo/Fondazione/Vincitori%20Premio%20Galilei/Bernard_Andreae.htm"> http://www3.humnet.unipi.it/galileo/Fondazione/Vincitori%20Premio%20Galilei/Bernard_Andreae.htm</a>[Habilitationschrift:] <u>Studien zur römischen Grabkunst</u>. Heidelberg: F. H. Kerle, 1963; <u>Antike Bildmosaiken</u>. Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2003; <u>Römische Kunst</u>. Freiburg: Herder, 1973. English, <u>The Art of Rome</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1977; and Blanck, Horst, and Weber-Lehmann, Cornelia. <u>Malerei der Etrusker in Zeichnungen des 19. Jahrhunderts, Dokumentation vor der Photographie aus dem Archiv des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts in Rom</u>. Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1987; and Stadler, Martin, and Anger, Klaus. <u>Museo Chiaramonti</u>. 3 vols. Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1995; edited, with Kyrieleis, Helmut. <u>Neue Forschungen in Pompeji und den anderen vom Vesuvausbruch 79 n. Chr. verschütteten Städten</u>. [selected papers from a meeting of the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut and the Gemeinnütziger Verein Villa Hügel] Recklinghausen: Bongers, 1975; <u> Phyromachos-Probleme: mit einem Anhang zur Datierung des grossen Altares von Pergamon</u>. Mainz: P. von Zabern, 1990; and Kraus, Theodor. <u>Das römische Weltreich</u>. Propyläen Kunstgeschichte 2. Berlin: Propyläen Verlag, 1967; <u>Die römischen Jagdsarkophage</u>. Berlin: Gebr. Mann, 1980; and Hirmer, Albert, and Ernstmeier-Hirmer, Irmgard. <u>Skulptur des Hellenismus</u>. Munich: Hirmer, 2001.
Andresen, Andreas18281871Compiler of famous nineteenth-century catalogs of artist and monogram. His unpublished <u>Lexikon der Nürnberger Künstler</u> inspired the work of <a href="thiemeu.htm">Ulrich Thieme</a> and <a href="beckerf.htm">Felix Becker</a> for their 37-volume work of the twentieth century.Germany"The Fate of Thieme-Becker." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 90, no. 543 (June 1948): 174.and Weigel, Rudolf.<u>Der deutsche Peintre-Graveur: oder, Die deutschen Maler als Kupferstecher nach ihrem Leben und ihren Werken, von dem letzten Drittel des 16. Jahrhunderts bis zum Schluss des 18. Jahrhunderts</u>. 5 vols. Leipzig: R. Weigel, 1864-1878.Andreas Andresen
Angell, Samuel18001866Early discoverer that Greek architecture had been brightly colored. Angell studied architecture at the Royal Academy in London. He and another architectural student, William Harris (d. 1823) went to Sicily to find evidence for colored architecture among ancient Greek monuments. They excavated temple C, the main temple, at Selinus (Seliunte). Both men were among the circle of the architect Charles Cockerell (q.v.), who had visited Sicily and made archaeological digs in the 1810's. Neither Angell nor Harris secured permission to excavate. While digging on the steps of the facade, they discovered the remains of the Doric frieze. But local police discovered their activities and forbade their continuance. Undaunted, the two moved to the Eastern Hill, and uncovered metopes from temple F. Harris and Angell intended, like Lord Elgin, to take the metopes back to England, but were apprehended before their departure from Mazara harbor. The authorities took the sculptures to Palermo for safe keeping in the Olivella monastery antiquary museum in Palermo. Angell met Jacques Ignace Hittorff (q.v.) probably in the Palermo Museum in 1822, while both were searching for polychromed architectural fragments. Harris died while in Sicily and Angell returned to Rome and announced his discovery before Hittorff. Hittorff publicized his findings earlier in an German art journal in 1824 before Angell's 1826 book, <u>Sculptured Metopes</u>. The metopes they discovered form some of the most important finds of Hellenism.United KingdomSchneider, Donald David. <u>The Works and Doctrine of Jacques Ignace Hittorff, 1792-1867</u>. 2 vols. New York: Garland Pub., 1977, pp. 124-29; Middleton, Robin. Viollet-le-duc. Ph.D., Cambridge University, 1958, vol. I pp. [ca.] 159 ff; Hammer, Karl. <u>Jakob Ingnaz Hittorff: Ein pariser Baumeister, 1972-1867</u>. Stuttgart: , 1968, p. 54; Columbia University, Department of Art History and Archaeology. <u>826 Schermerhorn</u> [newsletter] fall 2004. <a href="http://www.columbia.edu/cu/arthistory/pdf/ah_info_newsletter04.pdf"> http://www.columbia.edu/cu/arthistory/pdf/ah_info_newsletter04.pdf</a> ; Marconi, Clemente. <u>Selinunte: le metope dell'Heraion</u>. Modena: F.C. Panini, 1994.and Harris, William and Evans, Thomas. <u>Sculptured Metopes Discovered Amongst the Ruins of the Temples of the Ancient City of Selinus in Sicily . . . in the Year 1823</u>. London: Published for the authors by Priestley and Weale, 1826.
Angulo Iñiguez, DiegoJuly 18, 1901Valverde del Camino (Huelva), SpainNovember 5, 1986Seville, SpainHistorian and critic of Spanish colonial art and culture. Angulo Iñiguez received his undergraduate at the University in Seville in History in 1920. In 1922 he was awarded his Ph.D. from the Universidad Central de Madrid for a thesis on the Renaissance goldsmiths of Seville. He began his career in Seville, where he studied the archives of the Indies. In 1930 he published his dissertation on Andalusian sculpture and established the Laboratorio de Arte Americano (Labratory of American Art). He was appointed to the Catedrático de Teoría de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Granada, where he did ground-breaking work on the history of Spanish colonial art in South America. This coincided with the general opening to a broader audience of the great archival centers in Spain, the Archivo General de Indias (Seville), the Archivo General de Simancas; and the Madrid archives, Archivo Histórico Nacional, Servicio Histórico Militar y Museo Naval (Gutiérrez Viñuales). In 1939 he was appointed Profesor at the University of Madrid where he supervised the work of the graduate student <a href="marcodortae.htm">Enrique Marco Dorta</a>, later the director of the Art History department in Seville. Marco Dorta and <a href="buschiazzom.htm">Mario Buschiazzo</a> from the University of Buenos Aires collaborated with him on a four-volume study covering architecture, painting, sculpture, decorative arts, <u>Historia del arte hispanoamericano</u>, published in 1945. The work followed the evolution of these artistic forms from the assimilation of Spanish art by the colonies to neo-classicism. Angulo Iñiguez directed the Institute Diego Velázquez at the University of Madrid. Angulo Iñiguez was member of the Academy of History and Arts and of the Council of Scientific Investigations, as well as the director of the Prado Museum; he also directed the publication <u>Archivo Español de Arte</u></a>, founded in 1924 by <a href="gomezmorenom.htm">Manuel Gómez Moreno</a> as <u>Archivo Español de Arte y Arqueología</u><i>, </i>the first Spanish journal exclusively dedicated to artistic historiography. Angulo Iñiguez's art-historical knowledge was vast. He had many students in addition to Marco Dorta. Both his <u>History of Spanish American Art</u> and his three-volume study of Murillo are considered landmarks in art history. LS/CSSpainBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 441, 455; Mateo Gómez, Isabel. <u>Diego Angulo Iñiguez, historiador del arte</u>. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2001. Ruiz Gomar, Rogelio. La pintura de la Nueva España en la obra de Diego Angulo Iñiguez." <u>Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas</u> 15 no. 59, 1988; Vargas Lugo, Elisa. "Los retablos novohispanos en opinión de don Diego Angulo Iñiguez." <u>Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas</u> 15 no. 59, 1988; Gutiérrez Viñuales, Rodrigo. "Historiografía del arte Iberoamericano en España: pintura, escultura y artes útiles." <u>Cuadernos de Arte de la Universidad de Granada</u> no. 30 (1999): 181-186; <u>Diccionario de historiadores españoles del arte</u>. Borrás Gualis, Gonzalo M., and Reyes Pacios Lozano, Ana, eds. Madrid: Cátedra, 2006, pp. 52-54.[dissertation:] <u>Orfebrería sevillana desde 1500 a 1800</u>. Madrid, Universidad Central, 1922; <u>La escultura en Andalucia: sieglos XV-XVIII</u>. 3 vols. Seville: Univ. de Sevill Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, 1930; <u>La arquitectura mudéjar sevillana de los siglos XIII, XIV y XV</u> [1935]. Sevilla, 1962; <u>Planos de documentos arquitectónicos de América y Filipinas en el Archivo de Indias.</u> 4 vols. Sevilla, 1933-1936; and Marco Dorta, Enrique, and Buschiazzo, Mario José. <u>Historia del arte hispanoamericano</u>. 4 vols. Barcelona-Madrid-Buenos Aires, 1945-1956; <u>Juan de Borgoña</u>. Madrid : Instituto Diego Velázquez, Consejo Superior Investigaciones Científicas, 1954; <u>Pintura del Renacimiento</u> (vol. XII of the collection <u>Ars Hispaniae</u>). Madrid : Plus Ultra, 1954; <u>Murillo: Su vida, su arte, su obra</u><i>. </i>3 vols. Madrid, 1981.Diego Angulo Iñiguez
Anstruther-Thomson, C.18571921United Kingdom<u>Art & Man: Essays & Fragments [with] an introduction by Vernon Lee</u>. London: John Lane, 1924.
Clementina Anstruther-Thomson
Antal, FrederickDecember 21, 1887Budapest, CzechApril 4, 1954London, United KingdomMarxist/social-history art historian. Antal was born to a wealthy Jewish family. His father, Alajos Antal, was a medical doctor and his mother was Sofia Gerstl. The younger Antal completed a law degree in Budapest and then continued there as well as Freiburg and Paris to study art history. In studied in Berlin under <a href="wolfflinh.htm">Heinrich Wölfflin</a> and then in Vienna under <a href="dvorakm.htm">Max Dvorák</a>. He received his doctorate in art history in 1914 writing his thesis under Dvořák on neo-classical and Romantic French painting. Antal volunteered in the Print Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest (1914/1915) cataloging the prints and drawings with <a href="wildej.htm">Johannes Wilde</a>. In 1916 he joined the illustrious discussion group the <em>Sonntagskreis</em>, whose members included intellectuals such as the philosopher Georg Lukács (1885-1971), the sociologist Karl Mannheim (1893-1947) and art historians <a href="hausera.htm">Arnold Hauser</a> and Wilde. As World War I progressed, hhe Austro-Hungarian government, under whom he served, assigned him to Udine, Italy, to curate the art in this occupied territory. After the fall of the Empire, and the creation of the Hungarian Soviet Republic (March 21, 1919), Antal became <i>Vorsitzender des Direktoriums</i> (Chairman of the Board) at the Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest, where he assisted in opening the museum's private collection to the public and organizing a successful exhibition with the help of museum director <a href="benescho.htm">Otto Benesch</a>. As <i>Vorsitzender</i> of the museum, Antal headed efforts to promote artists and protect national monuments. His tenure ended abruptly after the Counterrevolution of summer 1919, which forced him to flee first to Florence and then to Vienna. Partially funded by the University of Berlin, Antal traveled extensively in Italy between 1919 and 1923, spending most of his time in Florence. He completed his magnum opus, a history of sixteenth-century Florentine painting in the 1920s, but declined to publish it. He had, in the mean time, become enamored with a Maxist dialectical theory of history, but also, with the realization that any writing about late Italian painting ("Mannerism") depended upon a thorough understanding to the fifteenth-century revolution which was the early Renaissance (Blunt). He married Theodora von Lobell (later divorced). The years 1923 to 1933 Antal spent as a resident of Berlin, where he collaborated with Bruno Fürst (1891-1965) as editor (1926-1934) of the periodical <u>Kritische Berichte zur kunstgeschichtlichen Literatur</u>, a publication primarily concerned with methodology. In Berlin his interest was primarily on Italian sixteenth-century painting. In 1932 Antal toured Soviet museums, about which he later lectured (published 1976). The rise of the Nazi regime in Germany in 1933 forced him, as a Jew, to flee again, this time to England, where he was befriended by the art historian <a href="blunta.htm">Anthony Blunt</a>. In 1936 he remarried, now to Evelyn Foster (b. 1903/4), a British citizen, and Oxford graduate. Antal spent his first years in England rewriting his Florentine art history to incorporate his earlier findings and social-history approached. He lectured at the Courtauld Institute and became a naturalized citizen in 1946. Finally, in 1948, his reworked text was published as the book <u>Florentine Painting and its Social Background: the Bougeois Republic before Cosimo de'Medici's Advent to Power: Fourteenth and Early Fifteenth Centuries</u> in England. His research on drawing at the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, were incorporated into the 1949 catalog by <a href="pophama.htm">A. E. Popham</a> and Wilde. The same year he published "Remarks on the Method of Art History" his new-found credo on art-historical method. Thereafter, Antal's interests shifted from French classical/romantic painting to the 18th-century British artists Hogarth and Füssli. He died at his Marlborough Place home in 1954. His manuscripts on Hogarth and Füssli were published posthumously. His collected essays, <u>Classicism and Romanticism, with other Studies in Art History</u>, published 1966, contained some of his best writing, articles. Antal's methodology can be seen as blending that of <a href="warburga.htm">Aby Warburg</a> with a more traditional Marxist view of art. In his later writings, he increasingly applied the concept of Marxist dialectical materialism to art history. He suggested that the concept of artistic style is primarily an expression of ideology, political beliefs and social class. This methodology has been criticized as assuming too strong a determination of artistic style by social constructs. Antal was also criticized for defining an artist's identity too narrowly by his patron or benefactor's social class and thereby neglecting the artist's subjectivity. The review of <u>Florentine Painting</u> by <a href="meissm.htm">Millard Meiss</a> in the <u>Art Bulletin</u> (1949) is most illuminating, both toward Antal's methodology and of the art establishment's reaction of his work. Antal's Marxist beliefs and reputation as politically a Communist effectively excluded from the Western academic world after 1948. His books following <u>Florentine Painting</u> were less imbued with this methodology. After his death, his social-history Marxist style became more popular and appreciated. The critic and art historian <a href="bergerj.htm">John Berger</a> cited Antal as a major influence on Berger's work and the medievalist <a href="grodeckil.htm">Louis Grodecki</a> in the 1970s acknowledged Antal's important study on competing Florentine monasatic orders in architectural commissions. Blunt ascribed to Antal one of the earlist art historians to clearly define the term "Mannerism" and particularly Füssli's relationship to the earlier movement.Hungary, United Kingdom Berger, John. "Frederick Antal: A Personal Tribute." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 96 no. 617 (1954): 259-260; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, pp. 134-136; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 77; Grodecki, Louis. "Definitions and Theories/Historical and Physical Circumstances." <u>Gothic Architecture</u>. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1977, p. 30 [misspelled as "Antel"]; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, pp. 155, 199, 341, 344; Haynes, Deborah. "Antal, Frederick." <u>The Dictionary of Art</u> 2: 131; <u>Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon</u>. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1999, pp. 1-4; Blunt, Anthony. "Frederick Antal." <u>Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</u>; Wendland, Ulrike. <u>Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler</u>. Munchen: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 3-6. [dissertation:] <u>Klassizismus, Romantik und Realismus in der französisschen Malerei von der Mitte des XVIII. Jahrhunderts bis zum auftreten Géricault</u>. Ph.D., Vienna University, 1914, partially translated into English as <u>Classicism and Romanticism, with Other Studies in Art History</u>. New York: Basic Books, 1966; "Reflections on Classicism and Romanticism." <u>Burlington Magazine 56</u> (1935): 160; <u>Florentine Painting and its Social Background: the Bougeois Republic before Cosimo de'Medici's Advent to Power: Fourteenth and Early Fifteenth Centuries</u>. London: Paul, 1948; <u>Fuseli Studies</u>. London: Routledge & Paul, 1956; <u>Hogarth and His Place in European Art</u>. London: Routledge & Paul, 1962.Frederick Antal; Frigyes AntalLee Sorensen
Apostool, CornelisDirector of the Koninklijk Museum (later Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam. He advised the Baltimore collector Robert Gilmor, Jr. on purchasesThe Netherlands
Arasse, DanielNovember 5, 1944Oran (Algeria)December 14, 2003ParisItalianist art historian; Arasse graduated from the École normale supérieure in 1965 in Classics. He entered the Sorbonne initially studying Italian Renaissance art under <a href="chastela.htm">André Chastel</a> on St. Bernardino of Siena. He switched to École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) under the direction of <a href="marinl.htm">Louis Marin</a>. After the break up the University of Paris in 1968 under the cultural revolution, commonly known as the French May, Arasse taught at the Sorbonne University or Paris IV where he taught modern art history, i.e., fifteenth- to the nineteenth centuries, beginning in 1969. In 1971and then at Paris-I, Pantheon-Sorbonne. That year, too, he became a member of the French School in Rome for two years. Between 1982 and 1989, he directed the French Institute in Florence, creating the France Cinema Festival. He returned to the EHESS in 1993 as director of studies. He was appointed curator of the Musée du Luxembourg Botticelli in 2003, but succumbed to a degenerative disease at age 59 and died. FranceDaniel Arasse
Arcangeli, Francesco19151974Modernist.Italy<u>L'ideale classico del Seicento in Italia e la pittura di paesaggio: catalogo by Biennale d'arte antica</u>. 1962. Bologna: Edizioni Alfa, 1962; <u>Natura ed espressione nell'arte bolognese-emiliana</u>. Biennale d'arte antica. Bologna: Alfa, 1970; <u>Graham Sutherland</u>. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1973 [in fact, 1975]; <u>Monet</u>. Bologna: Nuova Alfa, 1989.
Arcisse de Caumont, Comte18011873Pursued archeological studies of gothic architecture; classified gothic structures by type of ribs; established the Société française d'archaeologie (1834)FranceBazin 124<u>Histoire de l'architecture religieuse, civile et militaire</u>. 6 vols. 1830-1841.
Aretino, Pietro1492Arezzo1556VeniceArt critic and writer, collaborator with Vasari; his <u>Letters</u> form a proto-art history. Aretino's father was a shoemaker, known as Luca del Tura. Aretino himself trained both as a writer and an artist. After time in Venice and Siena, Aretino was in Rome by 1517 where he was attached to the household of Agostino Chigi (1466-1520). There he met Sebastiano del Piombo and Jacopo Sansovino, Raphael, and Michelangelo. He was briefly in the circle of Pope Leo X (1475-1521). Aretino was frequently associated with political tracts, satires and illustrated erotica. In 1525 he was forced to flee Rome because of the publication of the erotic <u>I Modi</u> texts (illustrations by Marcantonio Raimondi after Giulio Romano) and by 1527 he had settled permanently in Venice. There he associated with Venetian artists, including Titian. Beginning in 1538 he published <u>The Letters</u> (Lettere), a biography of his experiences in letter form. Many of the letters pertained to art and artists. Important entries include the1537 and 1545 entries on Michelangelo's <u>Last Judgment</u> in the Sistine Chapel, and others to Titian. Concluding posthumously in 1557, the <u>Lettere</u> form a valuable commentary on the life and works of renaissance artists. Like other art critics of the period, he employed a personal and somewhat subjective genre of art analysis. Giorgio Varsari (q.v.) used them as a model, in part, for his more important <u>Lives of the Artists</u> (1550). The <u>Lettere</u> employed both analytical criticism, such as that of the Michelangelo painting, and ekphrastic descriptions, such as that praising Vasari's cartoon of the <u> Fall of Manna</u>. Aretino possessed an small art collection, portions of which are extant in modern collections. Portraits of him exist by Raimondi, Sebastiano del Piombo and Titian, the latter located in the Frick Collection, New York) and a similar likeness by Titian, the <u>Ecce homo</u>, 1543 in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. His religious writing and artistic description influenced contemporary artists.ItalyKultermann, Udo. <u>Geschichte der Kunstgeschichte: Der Weg einer Wissenschaft</u>. 2nd ed. Frankfurt am Main and Vienna: Ullstein, 1981, pp. 24-6; Burckhardt, Jacob. <u>Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien</u>. Leipzig: E. A. Seeman, 1909. Vol. 1: 178-82 [n.b., Burckhardt does not discuss Aretino as an art historian here]; Land, Norman E. "Pietro Aretino's Art Criticism," in <u>The Viewer as Poet: The Renaissance Response to Art</u>. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994, pp. 128-50. <u>The Dictionary of Art</u> 2: 387-88; Menetti, Elisabetta. "Commento." Aretino, Pietro. <u> Lettere</u>. Rome: Carocci, 2000; Freedman, Luba. <u>Titian's Portraits Through Aretino's Lens</u>. University Park, PA: Penn State Press, 1995.[first appearance of the Lettere] <u>I qvattro libri de la hvmanità di Christo</u>. Venice: Per Francesco Marcolini da Forlì il mese di agosto nel, 1538; [first complete set] <u>Del primo [-sesto] libro de le lettere di M. Pietro Aretino</u>. 6 vols. Perugia: Appresso Matteo il Maestro ..., 1608-1609 [Vols. 2-6 have the title, "Il secondo libro ..." ]; <u>Dialogo di M. Pietro Aretino: nel qvale la Nanna il primo giorno insegna a la Pipa sva figlivola a essere pvttana</u>, [etc.]. Turin: [actually, Venice]: P. M. L. Francesco Marcolini, 1536, English [of part I], <u>The School of Whoredom</u>. London: Hesperus, 2003.
Pietro Aretino del Tura
Argan, Giulio Carlo1909Turin, Italy1992Rome, ItalyMarxist art historian, professor at University of Rome 1959-1976; specialist in Italian art. Argan's father, Valerio Argan, was an administrator of a women's mental hospital and his mother, Libera Roncaroli, a primary school teacher. An uncle's subscription to the journal <u>La Critica</u>, founded by <a href="croceb.htm">Benedetto Croce</a>, introduced the ideas of that art philosopher to Argan at a young age. He attended the Liceo Classico Cavour in Turin where the classes of the young Giusta Nicco Fasola (1901-1960) instilled a passion for art. He painted skillfully enough to win local art competitions. Argan entered the University of Turin in 1927 to study law. The lectures of <a href="venturil.htm">Lionello Venturi</a> on Impressionism convinced him to give up painting as a past time for art history, particularly architectural history. An initial article, on Palladio's architecture, appeared in Venturi's journal <u> L'arte</u> in 1930. Argan received a Laurea degree in art history at Turin, writing his dissertation under Venturi in 1930 on Sebastiano Serlio's treatise on architecture. In 1931 he secured a fellowship to work as an Assistant at the University of Rome's school of art history under <a href="toescap.htm">Pietro Toesca</a>. In 1933 he began his career in various capacities of the fine arts administration, principally in Rome. These included director of the Pinacoteca Estense in Modena and Inspector of Museums and Art Galleries, 1933-1935, and then Minister of Fine Arts. From 1936, he was associated with the group of intellectual who wrote for <u>Casabella</u>, marrying its editor, Anna Maria Mazzucchelli, in 1939. Working closely with Bottai, the minister of Culture, he endowed a government institute for restoration, seating his friend, <a href="brandic.htm">Cesare Brandi</a> as first director in 1938. During World War II, Argan applied his Crocean anti-fascist beliefs to work against the German usurping Italian cultural property during the occupation. Following the war he worked on a committee with <a href="longhir.htm">Roberto Longhi</a> to restore stolen Italian artworks. Argan's reading took on a decidedly Marxist direction, studying the works of Gramshi, Husserl, Adorno and Marcuse, which had been unknown in Italy during fascism. As Inspector for the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage he quarreled with (and likely fired) <a href="zerif.htm">Federico Zeri</a> in 1952 accusing Zeri of a conflict of interest with Zeri's private consultation. Argan taught at the University of Palermo 1954-58 and then succeeded his mentor, Venturi as chair of modern art at the University of Rome in 1959. During this time, he authored his three-volume <u>Storia dell'arte italiana</u>, in 1968, and the volume on modern European art for the prestigious German-language art history, <u>Propyläen Kunstgeschichte</u> in 1977. In 1976 he relinquished his professorship when he was elected Mayor of Rome (through 1979) as a Communist and later, in the same party, as a senator, 1981-1992. In 1987 he co-founded the magazine <u>Storia dell'Arte</u>, co-edited with <a href="salernol.htm">Luigi Salerno</a>. Methodologically, Argan wove a wide variety of techniques into his writing, including structuralism. His <u>Storia dell'arte italiana</u> remains his most influential work. A glimpse of his writing in English can be gleaned in his 1967 essay on Renaissance Art in the volume <u>20,000 years of World Painting</u>.ItalyHüttinger, Eduard. "Aspekt der modernen italiensichen Kunsthistoriographie: Zum Werk von Giulio Carlo Argan." in Chroscicki, Juliusz A. <u>Ars auro prior : studia Ioanni Bialostocki sexagenario dicata</u>. Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawn. Nauk., 1981, pp. 39-42; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, pp. 138-139; <u>Studi in onore di Giulio Carlo Argan</u>. (Il pensiero critico di Giulio Carlo Argan). Roma: Multigrafica, 1984-1985; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 438; <u>The Dictionary of Art</u> 2: 391-2; [manuscript] Argan, Giulio Carlo, Passerini, Luisa, interviewer. <u>L'entrata dell'arte nella vita quotidiana/Bringing art into everyday life: Giulio Carlo Argan</u>. Los Angeles: Oral History Program, University of California, Los Angeles, and the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1993 [biographical dates vary between translated sections], pp. 1-6]; Buonazia, Irene, and Perelman, Marc. <u>Giulio Carlo Argan : 1909-1992. Historien de l'art et maire de Rome</u>. Paris: Passion, 1999; [obituary:] <u>New York Times</u> November 14, 1992, p. 27.[dissertation:] <u>Trattato d'architecture d' Sebastiano Serlio</u>. Turin, 1930; <u>L'architettura protocristiana preromanica e romanica</u>. Florence: Novissima enciclopedia monographica illustrata 1936; <u>Marcel Breuer: disegno industriale e architettura</u>. Milan: Görlich, 1957; <u>Umberto Boccioni</u>. Rome: De Luca, 1953; <u>Fra Angelico: Biographical and Critical Study</u>. Translated from the Italian by James Emmons. Geneva: Skira, 1955; "The Renaissance." [chapter in] Jaffé, Hans Ludwig C., and Kahane, P. P., eds. <u>20,000 years of World Painting</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1967; <u>Storia dell'arte italiana</u>. 3 vols. Florence: Sansoni, 1968-69; <u>Studi e note dal Bramante al Canova</u>. Biblioteca di storia dell'arte (Bulzoni editore) vol. 1. Rome: M. Bulzoni, 1970; and Bossaglia, Rossana. <u>Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts, 1880-1940</u>. Propyläen Kunstgeschichte 12. Berlin: Propyläen-Verlag, 1977.Guilio Carlo Argan
Arias, P. E.1907After teaching at the universities of Bologna and Catania, Arias joined the department of archaeology at the University of Pisa in 1961. His survey of Greek vase painting, <u>Mille anni di ceramica greca</u>, published in 1960, was published in English, German and French. In 1968 he was appointed chair of the department.ItalyRidgway, Brunhilde Sismondo. "The State of Research on Ancient Art," <u>Art Bulletin</u> 68 (March 1986): 8, note 8.[dissertation (?):] <u>Il teatro greco fuori di Atene</u>. Scuola normale superiore di Pisa, published under the same title, Florence: G. C. Sansoni, 1934; edited, with Pighi, G. Battista, and Grande, Carlo del. <u>Enciclopedia classica</u>. 12 vols. Turin: Società editrice internazionale, 1957ff.; <u> Archaeologia: avviamento storico allo studio dell'archeologia classica</u>. Catania: Crisafulli, 1943; <u>Mille anni di ceramica greca</u>. Florence: Sansoni, 1960, English, <u>A History of Greek Vase Painting</u>. London: Thames and Hudson, 1962, [published in the United States as] <u>A History of 1,000 Years of Greek Vase Painting</u>. New York: Abrams, 1962; <u> Introduzione all'arte romana</u>. Catania: G. Crisafulli, 1956; <u>Pheidias</u>. Catania: G. Crisafulli, 1944; <u>Problemi di storia dell'arte greca</u>. Bologna: Pa´tron, 1956; <u>Scultura greca</u>. Milan: Silvana, 1969; <u>Corpus vasorum antiquorum. Italia. Museo archeologico nazionale di Siracusa</u>. fasc. 17. Rome: Libreria dello Stato, 1941ff.; and Patitucci, Stella. <u>Corpus vasorum antiquorum. Italia. Museo nazionale di Ferrara</u>. fasc. 37, 48. Rome: Libreria dello Stato, 1963ff.
Paolo Enrico Arias
Armi, C. EdsonFebruary 6, 1946Philadelphia, PAUniversity of California, Santa Barbara medievalist architectural historian. Armi was the son of Edgar Leo Armi and Emita Dember (Armi). He graduated from Columbia College, Columbia University with a B. A. in 1967, continuing for his M.A. and Ph.D. After research as a Woodrow Wilson fellow, 1970-1972, his dissertation on Romanesque wall structure was accepted in 1973. Armi secured an appointment at the University of Chicago as an assistant professor in 1974. He remained there until 1977 where moved to the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, as an associate professor of art history. Armi's book <u>Masons and Sculptors in Romanesque Burgundy: the New Aesthetic of Cluny III</u> of 1983 focused on construction methods of the Romanesque. He published a book on car design in 1988. He married Mary Elisabeth Spear in 1991. Armi moved to Santa Barbara in 1992 as professor at the University of California there. There he wrote a book on the various artists involved with the sculpture of Chartres cathedral. In 1999 he was awarded a Guggenheim fellowship which resulted in his 2004 book on romanesque building construction. United States[dissertation:] <u>Saint-Philibert at Tournus and Wall Systems of First Romanesque Architecture</u>. Columbia University, 1973; "The Formation of the Torpedo Tourer." <u>Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians </u> 29, no. 4 (December 1970): 339-346;<u>Masons and Sculptors in Romanesque Burgundy: the New Aesthetic of Cluny III</u>. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983; <u>The Art of American Car Design: the Profession and Personalities: "Not Simple Like Simon."</u> University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1988; <u>The "Headmaster" of Chartres and the Origins of "Gothic" Sculpture</u>. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994; <u>American Car Design Now: the Creating and Marketing of American Cars</u>. New York: Rizzoli, 2003; <u>Design and Construction in Romanesque Architecture: First Romanesque Architecture and the Pointed arch in Burgundy and Northern Italy</u>. Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Clement Edson Armi
Armstrong, Sir Walterhistorian of English art;United KingdomBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986 p. 515.<u>Gainsborough and his Place in England Art</u>. 1904.; <u>Reynolds</u>. 1900.
Arnason, H. H.1909Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada1986New York, NYDirector of the Walker Art Center 1951-1961; wrote a popular survey of modern art. Arnason was born to Sveinbjorn and Maria Bjarnadottir (Arnason), Icelandic immigrants to Canada. He attended the University of Manitoba for two years (1925-1927) before immigrating to the United States. There he attended Northwestern University, achieving his B.S. in 1931. In 1936 he married Elizabeth Hickox Yard and taught as an instructor. After gaining his A.M. in 1937, Arnason continued to study art at Princeton University where he was awarded an M.F.A. in 1939. He was made a naturalized citizen in 1940. Arnason worked at the Frick Collection in New York as research assistant and lecturer between 1938-1942, also lecturing at Hunter College (now part of the City University of New York) between 1939-1942. During World War II, he was field representative in Iceland for the Office of War Information,1942-1944, rising to assistant deputy director for Europe, 1944-1945. In 1947 he was a visiting professor at the University of Chicago, and then professor and chair of the art department at the University of Minnesota, where he remained until 1961. Arnason became Director of Walker Art Center in 1951, holding that position for ten years. He was a Carnegie Visiting Professor at University of Hawaii in 1959. In 1961 left Minneapolis for New York again to become vice-president for art administration at the Guggenheim Foundation, serving with Guggenheim director <a href="messert.htm">Thomas Messer</a>. He married a second time to Elinor Lane Franklin in 1966. Arnason published a famous survey of modern art, drawn from his contacts and experiences with the Walker Museum, <u>A History of Modern Art</u>, in 1968. It remained a staple survey of the modern period for twenty years. He left the Guggenhiem in 1969..Canada; United States [Icelandic lineage][obituary] "H. Harvard Arnason, Art Historian, Is Dead." <u>The New York Times</u> May 29, 1986, p. B8.<u>Directions in Modern Painting</u> [G. David Thompson Collection at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.]. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, l961; <u>Philip Guston</u>. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1962; <u> Marca-Relli</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1963; <u>History of Modern Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1968; and Lipchitz, Jacques. <u>My Life in Sculpture [Jacques Lipchitz]</u>. New York: Viking Press, 1972; <u>The Sculptures of Houdon</u>. London: Phaidon, 1975; <u>Robert Motherwell</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1977; Hjorvardur Harvard ArnasonLee Sorensen
Arndt, Paul1865Dresden, Germany1937Munich, GermanyPrivate art scholar and dealer of ancient Greek sculpture and portraits. Son of an affluent merchant in Mecklenburg, Arndt studied classical art with Johann Overbeck (q.v.) in Leipzig and Hermann Brunn (q.v.) in Munich. His dissertation, written under Brunn, focused on Greek vase types. He never attempted a <i>habilitationschrift</i>. Brunn took Arndt for his assistant. Because of his financial independence, Arndt could afford to remain a private scholar. Through his excellent library and nearly unfailing eye, Arndt developed a reputation for recognizing forgeries. As a dealer in Munich, he sold some of the best works of classical art in the Ny Calsberg Glyptotek, Copenhage, the Glyptotek in Munich, as well as Budapest and Yale University. After Brunn's death, Arndt took over the series editor of the corpus <u> Denkmäler griechischer und römischer Skulptur in historischer Anordung</u>, which Brunn had founded. Arndt amassed an impressive collection of ancient gems, which is now part of the Staatlich Münzsammlung. Methodologically, Arndt principally employed connoisseurship, and to an amazing degree, much the same as his mentor, Brunn. The <u>Denkmäler</u> make use of photographs, which Arndt was one of the first to use.Gemany<u>Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassichen Archäologen deutscher Sprache</u>. Reinhard Lullies, ed. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1988: 158-159; Calder, William, III. "Paul Arndt." <u>Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology</u>. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, p. 83.[dissertation:] <u>Studien zur Vasenkunde</u>. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 1887; <u>Denkmäler griechischer und römischer Porträts</u>, 1891 ff.; 2<sup>nd</sup> ed. and Lippold, Georg. <u>Brunn-Bruckmann's Denkmäler griechischer und römischer Sculptur</u>. München: F. Bruckmann, 1932-1947; <u>Photographische Einzelaufnahmen antiker Sculpturen</u>. München, F. Bruckmann a.g., 1893-1911.
Paul Julius Arndt
Arnheim, Rudolf1904Berlin, Germany2007Ann Arbor, MIPhilosopher of perception and art; used Gestalt psychology for his art-historical studies. Arnheim was the son of Georg Arnheim (1867-1944), a piano factory owner, and Betty Gutherz (Arnheim) (1879-1966). He was raised in Berlin, attending the Herdergymnasium (Abitur 1923). His parents intended him to assume the family business, but beginning in 1923 Arnheim, studied art and music history, philosophy and psychology at the University of Berlin with Gestalt-based scholars Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967) and Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). His Ph.D. dissertation was supervised by the eminent theorist Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) in 1928. Arnheim became friends and was greatly influenced by the private art historian Kurt Badt (q.v.); his sister, Helen "Leni" Arnheim (1906-1973) married Badt. Arnheim pursued his interests in the arts through the editorship of <u>Die Weltbuhne</u>, a leftist magazine of politics and culture, publishing articles on film, art and architecture. This led him to develop his theories of the primacy of perception in art appreciation, linking it with the heretofore separated function of mental cognition. His investigations included music and film (he was one of the first to publish a book on the artistic aspects of the silent film in 1932). He married Annette Siecke (later divorced). While interviewing the Nazi filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl (1902-2003) on the radio, she prophetically warned him, "As long as the Jews are film critics, I'll never have a success." Hitler's rise in Germany meant Arnheim had to flee Jewish persecution, initially to Rome. He spent five years as associate editor for a League of Nations cultural publication before Mussolini allied himself with Hitler and Arnheim again had to move. He traveled to England working as a translator for the BBC. In 1940 he immigrated to the United States. He lectured at the New School for Social Research (influencing, among others, the first American Africanist <a href="sieberr.htm">Roy Sieber</a>) and then Columbia University, working as a researcher involved with the habits of radio listeners. Arnheim was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for the 1942-1943 year. He began teaching at Sarah Lawrence College in 1943, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1946. Arnheim married a second time to Mary Frame (1918-1999), a librarian, in 1953. He published his best known work, <u>Art and Visual Perception</u>, a theory of graphic understanding, in 1954. In 1962, Arnheim wrote a work of true art history, <u>Picasso's Guernica: The Genesis of a Painting</u>. In it, he traces the elements of the famous Picasso work and how they combine to create the meaning generally accepted today. Arnheim was appointed to Harvard University, Carpenter Center of Visual Arts, in 1968. He retired from Harvard in 1974, emeritus professor of the psychology of art. He continued as a visiting professor at the University of Michigan retiring a second time in 1984. At age 102 he contracted pneumonia at his Ann Arbor retirement community and died. Methodologically, Arnheim was fascinated by the perceptual structures in appreciating art. His investigations in the preliminary sketches for Picasso's Guernica, among other works, helped establish a revised view of art interpretation for many art historians. His pioneering notion of "Visual thinking," the idea that vision itself is the primary modality for thought, is the driving force behind his books. His views on art harken to the empiricist philosophy of John Locke (1632-1704), who asserted that knowledge of the world is an objective sensory experience. Arnheim's view was criticized by, among others, the literary philosopher Richard Rorty (1931-2007) (who ironically died the day before Arnheim).Germany; United StatesKleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 100; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 74; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 320; "Visual Thinking: On Rudolf Arnheim," [issue] <u>Salmagundi </u>78-9 (Spring-Summer 1988): 43-143; <u>The Dictionary of Art 2</u>: 476-7; "A Maverick in Art History," <u>The Split and the Structure: Twenty-Eight Essays</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996, pp. 104-110, [methodological recollections]; Wendland, Ulrike. <u>Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler</u>. Munich: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 7-14; [obituaries:] Fox, Margalit. "Rudolf Arnheim, 102, Psychologist and Scholar of Art and Ideas." <u> New York Times</u>, June 14, 2007 p. 29; Bernstein, Adam. "Rudolf Arnheim, Studied Art-Perception Links." Washington Post, June 13, 2007, p. B06.[dissertation:] <u>Experimentall-psychologische Untersuchungen zum Ausdrucksproblem</u>. Berlin, 1928; <u>Film als Kunst</u>. 1932; <u>Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1954; <u>Picasso's Guernica: The Genesis of a Painting</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1962; <u>Visual Thinking</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969; <u>Toward a Psychology of Art: Collected Essays</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966; <u>Dynamics of Architectural Form</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977; <u>The Power of the Center: A Study of Composition in the Visual Arts</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. ___ 0.MetzlerRudolf Julius Arnheim
Ashby, Thomas 1874Staines, England 1931LondonArchaeologist and architectural historian of ancient Rome. Ashby attended Winchester where he already secured the nickname "Titus". At 16, his family abandoned a brewing concern to move to Rome because his father wished to explore the Campagna. Through his father, Ashby met the archaeologist Rodolpho Lanciani (1847-1929). He won a scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford University, studying under Sir John L. Myres (1869-1954) and Francis J. Haverfield (1860-1919). In 1901 Ashby became the first scholar (student) of the British School at Rome (known at the time as the British School of Archaeology, History and Letters of Rome) in the Odescalchi Palace. He published five long articles beginning in 1902 on the topography of classical Rome for the new <u>Papers of the British School</u>. In 1903 he was appointed its assistant director. He received his Ph.D. from Oxford in 1905, rising to director of the school in 1906 In 1909 he hired Eugénie Sellers Strong (q.v.) to be assistant director. When the British School incorporated in 1912, it moved to the Valle Guilia, formerly the park of the Villa of Pope Julius II, with Ashby the director. During these years, Ashby set the direction for the School. During World War I, he was mentioned for meritorious service in the Red Cross. At age 47 he married Caroline May. Ashby photographed Rome and the Campagna extensively, leaving over 9000 negatives to the School at the time of his death. He was also an avid collector of prints documenting the city and surroundings throughout history. He owned the sketches of Carlo Labruzzi (1756-1818) manuscript notes of Diego Revilles (1690-1742) on Tivoli, and drawings by Jakob Philipp Hackert and Richard Wilson. In all, about 6000 prints and circa 1000 drawings. Ashby was not the administrator that Strong was; she handled the day-to-day business of the School. Ashby's wife had serious personality conflicts with Strong, which erupted into policy disagreements. Both Ashby and Strong were terminated by the School's board in London in 1925. Ashby was shattered by the decision (Dyson). He was succeeded by Bernard Ashmole (q.v.). Ashby worked as a private scholar on a number of publications; his work on the Roman Campagna and his <u>Architecture of Ancient Rome</u>, both of 1927, are well regarded today. Ashby completed Samuel Platner's <u>Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome</u> (1929) and a major work on Roman aqueducts, published posthumously. In addition, he excavated the Roman settlement of Venta Silurum (today, Caerwent) in Wales. An accidental fall from a train resulted in his untimely death at 57. His collections were dispersed to several scholarly institutions. His print collection was sold to the Vatican Library in 1933, his artifacts from the Roman Campagna, including his collection of brick stamps, were donated to the American Academy in Rome. His personal library remained at the British School.United Kingdom<u>Dictionary of National Biography</u>, 1931-40, pp. 19-20; Boyle, Leonard E. "The Collection of Thomas Ashby in the Vatican Library." in, <u>Views of Rome</u>. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1988, pp. 15-19; Anderson, James C. "Thomas Ashby." <u>Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology</u>. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, p. 93-4; Medwid, Linda M. <u>The Makers of Classical Archaeology: A Reference Work</u>. New York: Humanity Books, 2000 pp. 26-28; Dyson, Stephen L. <u> Eugenie Sellers Strong: Portrait of an Archaeologist</u>. London: Duckworth, 2004, pp 147-159.<u> The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome</u>, edited by I. A. Richmond. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1935; <u>The Roman Campagna in Classical Times</u>. London: E. Benn, 1927; [completed by Ashby] Platner, Samuel Ball. <u>A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient </u><u> Rome</u>. London: Oxford University Press, 1929; [revised edition by Ashby of] Anderson, William J., and Spiers, Richard Phené. <u>The Architecture of Ancient </u><u> Rome : an Account of its Historic Development, being the second part of The Architecture of Greece and Rome</u>. London: Batsford, 1927.
Ashmole, Bernard 1894Ilford, Essex, United Kingdom1988Peebles, ScotlandGreek sculpture scholar and Yates Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of London, 1929-1948. Ashmole was the son of an auctioneer, William Ashmole, and Sarah Caroline Wharton Tiver (Ashmole). He was related to Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), the namesake of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, for which Ashmole would one day work. After attending Forest School (1903-1911) he was admitted to Hertford College, Oxford, in 1913 awarded the Essex Scholarship in Classics. However, Britain entered into World War I the following year and Ashmole joined the 11th Royal Fusiliers. He was seriously wounded at the Battle of the Somme. He rose to the rank of captain and earned the Military Cross before discharge in 1918. Ashmole returned to Oxford studying classical archaeology under Percy Gardner (q.v.) and John D. Beazley (q.v.). He married Dorothy De Peyer (d. 1991) in 1920. In 1923 Ashmole received his B. Litt. He joined Oxford University's Ashmolean Museum the same year as the assistant curator of coins. In 1925 he was appointed director of the British School at Rome, in part to repair the School's reputation after the joint dismissal of both its director, Thomas Ashby (q.v.) and assistant director, Eugénie Strong (q.v.). At the School he assisted in catalog of the sculptures of the Palazzo dei Conservatori edited under H. Stuart Jones (q.v.). He also worked closely with the young sculptors and architects training there and gained an appreciation for modernist architecture. In 1928 he returned to England to become the Yates Professor of Classical Archaeology at the University of London in 1929, a position he termed "the research scholar's ultimate sinecure." He and Beazley collaborated on the Greek art chapter for the second edition of the <u>Cambridge Ancient History</u>, 1928 ff., Beazley writing on painting and Ashmole on sculpture. The essay proved so popular that was issued as an independent work in 1932. Ashmole contacted two architects formerly from the British School in Rome, Amyas Douglas Connell (1901-1980) and Basil Robert Ward (1902-1976), to design a modernist concrete-framed country house in Amersham-on-the-Hill, Buckinghamshire, in 1929. Called "High and Over," the house is today listed as an historic building for its architectural importance. In a famous episode in 1930, Ashmole wrote an article in the <u>Journal of Hellenic Studies</u> famously exposing a late Archaic sculpture as a forgery on the basis of carving technique alone, disputing the claim by the late Franz Studniczka (q.v.) that the work was genuine. He delivered the Hertz lectures at the British Academy in 1934 which were published as <u>Late Archaic and Early Classical Greek Sculpture in Sicily and South Italy</u> the same year. Ashmole entered into a public row with the Italian archaeologist Giulio Emanuele Rizzo (q.v.) in that 1930s over Rizzo's method and his quoting Ashmole radically out of context. He advised on the 1936 film <u>I, Claudius</u> starring Charles Laughton. In 1937, zealous museum employees at the British Museum, under Frederick Norman Pryce (q.v.), "cleaned" the famous Elgin marbles in preparation for the new gallery in which they were to be installed, funded by Joseph Duveen (1869-1939). The abrasive cleaning made them seem more brilliant but effaced their original condition. The process was halted in 1938, but a scandal erupted in the press (see John Forsdyke, q.v., and Roger Hinks, q.v.) and public confidence in the museum was eroded. As a result, Ashmole was appointed Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the British Museum in 1939 in addition to his University of London responsibilities (to 1956) to restore public faith in the museum. Ashmole led the Greek and Roman Department deftly and largely honorarily because he retained his position at the University of London. Through nurture and shrewd personal judgment, Ashmole allowed the department's emerging scholars, Martin Robertson (q.v.) and Denys Haynes (q.v.), to shine in their own right. When World War II was declared, Ashmole volunteered again in the military, this time in the Royal Air Force, 1941-1945, serving initially in Greece and again receiving a medal (Hellenic Flying Cross), retiring as a wing commander. After the war, he hired and again cultivated the careers for next generation of museum scholars, including Reynold Higgins (q.v.), Peter E. Corbett (q.v.), and Donald E. Strong (q.v.). He resigned as Yates chair in 1948 to participate fully in the reinstallation of the British Museum as Keeper. In 1956, his mentor Beazley, the long-time Lincoln Chair of Classical Art at Oxford, retired and Ashmole succeeded him. The following year Ashmole gave the Italian lectures at the British Academy. He retired from Oxford in 1961 and accepted the first Geddes-Harrower Professor of Greek Art and Archaeology at Aberdeen, Scotland. He remained there until 1963. Ashmole was visiting professor at Yale University in 1964, presenting the Semple lectures at the University of Cincinnati. He gave the Wrightsman lectures in New York in 1967, published in 1972 as <u>Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece</u>. He advised the billionaire J. Paul Getty (1892-1976) on his classical art acquisitions. The Getty Museum dedicated the first two volumes of its <u>Museum Journal</u> to Ashmole. He continued to do fieldwork at the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in Turkey. A skilled photographer, his large photographic archive of classical sculpture is housed at King's College, London, (Ashmole Archives) with an additional set to the Beazley Archive at the Ashmolean Museum. He died at his home in Scotland and is buried at St. Mary's Church, Iffley, Oxfordshire. Students whom he inspired included Emeline H. Richardson (q.v.). Ashmole's publications were not numerous, in part because of his administrative responsibilities. He was known for public criticism of scholars whose work he thought defective. His methodological focus on Greek sculpture was on the practical issues of sculptors and architects of that era, especially in how they procured, transported, and used their materials. He was frequently called to comment on forgeries, particularly those which had been authenticated in the 1930s. He supported the authenticity of the controversial Throne in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1968.United KingdomAshmole, Bernard. <u>Bernard Ashmole, 1894-1988: An Autobiography</u>. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1994; Medwid, Linda M. <u> The Makers of Classical Archaeology: A Reference Work</u>. New York: Humanity Books, 2000 pp. 29-30; Boardman, John. "Bernard Ashmole." <u>Oxford Dictionary of National Biography</u>; [obituaries:] "Prof. Bernard Ashmole, Scholar of Classical Sculpture." <u>Times</u> (London), February 26 1988; Barron, J. P. "Bernard Ashmole: Marble and the Greeks." <u>The Guardian</u> (London), March 2, 1988; Boardman, John. "Bernard Ashmole, 1894-1988."<u> American Journal of Archaeology</u> 93, no. 1 (January 1989): 135-136; Robertson, Martin. "Bernard Ashmole, 1894-1988." <u>Publications of the British Academy</u> 75 (1989): 313-28.[complete bibliography:] <u>Classical Antiquities from Private Collections in Great Britain: a Loan Exhibition in Aid of the Ashmole Archive</u>. London: Sotheby's, 1986; contributed, Jones, Henry Stuart, ed. <u>A Catalogue of the Ancient Sculptures Preserved in the Municipal Collections of Rome: the Sculptures of the Palazzo dei Conservatori</u>. 2 vols. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1926; [sections on art and sculpture, unacknowledged] and Beazley, John D. "Athens, 478-401 B. C." (vol. 5) and "Macedon, 401-301 B. C." (vol. 6), and "Rome and the Mediterranean, 218-133 B. C." (vol. 8), of <u>The Cambridge Ancient History</u>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928-39, reprinted separately as, <u>Greek Sculpture & Painting to the End of the Hellenistic period</u>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932; [refuting Studniczka] "An Alleged Archaic Group." <u>Journal of Hellenic Studies</u> 50 (1930): 99-104; <u>Late Archaic and Early Classical Greek Sculpture in Sicily and South Italy</u> [offprint of the Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 20] London: H. Milford, 1934; [criticism of Rizzo] "Manners and Methods in Archaeology." Journal of Hellenic Studies 58 (1938), pp. 240-246, and "Same Methods." <u>Journal of Hellenic Studies</u> 59 (1939): 286; <u>The Classical Ideal in Greek Sculpture</u>. Lectures in Memory of Louise Taft Semple. Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1964; and Yalouris, Nicholas. <u>Olympia: The Sculpture of the Temple of Zeus</u>. London: Phaidon, 1967; and Young, William J. "Boston Relief and the Ludovisi Throne." <u>Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts</u> 66 no. 346 (1968): 124-66; and Groenewegen-Frankfort, Henrietta. <u>Art of the Ancient World</u>. New York: New American Library, 1967; <u>Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece</u>. Wrightsman Lectures. New York: New York University Press, 1972.
Ashton, Leigh, Sir1897London, United Kingdom1983London (?), United KingdomScholar of Chinese art; Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum (1945-1955). Ashton was the son of A. J. Ashton, KC, a court recorder in Manchester, England. He graduated from Winchester and Balliol Colleges, Oxford. He served as a lieutenant in the Royal Garrsion Artillery in World War I between 1916-1919. Ashton joined the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1922 in the department of Architecture and Sculpture as an assistant Keeper (curator). In 1925 he transferred to the Department of Textiles and again in 1931 to the Department of Ceramics. He was instrumental in the important 1935 Chinese exhibition at the Burlington House. He was promoted to Keeper of Special Collections and Assistant to the Director in 1937. During World War II, Ashton served in the Ministry of Information and later in the British embassy in Ankara, Turkey. He returned to the Victoria and Albert in in 1945 to succeed his director, <a href="maclagane.htm">Eric Maclagan</a>. He and his assistant, <a href="hodgkinsont.htm">Terrence Hodgkin</a> worked to returned the objects to the museum from wartime storage in Wales. The men used the opportunity to organize new displays according to historic periods and styles rather than by material as it had been. His critics accused him of "excessive tastefulness", but Ashton organized V&A installations around the modern technique of historical time period and style rather than medium, as they had been before the war. The result was a great increase in attendance and interest; so much so that other institutions felt the need to follow suit. Ashton created the Primary Galleries (breaking up curatorial fiefdoms), and mounted the 1946 "Britain Can Make It" exhibition which later became the 1951 "Festival of Britain." Ashton's alcoholism continued to debilitate him and by the early 1950s Hodgkinson was for all intents and purpose running the museum. A homosexual, Ashton married the divorcee and <u>Vogue</u> Fashion Editor Madge McHarg Garland (1898-1990) in 1952 in marriage of convenience. Ashton retired at age 58 in 1955 and was succeeded by <a href="coxt.htm">Trenchard Cox</a>. He divorced in 1962. Ashton's reputation is that of a promoter of museums for the public, not as a scholar. The <u>Burlington Magazine</u> summarized his career by writing that he "had the good sense to know that his finest talents did not lay in scholarship," and the London <u>Times</u> stating more bluntly that "he was temperamentally unsympathetic to academic scholarship..United Kingdom"Sir Leigh Ashton." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 97, no. 632 (Nov., 1955): 335; Bayley, Stephen. "Vitrol & Ambition: It's One of the World's Great Museums [etc.]." <u>The Independent</u> (London), July 28, 2000, p. 1; [obituary:] "Sir Leigh Ashton Postwar Reorganization at the Victoria and Albert Museum." <u>The Times</u> (London) March 17, 1983, p. 14; Cameron, Julia. "Leigh Ashton." <u>The Guardian</u> (London), January 6, 2001, p. 22. and Gray, Basil. <u>Chinese Art</u>. London: Faber and Faber, 1935; <u>An Introduction to the Study of Chinese Sculpture</u>. New York: Scribner's, 1924; and Codrington, K. de B. and Irwin, John, and Gray, Basil. <u> The Art of India and Pakistan: a Commemorative Catalogue of the Exhibition held at the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1947-8</u>. New York: Coward-McCann, 1949.Sir Arthur Leigh Bollard AshtonLee Sorensen
Ashton, Dore1928Newark, NJ<u>New York Times</u> critic, professor at Cooper Hewitt and scholar of the New York School of art. Aston was the daughter of Ralph Neil Ashton and Sylvia Smith Shapiro (Ashton). Her father was a medical doctor. She obtained a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1949, continuing for an M.A. at Harvard University the following year. Ashton began her career as associate editor of the magazine <u>Art Digest</u>, published in New York beginning in 1951. She married Adja Yunkers (d.1983), an artist, in 1953. Ashton became associate art critic for the <u>New York Times</u> in 1955 and reviewed shows of the so-called first and second "New York School" of artists. Her sympathies toward Abstract Expressionism rankled the senior art critic of the <u>Times</u>, <a href="canadayj.htm">John Canaday</a>, and when criticism of his anti-modernist stance mounted, she was fired in 1960 to consolidate his stance. Ashton then lectured at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY, between 1962-1963 before an appointment at the School of Visual Arts, New York City, as a lecturer in philosophy of art. She was awared the Frank J. Mather Award for art criticism from the College Art Association in 1963, followed by a Guggenheim fellowship in 1964. Ashton headed the department of humanities at the School of Visual Arts from 1965 to 1968. In 1969 she was appointed professor of art history at Cooper Union, New York City. In 1973 she published her history of the artists of Abstract Expressionism, <u>The New York School: A Cultural Reckoning</u> (the book had appeared the year before in England as <u>The Life and Times of the New York School</u>). During these same years she lectured as an Instructor at the City University of New York in 1973 and at Columbia University in 1975. She joined the New School for Social Research in 1986. Ashton received a National Endowment for the Humanities grant in 1980. Her 1983 personal portrait of Mark Rothko, <u>About Rothko</u>, remains a revealing work on the artist. In 1985 she remarried to Matti Megged. Ashton formed a part of the New York art critics who embraced and championed the New York School, whose members also included <a href="rosenbergh.htm">Harold Rosenberg</a>, <a href="hesst.htm">Thomas B. Hess</a> and <a href="roseb.htm">Barbara Rose</a>. She knew the artists personally and wrote of their work from personal experience as much as the art itself.United StatesSandler, Irving. <u>A Sweeper-up After Artists: a Memoir</u>. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003, pp. 242.[collected essays:] <u>Out of the Whirlwind: Three Decades of Arts Commentary</u>. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1987; <u>The Unknown Shore: a View of Contemporary Art</u>. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962; <u>A Reading of Modern Art</u>. Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1969; <u>The Life and Times of the New York School</u>. [published the following year as:] <u>The New York School: A Cultural Reckoning</u>. New York: Viking Press, 1973; <u>A Fable of Modern Art</u>. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1980; <u>About Rothko</u>. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. Dore AshtonLee Sorensen
Askew, Pamela1925Poughkeepsie, New York1997?Askew's father was the art historian Arthur McComb (q.v.) and mother Constance Atwood. She was born while her father was teaching art history at Vassar. Her parents were divorced when she was young and her step father, the art dealer R. Kirk Askew (1903-1974), adopted her. Askew grew up in New York City. As a college student, she majored in English at Vassar College. Her A.M. from the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University was completed in 1951. She completed her dissertation at the Courtauld Institute under Johannes Wilde (q.v.), writing on Domenico Fetti. She returned to Vassar to teach, becoming full professor in 1969. She was a fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton during the 1977-78 academic year. In 1988 she received the College Art Association's Distinguished Teaching Award for Art History. She died of lymphoma.United States[obituary:] Rubenstein, Ruth. "Pamela Askew 1925-1992." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 140 (July 1998): 478.<u>Caravaggio's Death of the Virgin</u>. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990; <u>Claude Lorrain,1600-1682: a Symposium</u>. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1984; "Ferdinando Gonzaga's Patronage of the Pictorial Arts: the Villa Favorita." <u>Art Bulletin</u> 60 (June 1978): 274-96; "Angelic Consolation of St Francis of Assisi in Post-Tridentine Italian Painting." <u>Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes</u> 32 (1969): 280-306; "Fetti's Martyrdom at the Wadsworth Atheneum." <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 103 (June 1961): 245-52; "Relation of Bernini's Architecture to the Architecture of the High Renaissance and of Michelangelo." <u>Marsyas</u> 5 (1947-1949): 39-61.
née Pamela McComb
Aubert, Marcel April 9, 1884Paris, FranceDecember 28, 1962Medievalist and educator; director of the Société français d'archéologie; and professor of the l'école de Chartes, l'école du Louvre, l'école des Beaux-Arts. Aubert's father was an architect (d. 1891). Aubert attended the Lycée Condorcet and then the École Nationale des Chartes. At the École a thesis on the Cathedral of Senlis under the Romanesque scholar <a href="lasteyrier.htm">Robert de Lasteyrie</a> in 1907. Aubert joined the Department of Prints of the Bibliothèque nationale in 1909, rising to assistant librarian in the department in 1911. He joined the military for France in World War I, was capture and spent three years in a camp in Germany. He returned to France and his position in the print department in 1919, but the following year took a position at the Musée du Louvre in the department of Medieval, Renaissance, and Modern Sculpture under <a href="vitryp.htm">Paul Vitry</a>. He began teaching at the Lourve's École du Louvre as associate professor of decorative Arts in 1921. He returned to the École Nationale des Chartes in 1924 to succeed to <a href="lefevrepontalise.htm">Eugène Lefèvre-Pontalis</a> as chair of Medieval Archaeology. Beginning in the 1920, Aubert entered into a collaboration with the Marquise (Geneviève Aliette de Rohan-Chabot) de Maillé (1896-1972) who travelled to many of the building sites, photographing and securing the arrangements for the documentation. A stream of books began to appear by Aubert on these individual monuments. He also taught at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-arts in the chair of French Architecture between 1929 and 1934. Aubert was elected to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres (France's Academy of the Humanities) in 1934. He alternated a teaching position every other year with <a href="focillonh.htm">Henri Focillon</a> at Yale University (Bazin 489) beginning that year as well. He was made chair of Medieval Archaeology at the École Nationale Supérieure in 1937. In 1940 he succeeded Vitry as chief curator, lecturing as professor of Sculpture as well (to 1949). In 1943, at the height of World War II, Aubert published him most important book, one on cistercian architecture, <u>L'architecture cistercienne en France</u>. Like so many of the other publications the Marquise had contributed to, she was not given co-authorship (Fergusson). Aubert was named senior curator of the National Museums, he retired from the Museums in 1955. as well as being curator of the Musée Rodin and the Institut de France's Musée Condé in the Chateau de Chantilly. At his death in 1962, he left uncompleted a manuscript for a survey of Gothic art which was seen through publication by <a href="schmollj.htm">J. Adolf Schmoll genannt Eisenwerth</a> and <a href="hofstatterh.htm">Hans Hofstätter</a>. His students included <a href="adhemarj.htm">Jean Adhémar</a> (for his early studies). Aubert's method was greatly influenced by Lefèvre-Pontalis and the other French archaeologists who eschewed the theoretical (German) model of medieval scholarship in favor of analysis of campaigns of construction, fascade iconography and the style's relation to specific schools (Murray). He was among the first to seriously study stain glass as an art-historical subject.France; United StatesBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, pp. 276, 489-490; pp. 324-325; Murray, Stephen. "The Study of Gothic Architecture." in in Rudolf, Conrad, ed. <u>A Companion to Medieval Art : Romanesque and Gothic in Northern Europe</u>. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2006,.pp. 387-388; Fergusson, Peter. "Cistercian Architecture." in Rudolf (above), p. 585; [obituaries:] Deschamps, Paul. "Marcel Aubert." <u>Monuments et Memoirs publies par Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres</u> 54 (1965): 1-6; Thibout, Marc. "Marcel Aubert." <u>Bulletin Monumental</u> 121 no. 1 (1963): [9]-19; Picard, C. <u>Revue Archéologique</u> 1 (January 1963): 95-98; Vallery-Radot, Jean. <u>Centre international d'etudes romane Bulletin</u> no. 3 (July 1962): 5-8.[bibliography to 1948:] Deschamps, Paul, ed. <u>Bibliographie des travaux scientifique de M. Marcel Aubert: ouvrages et articles publiés de 1905 à 1948</u>. Paris: Société Française d'Archéologie, 1948; <u>L'art français à l'époque romane: architecture et sculpture</u>. 4 vols. Paris: A. Morancé, 1929, English, <u>French Sculpture at the Beginning of the Gothic Period, 1140-1225</u>. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1929; [representative example of his cathedral documentation series:] <u>La cathédrale de Metz</u>. Paris: A. Picard, 1931; <u>Les plus anciennes croisées d'ogives: leur rôle dans la construction</u>. Paris: A. Picard, 1934; <u>Vitraux des cathédrales de France, XIIe et XIIIe siècles</u>. Paris, Plon, 1937, English, <u>French Cathedral Windows of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries</u>. New York: Oxford University Press 1947; <u>L'architecture cistercienne en France</u>. Paris: Éditions d'art et d'histoire, 1943; and Schmoll gen. Eisenwerth, J. Adolf, and Hofstätter, Hans Hellmut. <u>Le gothique à son apogée</u>, Paris: A. Michel 1964, English, <u>High Gothic Art</u>. London: Methuen, 1964; <u>Cathédrales et trésors gothiques de France</u>. Grenoble: Arthaud, 1971.and Goubet, Simone. <u>Cathédrales, abbatiales, collégiales et prieurés romans de France</u>. English, <u>Romanesque cathedrals and abbeys of France</u>. London: Vane, 1966.Marcel Aubert
Aubry, JohnFirst British architectural historian to treat at medieval building in England as "architecture."United KingdomColvin, H. M. "Aubry's Chronolgia Architectonica." in, <u>Concerning Architecture: Essays on Architectural Writers and Writing presented to Nikolaus Pevsner</u>. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968, pp. 1-14.
Auerbach, Erna1897Frankfurt am Main, Germany1975London, United KingdomArtist and art historian. Auerbach grew up in an educated Jewish family in Frankfurt. Her mother was the painter, Emma Kehrmann (1867-1958). She studied art history between 1917-24 at the universities in Frankfurt, Bonn and Munich, under Rudolf Kautzsch (q.v.) and Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v.). Her 1925 Frankfurt dissertation, under Kautzsch, focused on 16th-century German portraiture in Franken, Schwaben and Bavaria. She taught at Frankfurter Volksbildungsheim (1925-33). Between 1928-30 she attended classes in painting at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Frankfurt and private classes with Willi Baumeister (1889-1955). As an artist, she exhibited her paintings at various art exhibitions in Germany. In 1933 she emigrated to England where she continued to exhibit her artwork. During World War II, she participated in was service in the Woman's Voluntary Service. When a bomb destroyed her studio, she resolved to return to art history. She lectured at various London colleges (Crosby Hall, Westfield College). Between 1945-49 she resumed study at the Courtauld Institute in London under Sir Henry Hake (1892-1951), the director of the National Portrait Gallery. She wrote a second Ph.D. dissertation in 1949 on English portraiture and patronage in the 16th century. From 1947-75 she was a visiting lecturer at the Polytechnic Institute in London. In addition, she lectured at the Metropolitan Museum in New York (1970-75) and National Gallery of Art as well as other institutions. She published on Tutor-era portraits and manuscripts in journals such as the <u>Burlington Magazine</u>, <u>Apollo</u> and <u>The Connoisseur</u>. Her archives are at Skinners Library, City University, London.Germany; United KingdomUlrike Wendland, <u> Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler.</u> München: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, 14-16; Christine Rohrschneider, "Erna Auerbach," in <u>Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon</u><i>, </i>5<i>. </i>Munich and Leipzig: Saur, 1992, pp. 617-18; <u>Dictonary of British Artists 1880-1940</u>, ed. by J. Johnson and A. Greutzner, Suffolk: Antique Collectors' Club, 1976, p. 33; Gabriele Hofner-Kulenkamp, <u>Kunsthistorikerinnen in Exil</u> (Manuscript, Hamburg, 1991). Obituariey: <u>Times</u> (London), June 27, 1975.[dissertation]: <u>Die Deutsche Bildnismalerei im 16. Jh. in Franken, Schwaben und Bayern</u>. Frankfurt, 1923-26; [2nd disssertation]: <u>The English Patronage of Art from ca. 1520-1590</u>, London, 1949; <u> Tudor Artists: a Study of Painters in the Royal Service and of Portraiture on Illuminated Documents from the Accession of Henry VIII to the Death of Elizabeth I</u>. London: Athlone, 1954; <u>Nicolas Hilliard</u>. London: Routledge and Paul, 1961.
Auerbach, Ingeborg Any1903Blankenese (Hamburg area), GermanyundocumentedundocumentedArt historian of Italian renaissance. Auerbach studied art history in Hamburg with the so-called Hamburg School art historians Charles de Tolnay (q.v.), Fritz Saxl (q.v.), Aby Warburg (q.v.) and Erwin Panofsky (q.v.). She wrote her dissertation under Panofsky on Andrea del Sarto in 1932. She married one of the first Bauhaus school students, the sculptor and graphic artist Johannes Auerbach (changed to John Allenby in England,1900-1950) and immigrated to England in 1938. Auerbach never practiced art history after her immigration, but contributed to the festschrift on on Walter Friedlaender, 1933. GermanyUlrike Wendland, <u> Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler.</u> München: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, 17; Gabriele Hofner-Kulenkamp, <u> Kunsthistorikerinnen in Exil</u> (Manuscript, Hamburg, 1991); Roger Willemsen, "Munter ins Ableben: Johannes Ilmari Auerbach veranstaltet einen Selbstmorderwettbewerb," <u> Die Zeit</u> December 12, 1996: 5.<u>Die Malerischen Werke des Andrea del Sarto</u> (dissertation), Hamburg, 1933, Strassbourg, 1935; "Jugendwerke Pontornos," in <u> Festschrift Walter Friedlaender 60. Geburtstag am 10. M</u><u>ärz 1933</u> (Manuscript, 1933); "Andrea del Sarto (1486-1531), Head of the Apostle Thomas, Rome, Galleria Corsini," <u>Old Master Drawings</u> 9 (1934-5): 5.
née Ingeborg Fraenckel
Aurenhammer, Hansiconographic approachKMP, 56 mentioned; EWA 7:769ff "Iconography"; Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986 p. 380<u>Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie</u>. Vienna: Hollonek, 1959-
Austin, A. Everett, Jr.,1900Brookline, MA1957Hartford, CTDirector of the Wadsworth Atheneum, early exponent of modern art in America. Austin was born to wealthy Boston parents, his father was a research MD, Arthur Everett Austin, Sr.(1861-1938) and his mother, Laura Ann Etnier (Austin) (1864-1944), who was herself independently wealthy. Raised essentially by his mother, Austin attended local grammar schools and visited Europe as a child. Never a good student, he entered Harvard but was asked to leave because of poor grades. At the suggestion of faculty who took a liking to him, participated in the archaeological digs of George Reisner (1867-1942) in Egypt and the Sudan beginning in 1922. This reinvigorated his love for art objects and he returned to Harvard in 1924 to complete his degree. Austin had attracted the attention of Fogg Museum director Edward Forbes (q.v.) and Harvard art historian professor Paul J. Sachs (q.v.). In 1925 Austin took on part-time duties at the Fogg, demonstrating techniques in Forbes' conservation classes. During this period he developed friendships with fellow students who would one day form a coterie of cultural intelligencia, including the architectural historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock (q.v.), art historian Agnes Rindge [Claflin] (q.v.), composer Virgil Thomson (1896-1989) and ballet impresario Lincoln Kirstein (1907-1996). Through Hitchcock, Austin also met architect Philip Johnson (q.v.). All of these were to assist Austin in later years. In 1927, Forbes put forth Austin for the director of the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut. The Atheneum's board, chaired by Charles A. Goodwin, was highly conservative and Austin, a bi-sexual and modern art devotee, not prepared to acquiesce to them. He married Goodwin's niece, Helen Goodwin (1898-1986), and taught the first art history courses at Trinity College, Hartford. Although continually at odds with the board, Austin began acquiring old masters and contemporary art works that today comprise the finest pieces of the Atheneum. He gave Edward Hopper his first single-artist museum exhibition in 1928 and Hartford native Milton Avery's first museum show in 1930. He purchased Bernardo Strozzi's <u> Saint Catherine</u> (1610-15) and a Le Nain landscape in 1931. An important Piero di Cosimo of 1490 was purchased the following year. In 1934 Greuze's <u> Indolence</u> (1756) and Degas' <u>Double Portrait of the Painter's Cousins</u> (1865-8) were acquired. The museum's large Caravaggio <u>Ecstasy of St Francis</u> (1594) was bought in 1943 along with Gauguin's <u>Portrait of Meyer de Haan</u> (1889-90). Other masterworks purchased included de Chirico, Ernst, Picasso, Miró, Balthus (the first by an American Museum), Dalí and Rubens (the latter's <u>Portrait of the Archduke Ferdinand</u>, 1635). Nearly all of these acquisitions were made over the objection of the board for reasons of cost or subject matter. In 1934 alone he mounted Picasso's first American museum retrospective (before MoMA's) and organized the first performance of Gertrud Stein's and Virgil Thomson's opera <u>Four Saints in Three Acts</u>, featuring an all-black cast. Austin's interests turned more and more theatre. He performed magic shows at the museum and, as a fundraiser, staged ever-more elaborate balls. All this was at the cost of scholarship and financial propriety. Much of the text for his exhibition catalogs was hastily written by Hitchcock; his office littered with overdue bills by dealers. By 1938 Austin, always known as "Chick," had withdrawn from his family to live with a male partner. In 1943, while most of the country endured the somber hardships of World War II, Austin used the Atheneum's theater to stage and star in John Ford's Jacobean tragedy, <u>'Tis Pity She's a Whore</u> (1627). The play about incest and murder resulted in Austin's dismissal at the Hartford museum. Again, Edward Forbes secured a job for him. In 1946 Austin accepted the directorship of the Ringling Museum [of Art] in Sarasota, Florida. At the Ringling, he opened the late John Ringling's private home as a museum, developed a conservation program badly needed for the baroque pictures there, and, in 1952, moved and installed an Italian rococo theater. However the politics of running a state-owned art museum embroiled him in a various disputes, including a high-profile investigation by the Miami <u> Herald</u>. A heavy smoker, Austin contracted lung cancer in 1956. He returned to his family in Hartford where he died the following year at age 57. He was succeeded at Sarasota by Kenneth Donahue (q.v.). Austin's sense of quality in picture acquisition, more than his meager writings, made him an important art historian. Although aided in his purchases by dealers such as Julian Levey and the Wildenstein Gallery, Austin appears to have largely made the selections, especially of modern art, on his own.United StatesWeber, Nicholas Fox. <u>Patron Saints: Five Rebels who Opened America to a New Art 1928-1943</u>. New York: Knopf, 1992; Gaddis, Eugene R. <u> Magician of the Modern: Chick Austin and the Transformation of the Arts in America</u>. New York: Alfred Knopf, 2000; Gaddis, Eugene R. "Chick Austin: The Ringmaster at the Museum." <u>Images from the World Between: The Circus in 20th Century American Art</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001, pp. 149-160.[posthumous writing] <u>A. Everett Austin, Jr.: a Director's Taste and Achievement</u>. Hartford: Wadsworth Atheneum, 1958.
Arthur Everett Austin, Jr.; "Chick" Austin
Avery, CharlesDeputy Keeper of the Department of Sculpture at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1966-1979; Director of Christies, 1979-1990. In 1980 he curated the "European Terracottas from the Arthur M. Sackler Collection" show for the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. He delivered the William D. Finlay Lecture at the National Gallery of Ireland in 2001.United Kingdom[collected essays:] <u>Studies in Italian Sculpture</u>. London: Pindar, 2001; <u>Donatello: an Introduction</u>. New York: IconEditions, 1994; and Radcliffe, Anthony. <u>Giambologna, 1529-1608: Sculptor to the Medici: an Exhibition Organised by the Arts Council of Great Britain and the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna</u>. London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978; <u>Giambologna: the Complete Sculpture</u>. Mt. Kisco, NY: Moyer Bell, 1987; and Laing, Alastair. <u>Finger Prints of the Artist: European Terra-cotta Sculpture from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections</u>. Washington, DC: Arthur M. Sackler Foundation/Harvard University Press, 1981; <u>Donatello: catalogo completo delle opere</u>. Florence: Cantini, 1991; <u>Bernini: Genius of the Baroque</u>. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1997.
Avery, Myrtilla18691959New York, NYMedieval art scholar and chair of Department of Art, Wellesley College; influential in1920s-30s. Avery graduated from Wellesley in 1891 majoring in Greek. She taught Greek and Latin briefly before moving to the University of the State of New York, Albany. She was employed in the library system at Albany, organizing the first traveling library and working on a bachelors in library science which she received in 1895. While a librarian organizing pictures for schools and clubs, she became interested in art. She worked as assistant to the director of the University until 1913, when she received a Master of Arts degree from Wellesley. Avery began teaching at her alma mater and working on a Ph.D. in art history at Radcliffe College. In 1915 she introduced the first art history classes at Wellesley, then open only to seniors. With Art Department chair Alice Van Vechten Brown (1862-1949), she reorganized the museum, instituting some of the earliest courses for curators in the country. She received her Ph.D. from Radcliffe in 1927. In 1929 she became Chair of the Art Department and director of the Farnsworth Museum at Wellesley. The next year, at the advice of her medievalist colleagues at Princeton and New York University, she hired Sirarpie Der Nersessian (q.v.) to teach courses in Byzantine art, a visionary move at the time. Avery retired in 1937 (succeeded by Der Nersessian) and settled in New York. United StatesKleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 63; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 58; Obituary. <u>New York Times</u> April 5, 1959; p. 86; "Five at Wellesley will Leave Staff." <u>New York Times</u> June 13, 1937; p. 42. "The Alexandrian Style at Santa Maria Antiqua, Rome." <u>Art Bulletin</u> 7 (1925): 131-49; <u> The Exultet Rolls of South Italy</u>. 2 vols. Published for the Department of Art and Archaeology of Princeton University. Princeton, NJ: University Press, 1936.
Azcárate, José María deAuthor of the thirteenth volume in the important <u>Ars Hispaniae</u> series (1949).Spain<u>Escultura del siglo xvi</u>. Madrid: Editorial Plus-Ultra, 1958.
Babelon, Ernest C F18541924His book, <u>Manual of Oriental Antiqities</u> (1889) was one of the early required texts to be listed in the course catalog for the art history classes of Princeton University.
Babelon, JeanSpanish art history; monograph on the EscorialBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986 p. 439, 443.<u>L'Art espagnol</u>. 1963.; <u>Jacopo da Trezzo et la construction de l'Escorial. Essai sur les arts à le cour de Philippe II</u>. 1928
Bachelin, Auguste1830Neuchâtel, Switzerland1890Bern, SwitzerlandPainter and art historian.SwitzerlandSalvadé, Christine. "Auguste Bachelin: Peintre, Critique d'art et Historian." <u>Critiques d'art de suisse romande: de T</u><u>öpfer à Budry</u>. Lausanne: Editions Payot, 1993, pp. 117-140.<u>Les Girardet: une famille d'artistes neuchatelois</u>. Neuchatel: H. Wolfrath et Metzner, 1870; <u>Iconographie neuchâteloise ou catalogue raisonne´ des tableaux, dessins, gravures, statues, me´dailles, cartes et plans relatifs au canton de Neuchâtel</u>. Neuchatel: Socie´te´ d'Histoire du canton de Neuchâtel, 1878.
Bachhofer, Ludwig1894Munich, Germany1976Carmel, CAScholar of Chinese art;Germany; United StatesWendland, Ulrike. <u>Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler</u>. Munchen: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 18-20.0.Metzler
Bachofen, Johann Jacob1815Basel1887Professor of law who converted to archaeology in mid-life. Specialized in funerary art and the archaeology of grave sites.GermanyArchäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiographien von Klassichen Archäologen deutscher Sprache. Reinhard Lullies, ed. Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1988: 41-42.Versuch über die Gräbersymbolik der Alten. 1859; Mutterrecht, 1861.
Backes, CatherineBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986 p. 354"La structure et le regard," <u>Les Sciences humaines et l'oeuvre d'art</u>. p. 65-67.
Badt, Kurt1890Berlin, Germany1973Überlingen (Bodensee), GermanyPrivate scholar; art historian of the baroque and modern periods; methodological theorist. Badt was born to a prosperous Banking family in Berlin. His father, Leopold Badt (1858-1929) raised his children in a rarified cultural atmosphere, giving them every opportunity to experience art. The younger Badt attended the Berlin-Charlottenburg Reformgymnasium, graduating in 1906. Between 1909-1914 he studied art history and philosophy at the universities of Berlin, Munich and finally at Freiburg (im Breisgau) under <a href="vogew.htm">Wilhelm Vöge</a>. While a student, Badt took a young <a href="panofskye.htm">Erwin Panofsky</a> to hear a lecture by Vöge and thus cementing one of the most famous pupil/teacher relationships in art history. Badt's doctoral thesis, written in 1914, was on the Renaissance painter Andrea Solario. He never wrote a <i>habilitation</i> or taught professionally until nearly his retirement. Badt began his career as an assistant at the Bremen Kunsthalle, studying studio painting and sculpture. Throughout his career, his art-historical writing always reflected a painter's interest in details and their relationship to the world. He married Ella C. Wollheim around this time. Badt taught privately at Ludwigshafen/Bodensee, lecturing on the philosophy of G. F. W. Hegel (1770-1831), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), the latter whom he knew personally. His early writings in the 1920s included contemporary artists, such as Wilhelm Lehmbruck. His first marriage dissolved, Badt married Helen "Leni" Arnheim (1906-1973), the sister of the esthetician and art historian <a href="arnheimr.htm">Rudolf Arnheim</a>. With the ascension of the Hitler's party in Germany in 1933, Badt moved to Munich in anonymity to avoid Nazi persecution. Although a declared Roman Catholic, Badt's Jewish heritage eventually forced him to flee Nazi Germany at the outbreak of World War II in 1939. He gained a research position at the newly founded Warburg Institute in London, remaining there until after the war. In 1946 he published <u>Eugène Delacroix Drawings</u>, his first book since the partial publication of his thesis in 1914. Badt returned to Germany in 1950 and became a German citizen in 1952, assisting with the reorganization of the university system. The post-war German period of his life resulted in his greatest publishing output. In 1961 Badt issued a series of essays (some previously published) on Jan Vermeer which outlined Badt's methodology '<u>Modell und Maler' von Vermeer</u>, but also pointedly criticizing the methodology of 'second Vienna school' art historian <a href="sedlmayrh.htm">Hans Sedlmayr</a>. Sedlmayr, perhaps staunchest supporter of Nazism to retain an art history professorship after World War II, argued for a pseudo-scientific theoretic approach to art. Ever rooted in the object, Badt's <u>Vermeer</u> attacked Sedlmayr on methodological grounds. In 1968 he was invited by literary theorist Hans Robert Jauss (1921-1997) to the newly founded University of Constance (Konstanz). Badt's work greatly influenced the art historians Gertrude Berthold (b. 1920), the Sedlmayr student <a href="dittmannl.htm">Lorenz Dittmann</a>, <a href="gosebruchm.htm">Martin Gosebruch</a>, <a href="grossw.htm">Werner Gross</a>, <a href="schmollj.htm">Josef Adolf Schmoll <em>genannt</em> Eisenwerth </a>and <a href="imdahlm.htm">Max Imdahl</a>. Despondent in old age, Badt committed suicide at 83. Badt regarded art as a portrait of reality (<i>Wirklichkeitsdarstellung)</i>. Of particular interest to him was the subject matter of the work and meaning of colors in paintings. This method lent itself best to the artists he studied: Nicolas Poussin, Jan Vermeer, John Constable, Eugène Delacroix, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paolo Veronese. Badt considered the "masterpiece" to be the only art worth studying. Among his appreciators, Jauss, (1975) praised him for mentioning human suffering in his works, often forgotten by other historical works. W. Eugene Kleinbauer characterized him as "too rigid for analysis." Badt's art history owes much to Johann Gustav Droysen's <u> Historik</u> (1868). Badt wrote about the distinction between art history and its political, social and economic implications. He questioned deeply rooted principles of art history as had Heinrich Wölfflin (q.v). Since he was writing against the norm, other art historians often portrayed as a traitor and his understanding of art was questioned. His writings and methodology sparked greatest interest in fields outside art history. HP/LSGermanyPanofsky, Erwin. "Wilhelm Vöge: A Biographical Memoir." <u>Art Journal</u> 28 no. 1 (Fall 1968): 34; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, pp. 74, 103; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 104 mentioned; <u>Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon</u>. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1999, pp. 4-6; Wendland, Ulrike. <u>Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler</u>. Munich: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 21-24; [personal correspondence, W. Lee Troutman, January, 2011].[dissertation:] <u>Andrea Solario: Sein Leben und sein Werke: Ein Beitrag zur Kunstgeschichte der Lombardei</u>. Freiburg, 1914, [partially published as] <u>Grundlagen zu einer kritischen Biographie des Malers Andrea Solario</u>. Leipzig: s.n., 1914; "Cezanne's Watercolour Technique." <u>The Burlington Magazine</u> 83 (October 1943): 246-8; <u>Eugène Delacroix Drawings</u>. Oxford: B. Cassirer, 1946; <u>John Constable's Clouds</u>. London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1950, [the original German-language text was never published]; <u>Die Kunst Cézannes</u>. Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1956, English, <u>The Art of Cézanne</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965; "Raphael's Incendio del Borgo." <u> Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes</u> 22 (January 1959): 35-59; <u> Modell und Maler von Jan Vermeer, Probleme der Interpretation; eine Streitschrift gegen Hans Sedlmayr</u>. Cologne: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1961; <u>Die Farbenlehre Van Goghs</u>. Cologne: DuMont, 1961; E<u>ugène Delacroix: Werke und Ideale</u>. Cologne: DuMont,1965; <u>Kunsttheoretische Versuche: ausgewählte Aufsätze</u>, Cologne: M. Dumont Schauberg, 1968; <u>Die Kunst des Nicolas Poussin</u>. Cologne: DuMont Schauberg, 1969; "Ein angebliches selbstbildnis von Nicolas Poussin." <u>Pantheon</u> 27 (September 1969): 395-8; <u> Das Spätwerk Cézannes</u>. Constance: Druckerei u. Verlagsanst. Universitätsverlag, 1971; <u>Ernst Barlach, der Bildhauer</u>. Neumünster: Wachholtz, 1971; <u>Eine Wissenschaftslehre der Kunstgeschichte</u>. Cologne: M. Dumont Schauberg, 1971.Kurt Badt; Kurt Ludwig Badt
Baglione, Giovanni "il sordo del barozzo"1566Rome, Italy1643Rome, ItalyPainter and first historian of the Roman Baroque through two early art histories, a biography of artists, <u>Vite de' pittori, scultori, architetti</u> (1642), and a survey of Roman churches, <u>Le nove chiese di Roma</u> (1639). Baglione described himself as having descended a noble family from Perugia. In his autobiography appended to his Lives of the Artists, <u>Le vite</u>, 1642, Baglione claimed as well that he studied art under the painter Francesco Morelli in Rome. He worked as a painter, employing a Caravaggesque style, and received numerous commissions. By 1600 Baglione was an Accademia di S Luca member. He brought a libel suit against Caravaggio in 1603 for some verses supposedly written by him against Baglione. Within that context Orazio Gentileschi, a plaintiff in the suit, admitted Baglione a "first-class painter." Baglione was knighted in 1606. Between 1621 and 1622 he traveled to Mantua. In the 1630s, he began compiling notes for his two art-historical works. Baglione published his first, <u>Le nove chiese di Roma</u>, a discussion on the contemporary paintings and sculpture in nine major Roman churches, with some references to ancient and medieval works, in 1639. This alone might have secured him the sobriquet "First historian of the Roman Baroque" (Pace), because <u>Le nove chiese</u> is more than a devotional guidebook for pilgrims, the genre of the period. His more important work, <u>Le vite de' pittori, scultori & architetti</u>, a biography of artists, appeared in 1642 in Rome, containing biographies of more than 200 artists who worked in Rome between 1572 and 1642. A second edition with an expanded section on the achievements of Pope Urban VIII was issued, also in Rome, in 1649. Subsequent editions were issued from Naples in 1733, 1739 and 1743. Le nove chiese di Roma was, in the words of Roberto Longhi (q.v.), the "first strictly artistic guide of the churches of Rome." It's importance today is the snapshot it gives of Roman churches which were all significantly altered. Baglione's "guide" avoids religious discussion and hagiography and focuses on the art and artists of the churches. <u>Le vite de' pittori, scultori & architetti</u> became an important primary source for 17th-century art in Rome. A broad-minded critic who avoided overly theoretical discussions of many art biographies--unlike other biographers of the period--he used his knowledge as a practicing artist to evaluate, often singularly, the important stylistic transformations occurring at the time of his writing. He limited the discussion of paintings to those viewable by the public (with few exceptions) for readers to better appreciate his own criticism. He praised Caravaggio, despite his legal disputes. His commentary included architecture and sculpture. Baglione's anecdotes on artist's lives--a necessary feature on biographies, then as now--also provide insights on the realities of commissions and the conditions for artistic success in the 17th century. In his own time Giovanni Pietro Bellori (q.v.) used Baglinone's <u>Vite</u> for his book <u>Le vite de' pittori, scultori et architetti moderni</u> of 1672, though Bellori was jealous of Baglione's authority accused him of having the work ghostwritten by the antiquarian Ottavio Tronsarelli (d. 1646). Others using Baglione included Carlo Malvasia (q.v.) for his biographies published beginning in 1678, Giovanni Battista Passeri (q.v.) for his work of 1678 and in Spain, Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco (q.v.) in his <u>Museo pictorico y escala optica</u>, 1715-1724. His work became an important source for modern art historians studying his age, including Luigi Lanzi (q.v.), Girolamo Baruffaldi (q.v.), Hermann Voss (q.v.), Jacob Hess (q.v.) and Anthony Blunt (q.v.). The importance of his work is testified by the fact that a separate index to it appeared in 1924 (Rome), a facsimile edition in 1935 (also Rome), and Hess' commentary in 1995.ItalyLonghi, Roberto. "Giovanni Baglione." <u>Me pinxit e quesiti caravaggeschi, 1928-1934</u>. Florence: Sansoni, 1968, pp. 145-153 [especially 149-153]; Pace, Claire. <u>Félibien's Life of Poussin</u>. London: A. Zwemmer, 1981, p. 16; O'Neil, Maryvelma Smith. "First Historian of the Roman Baroque." chapter 5 of <u>Giovanni Baglione: Artistic Reputation in Baroque Rome</u>. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 177-196. <u>Le nove chiese di Roma nelle quali si contengono le historie, pitture, scolture, & architetture di esse</u>. Rome: A. Fei, 1639; <u>Le vite de' pittori, scultori, et architetti dal Pontificato di Gregorio XIII del 1572: in fino a'tempi di Papa Urbano Ottauo nel 1642</u>. Rome: Nella stamperia d'Andrea Fei, 1642, [facsimile edition with marginal notes by Bellori:], ed. Mariani, Valerio. Rome: Stampato in calco-offset dallo Stab. arti grafiche E. Calzone, 1935.
Baigell, Matthew Eli1933New York, NYAmericanist art historian and professor of art history at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Baigell graduated undergraduate from the University of Vermont in 1954 and received his M.A. from Columbia University in 1955. He married Renee Moses in 1959. His Ph.D. was awarded at the University of Pennsylvania in1965. He served in the U.S. Air Force between 1955-57 as lieutenant. Between 1961-65 was an instructor at Ohio State University, advancing to assistant professor, 1965-67, and then associate professor of art, 1967-68. He joined the Art Department of Rutgers University in New Jersey as associate professor in 1968, promoted to professor in1972. Since 1978 he has been Distinguished Professor of art. Baigell has written seventeen books on art. His latest work is <i>Peeling Potatoes, Painting Pictures: Women Artists in Post-Soviet Russia, Estonia, and Latvia</i> (coauthored with Renee Baigell). He is also the coeditor (with Milly Heyd) of<i> </i><u>Complex Identities: Jewish Consciousness and Modern Art</u> (both titles from Rutgers University Press). United StatesRutgers University Press announcement, 1999. [dissertation:] <u>John Haviland</u>. University of Pennsylvania, 1965; Edited and introduced by, and Williams, Julia. <u>Artists Against War and Fascism: Papers of the First American Artists' Congress</u>. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press, 1986<u>; Albert Bierstadt</u>. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1981<u>; The American Scene: American Painting of the 1930's</u>. New York: Praeger 1974; <u>Artist and Identity in Twentieth-century America</u>. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001; <u>A Concise History of American Painting and Sculpture</u>. New York: Harper & Row, 1984; <u>Dictionary of American Art</u>. New York: Harper & Row, 1979; <u>Jewish-American Artists and the Holocaust</u>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University press, 1997; <u> Jewish Artists in New York: the Holocaust Years</u>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002. <u>Thomas Cole</u>. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1981; <u>The Western Art of Frederic Remington</u>. New York: Ballantine Books, 1976; and Baigell, Renee. <u>Peeling Potatoes, Painting Pictures: Women Artists in Post-Soviet Russia, Estonia, and Latvia: the First Decade</u>. New Brunswick, NJ: Jane Voorhees Zimmerli Art Museum and Rutgers University Press, 2001. <u>Thomas Hart Benton</u>. New York: Abrams,1974; and Heyd, Milly. <u>Complex Identities: Jewish Consciousness and Modern Art</u>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press , 2001; and Borovsky, Alexander, and Manevich, Galina. <u>Moscow: the Group</u>. New York: NY: Neuhoff Gallery, 1995; Edited, and Baigell, Renee. <u>Soviet Dissident Artists: Interviews after Perestroika</u>. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press, 1995; Edited, and by Hurt, R. Douglas, and Dains, Mary K. <u>Thomas Hart Benton: Artist, Writer, and Intellectual</u>. Columbia, MO: State Historical Society of Missouri, 1989.
Baker, C. H. Collins1880Ilminster, Somerset, United Kingdom1959Finchley, Middlesex, United KingdomBlake scholar; National Gallery, London, keeper and painter. Baker's parents were John Collins Baker, a solicitor in Somerset, and Fanny Henrietta Remmett. He attended Berkhamsted before entering the Royal Academy Schools, studying painting. In 1903 he married Muriel Isabella Alexander (1874/5-1956). Baker worked as a landscape painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1907and elsewhere through 1916. In 1911 he began writing art criticism for <u>The Outlook</u> and succeeded D. S. MacColl (q.v.) as the art critic for the <u> Saturday Review</u>. In the meantime, Sir Charles Holroyd (q.v.), director of the National Gallery, hired him as his personal assistant and secretary. He authored <u>Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters</u> in 1912, and early study of British art. Baker rose to keeper of the Gallery in 1914. There he met the future writer E. M. Forster (1879-1970), then working as a cataloger and guard for the Gallery; the two became lifelong friends. When Charles John Holmes (q.v.) succeed Holroyd in 1916, he retained Baker. Holmes and Baker became the driving forces of the Gallery, moving some 900 pictures to safekeeping in a London subway (the Tube) during World War I. Baker wrote catalogs for some of the holdings of the Gallery at the time. Books on John Crome and Pieter de Hooch appeared in 1921 and 1925, respectively. In 1928, he added the responsibilities of surveyor of the king's pictures, replacing Sir Lionel Cust (q.v.). The following year he published <u>A Catalogue of the Pictures at Hampton Court</u>. His staff at the Gallery during this time included Ellis Waterhouse (q.v.), whom he greatly influenced. In 1930 he was commissioned to write the catalog of British paintings in the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery in San Marino, CA. In England, his friend Holmes had retired and Baker found himself ever more disagreeing with the chairman of the Board of Trustees of the National Gallery, the powerful Arthur Hamilton Lee (Lord Lee of Fareham, 1868-1947). In 1931 the director of the Huntington, Max Farrand, offered him the position of senior research associate in British art at the Huntington which Baker accepted in 1932. He moved to California in 1933 researching the papers of James Brydges, first duke of Chandos. Baker resigned as the King's surveyor and was awarded a CVO, both in 1934. The Huntington collections catalog was completed in 1936 and the Royal Collection, <u>Principal Pictures in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle</u>, in 1937. He published his Brydges books with his wife in 1949. Baker retired to England the same year where he worked on a book on minor Georgian portrait painters, a <u>Catalogue of William Blake's Drawings and Paintings in the Huntington Library</u>, published in 1957, and continuing to advise the Huntington on purchases. He died at his Finchley, Middlesex home. His papers are held at the National Gallery, London, and the National Portrait Gallery, Heinz Archive and Library.Baker was among the last generation of self-taught scholars who served the art museum community. Waterhouse dedicated his Pelican History of Art volume, <u>Painting in Britain, 1530-1790</u> to Baker in 1953. Kenneth Clark (q.v.), who became director of the Gallery the year after Baker's departure, disparaged Baker's catalogs of the Museum as sloppy, though they remained in use through the 1950s.United KingdomHolmes, Charles John. <u>Self and Partners</u> 1936; Millar, Oliver. <u>The Queen's Pictures</u>. New York: Macmillan, 1977, p. 209; Clark, Kenneth. <u>The Other Half: a Self Portrait</u>. New York: Harper & Row, 1977, p.8; Millar, Oliver. "Caring for the Queen's Pictures: Surveyors Past and Present." in Lloyd, Christopher. <u>The Queen's Pictures: Royal Collectors through the Centuries</u>. London: National Gallery Publications/H. N. Abrams, New York, 1992, pp. 14-18; Cast, David. "Baker, C(harles) H(enry) Collins." <u>Dictionary of Art</u>; [obituaries:] Waterhouse, Ellis. <u>Burlington Magazine</u> 101 (1959): 354; <u>Times</u> (London) July 6, 1959), p. 8; Forster, E. M. "Mr. C. H. Baker." <u>Times</u> (London) July 14, 1959, p. 9; <u>New York Times</u> July 6, 1959, p. 27.<u>Paintings in Oil & Water Colours by Early & Modern Painters</u>. London: Medici Society, 1913; and James Montague R. <u> British Painting</u>. London: The Medici Society, 1933; <u>Catalogue of the Principal Pictures in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle</u>. London: Constable & Co., ltd., 1937; and Constable, William George. <u>English Painting of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries</u>. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1930; <u>Lely & the Stuart Portrait Painters: a Study of English Portraiture before & after Van Dyck</u>. 2 vols. London: P. L. Warner/Medici Society, 1912; <u>The Life and Circumstances of James Brydges, First Duke of Chandos, Patron of the Liberal Arts</u>. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949; <u>Catalogue of William Blake's Drawings and Paintings in the Huntington Library</u>. San Marino, CA: Huntington Library, 1957.
Charles Henry Collins Baker; referred to frequently as "Collins Baker"
Baldass, Ludwig von1887Vienna, Austria1963Vienna, AustriaVienna-School art historian, Netherlandish specialist and Director of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Baldass studied in Graz, Halle (under Adolph Goldschmidt, q.v.) and Munich before gaining his degree at the University in Vienna. His thesis, written under Max Dvořák (q.v.) and accepted in 1911, was on portraiture of the Emperor Maximilian. Baldass joined the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna the same year, eventually being appointed curator in 1918. He married Paula Wagner, granddaughter of the architect Otto Wagner (1841-1918). The first of two books on Albrecht Altdorfer by him appeared in 1923. He qualified as a lecturer at the University of Vienna in 1926. In 1934 he was appointed professor Professor. When Austria was annexed by Germany in 1938, Baldass, as a Reich curator, carried out Nazi policy. The Kunsthistorisches director, together with directof of the Führermuseum project Hans Posse (q.v.), plunderers took thousands of objects from the long-time Jewish Vienese residents. Prominent Jewish art collector brothers, Alphonse Mayer Rothschild (1878-1942) and Louis Rothschild (1882-1955), attempted to flee Nazi-controlled Austria with their art collection that year, but Baldass refused to allow the paintings leave Austria. The treasures were taken to the Hofburg palace, the Nazis' <em>Zentraldepot</em> for confiscated art. Lesser pieces went to Viennese museums, including the Kunsthistorisches, while much of the decorative arts, mainly porcelains, were auctioned at the state-owned Dorotheum. Baldass published an expanded version of his Aldorfer monograph in 1941. He remained as director throughout the war years, retaining his position afterward. After the war, the remaining Rothschild, Louis, made an attempt to recover his family's art work. Baldass again took an administrative tac, pressing Rothschild to "donate" them to the Kunsthistorisches, which the family reluctantly did in return for getting control of some others. In 1949 he retired from the Museum to devote himself to writing. Two of his most important books appeared during this later part of his career, a monograph on Jan van Eyck in 1952 and one on Hieronymous Bosch the following year. The former showed the influence of Dvořák's "Das Rätsel der Kunst der Brüder Van Eyck." In 1959 he issued a second edition of the Bosch book. In his final years, Baldass wrote on Venetian sixteenth-century art, principally Titian and Giorgione. After his death, the Rothchild objects were renegotiated and more returned to the heirs. Methodologically, Baldass was one of the last art historians to carry on (first) Vienna-school methodology (specifically Max Dvořák's) well into the post-World War II years (de Tolnay). His approach was generally to place individual works of art within the <i>oeuvre</i> of the artist's career, evaluating and assigning art-historical importance, another Vienna-school goal. His strong connoisseurship approach was praised by many and his work on the northern Renaissance remains consulted. However, his complicity in forcing Jews to turn over their art works to the Kunsthistorisches Museum during the Nazi years tarnished his reputation. Some colleagues, such as Charles de Tolnay (q.v.), however, attributed the rehabilitation of German art history after the war to him.AustriaKleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 46, Bazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art: de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 163; Czeike, Felix, ed. <u>Historisches Lexikon Wien</u> 1. Vienna: Kremayr & Scheriau, 1992, p. 237; "How the Republic of Austria Forced the Rothschilds to Donate Art." <u>Museum Security Report</u> February 17, 1998 (online) <a href="http://www.museum-security.org/reports/01798.html"> http://www.museum-security.org/reports/01798.html</a> (from a report of <u>Der Standard</u> February 14-15, 1998); <u>Dictionary of German Biography</u> 1 Munich: K. G. Saur, 2001, p. 273; [obituary:] de Tolnay, Charles. "Ludwig von Baldass." <u> Burlington Magazine</u> 106, no. 732. (March 1964): 136. [dissertation:] <u>Die Bildnisse Kaiser Maximilians I</u>. Vienna, 1911, published, <u>Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses</u> 31, part 1, section 5, (1913): 247-334; "Die Entwicklung des Dieric Bouts." <u>Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien</u> , n.s., 6 (1932): 77-114; "Die Chronologie der Gemälde des Hieronymus Bosch." <u>Jahrbuch der Königlich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen</u> 38. (1917): 177-195; "Eine südböhmische Malerwerkstatt um 1420." <u>Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte</u> 4 no. 5/6 (1935): 301-319; <u>Hieronymus Bosch</u>. Vienna: A. Schroll 1943, English, <u>Hieronymus Bosch</u>. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1960; and Heinz, Günther. <u>Giorgione</u>. Vienna: A. Schroll, 1964, English, <u>Giorgione</u>. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1965.
Ludwig von Baldaß
Baldini, Umberto1921Pitigliano, near Grosseto Italy 2006Marina di Massa, ItalyHistorian of the Italian Renaissance; headed restoration in Italy after Arno River flood, 1966. Baldini studied art history under Mario Salmi (q.v.) at the University of Florence. In the 1940's began working as a conservator in Florence. After the war, he was appointed a temporary worker in the restoration office in 1949, housed at the time in the loggia of the Uffizi. He rose to Uffizi conservation director, and, during the early morning hours of November 4, 1966, it fell to him to try and prevent the sudden flooding of the Arno River from pouring into the museum's storerooms. Despite personally sandbagging the Uffizi doors (it was a holiday and most museum workers were on vacation), the conservation labs were submerged, damaging more than 1,000 medieval and Renaissance paintings, sculptures and frescoes. Baldini took over the restoration of hundreds of these artworks, not only at the Uffizi, but also in organizing efforts at other museums, libraries and churches. He helped to hire and train hundreds of assistants to dry, clean and restore artworks and worked with experts to develop new restoration techniques. As a result of this campaign, the Florentine state restoration laboratories were merged into the historic 'Opificio dei Medici' (located in a Medici building), which had taken lead role after the 1966 catastrophe. Baldini became the director in 1970 of this new body, now known as the <em>Opificio delle Pietre Dure</em>. He reorganized the museum's new conservation facilities, creating a single institute with training programs for students. In 1972 he organized an exhibition on the conservation works damaged the flood. His important book on conservation-a fundamental work-<u>Teoria del restauro e unità di metodologia</u>, appeared in 1978. Baldini moved to Rome in 1983 as director of the Istituto Centrale per il Restauro, the most important conservation institute in Italy. As director, he and his wife, Ornella Casazza, led the project to clean and restore the Masaccio frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel of the Carmine Church in Florence. Using as their guide colors from a portion of the fresco hidden behind an altar--and very nearly original--the restorers brought Masaccio's masterpiece back to vivid colors, avoiding the kind of criticism later applied to the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Baldini published a book on this project as well, <u>La Cappella Brancacci</u>, in 1990. He retired from the Institute in 1987. However, he continued to write about restoration, and to contribution to conservation in his role as President of the 'Universitá Internazionale dell'Arte' (International University of Art or UIA) in Florence. Using the famous Cimabue Crucifix in the Basilica Santa Croce as the prime example Baldini published <u>Brunelleschi e Donatello nella Sagrestia Vecchia di S. Lorenzo</u> in 1989. Baldini contributed art reviews in Italian art journals, including <u>Critica d'arte</u>, <u>Arte documento</u>, <u>Museologia</u>, <u>Bollettino d'arte</u>, <u>Commentari</u> and <u>Antichità viva</u>. He was president of the Horne Museum, the museum-home of the British historian of Renaissance art, Herbert Horne (q.v.). In 2004 he joined other Italian art historians in authenticating wooden crucifix as an early work of Michelangelo, still controversial. Baldini died after a long illness at the age of 84, shortly before he was to deliver a speech at a conference on the 40th anniversary of the flood.. His funeral was held at the church of San Giuseppe Vecchio in Marina di Massa, Tuscany. Baldini was known as an authority on Michelangelo, Botticelli, Masaccio and Della Robbia family. His restoration work was open to criticism, some asserting that the subtleties of the Brancacci frescos had been effaced. His bold restoration moves during the Arno flood saved countless works; he removed entire frescoes from church walls to protect them from corrosive salts seeping through masonry from basement crypts.Giulia Savio University of Genoa-ItalyItaly<u>Numero speciale dedicato a Umberto Baldini</u>. <u>Critica d'arte</u> 69 no. 32 (December 2007); [obituaries:] Lapucci, Roberta. "Umberto Baldini" <u>Arte documento</u> 22: 286-287, 2006; "Umberto Baldini." <u>Times</u> (London), August 26, 2006, p. 73, Lavietes, Stuart. "Umberto Baldini, 84, Restorer Who Saved Italy's Treasures." <u>New York Times</u> August 22, 2006, p. C11;<u>Palazzo Vecchio e i quartieri monumentali</u>. Florence: Tip.Giuntina, 1950; <u>Mostra di opere d'arte restaurate: settima esposizione. Soprintendenza alle Gallerie per le Provincie di Firenze, Arezzo e Pistoia, Gabinetto dei Restauri</u>. Florence: Tipografia Giuntina, 1953; <u>Il Rinascimento nell'Italia centrale</u>. Bergamo: Istituto italiano d'arti grafiche, 1962; <u>Umanesimo e Rinascimento</u>. Florence: Sadea/Sansoni, 1966; <u>Firenze 4 novembre 1966: rapporto sui danni al patrimonio artistico e culturale</u>. Florence: C.E. Giunti/G. Barbèra, 1967; <u>La bottega dei Della Robbia</u>. Florence: Sadea, 1965; <u>Michelangelo</u>. Rome: C.E.I. - Compagnia Edizioni Internazionali, 1966; <u>Luca Signorelli</u>. Milan: Fabbri, 1966; and Perugi, Liberto. <u>L'opera completa di Michelangelo scultore</u>. Milan: Rizzoli, 1973, English, <u>The Sculpture of Michelangelo</u>. New York: Rizzoli, 1982; <u>Teoria del restauro e unità di metodologia</u>. Florence: Nardini, 1978;and Casazza, Ornella. <u>La Primavera del Botticelli: storia di un quadro e di un restauro</u>. Milan: A. Mondadori, 1984 English, <u>Primavera: the Restoration of Botticelli's Masterpiece</u>. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1986; <u>Brunelleschi e Donatello nella Sagrestia Vecchia di S. Lorenzo</u>. Florence: Il Fiorino-Alinari, 1989; and Casazza, Ornella. <u>La Cappella Brancacci</u>. Milan: Electa, 1990, English, <u>The Brancacci Chapel</u>. New York: Abrams, 1992;"Theory of Restoration and Methodological Unity." in, Price, Nicholas Stanley, and Talley, M. Kirby, Jr., and Vaccaro, Alessandra Melucco, eds. <u>Historical and Philosophical Issues in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage</u>. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute, 1996, pp. 355-357; <u>Masaccio</u>. Milan: Electa, 2001.
Baldinucci, Filippo1625Florence, Italy1697Florence, ItalyCollector of drawings and connoisseur; worked on a universal history of art. An annotated translation of his life of Bernini was annotated and translated into German by the eminent Austrian art historian Alois Riegl (q.v.), published in 1912.ItalyBazin 53<u>Notizie de' professori del disegno da Cimabue : in qua, per le quali si dimostra come, e per chi le bell' arti di pittura, scultura, e architettura lasciata la rozzezza delle maniere greca, e gottica, si siano in questi secoli ridotte all' antica loro perfezione</u>. 1658.; V<u>ocabulario toscano dell'arte del disegno</u>. Florence: Santi Franchi, 1681.; <u>Vita del Cavaliere Gio Lorenzo Bernini</u>. 1682; Riegl, Alois, and Burda, Arthur, and Pollak, Oskar, eds. <u>Filippo Baldinuccis vita des Gio. Lorenzo Bernini: mit übersetzung und Kommentar</u>. Vienna: A. Schroll, 1912.
Balet, Leo1878Rotterdam1965New York, NYGerman; United StatesBazin 194; Wendland, Ulrike. <u>Biographisches Handbuch deutschsprachiger Kunsthistoriker im Exil: Leben und Werk der unter dem Nationalsozialismus verfolgten und vertriebenen Wissenschaftler</u>. Munchen: Saur, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 25-7.<u>Die Verbürgerlichung der deutschen Kunst, Literatur und Musik im 18 Jahrhunder</u>t. In Arbeitsgemeinschaft mit Dr. E. Gerhard [pseudonym Eberhard Rebling]. Strassburg: Heitz & co., 1936. 0.Metzler
Baltrušaitis, Jurgis, 2nd1903Moscow, Russia1988Medievalist, Focillon student. Baltrušaitis was the son of Jurgis Baltrušaitis, senior (1873-1944) a Symbolist poet, translator and man of letters. He was raised in the intensely cultural environment of his parents. His father was deeply pro-Russia, translating many Western works of literature into Russian and acting as the first chairman of the Soviet Writers' Union. The younger Baltrušaitis had the poet Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) as a teacher. Baltrušaitis moved to Paris to further his education in 1923, studying at the Sorbonne. There, he took classes under the medievalist art historian Henri Focillon (q.v.) who inspired him to study art history. Beginning in 1927 Baltrušaitis' traveled to Armenia, Georgia, and later to Spain, Italy, and Germany studying Romanesque architecture. He received his doctorate from the Sorbonne in 1931. He married Focillon's daughter, Hélène Focillon, and initially worked for the Lithuanian Legation in Paris as the cultural attaché. In 1933 Baltrušaitis studied monuments in Persia and Mesopotamia examining the connection between Oriental (middle eastern) and medieval art. The same year he accepted a position lecturing in art history at the Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas, Lithuania (through 1939). Baltrušaitis organized an exhibition of Baltic folk art in 1934 in Paris. During these years he also lectured at the Sorbonne and at the Warburg Institute in London. With the liberation of France in 1944, Baltrušaitis again represented Lithuanians in various international organizations, such as the Assemblée des Nations Captives d'Europe and the Congress for Cultural Freedom. After World War II, Baltrušaitis lectured at New York University, 1947-1948. He was a visiting professor at Yale University and lecturer at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1952. He lectured in the Netherlands between 1952-1953. Baltrušaitis took up Focillon's theme of metamorphoses in several important works of the 1950s, <u>Le moyen âge fantastique: antiquités et exotimes daans l'art gothique</u> and <u>Aberrations: quatre essais sur la légende des formes</u>. In these, Baltrušaitis traced the influences of Oriental inspiration on medieval art. Like Focillon, Baltrušaitis' focus was the metamorphosis of central themes of Romanesque art over time. Both historians emphasized the outer perimeter or frame as the key to Romanesque composition, what he termed in <u>La stylistique ornemntale dans la sculpture romane</u> the "Law of the Frame." The Romanesque stylized its treatment of objects rather than attempting to be true to nature. Linear designs, he contended, are derived from plant forms, which reveal an intellectual conception. The saints and beasts of the Romanesque belong were transformed into a decorative and conceptual design belonging to the architectural order from which they sprang (Sypher). His methodology blends iconographic and formal approaches. Like his mentor, Focillon, his work was criticized by Meyer Schapiro (q.v.) in Schapiro's 1932 essay, "über den Schematismus in der romanische Kunst." The medievalist Oleg Grabar (q.v) considered Baltrušaitis' writing too purely theoretical and abstract, chiding it as learned, subjective trivia. Scholars similar in approach included Louis Bréhier (q.v.) and M. M Davy (q.v.). Lithuania; FranceSchapiro, Meyer. "über den Schematismus in der romanische Kunst." <u> Kritische Berichte zur kunstgeschichtlichen Literatur</u> 1 (1932-1933): 1-21; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 43 mentioned; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 42; "Jurgis Baltrušaitis." Sužiedelis, Simas, ed. <u> Encyclopedia Lituanica</u> 1. Boston: J. Kapočius, 1970: 271-272; Chevrier, Jean-Francois. <u>Portrait de Jurgis Baltrusaitis [suivi de] Art sumérien, art roman par Jurgis Baltrusaitis</u>. Paris: Flammarion, 1989; Grabar, Oleg. "Dissemination. (ii) Examples and Problems: Models from the Social Sciences." <u>Dictionary of Art</u> 9:36; Mazzocut-Mis, Maddalena. <u>Deformazioni fantastiche: introduzione all'estetica di Jurgis Baltrusaitis</u>. Milan: Mimesis, 1999; Cahn, Walter. "Henri Focillon." <u>Medieval Scholarship: Biographical Studies on the Formation of a Discipline</u>. Volume 3: Philosophy and the Arts. Edited by Helen Damico. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities 2110. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000, p. 267.[complete bibliography:] "Bibliographie de Jurgis Baltrusaitis," in Chevrier, Jean-Francois. <u>Portrait de Jurgis Baltrusaitis [suivi de] Art sumérien, art roman de Jurgis Baltrusaitis</u>. Paris: Flammarion, 1989, pp. 270-271; [dissertation:] <u>études sur l'art médiéval en Géorgie et en Arménie</u>. Paris: E. Leroux, 1929; <u>La stylistique ornemntale dans la sculpture romane</u>. Paris, Collège de France, 1931, excerpt translated into English in, Sypher, Wylie, ed. <u>Art History; an Anthology of Modern Criticism</u>. Gloucester, MA: P. Smith, 1975, pp. 116-131; <u>Le problème de l'Ogive et l'Arménie</u>. Paris: Librairie Ernest Leroux, 1936; <u>Aberrations: quatre essais sur la légende des formes</u>. Paris: O Perrin, 1957; <u>Anamorphoses; ou, Perspective curieures</u>. Paris: O Perrin, 1955; <u>Anamorphoses, ou, Perspectives curieuses</u>. Paris: O. Perrin 1955, English, <u>Anamorphic Art</u>. New York: Abrams, 1976; <u>Le moyen âge fantastique: antiquités et exotimes daans l'art gothique</u>. Paris: A. Collin, 1955.
Bandinelli, Baccio14931560wrote memoirs of artists, first published in 1905ItalyKGK, 35
Bandmann, Günter September 10, 1917Duisburg, GermanyFebruary 24, 1975Bonn, GermanyMedievalist architectural historian whose influential book on architectural type significance and reception influenced post-war generation of medievalists. Bandmann grew up in Essen. He studied art history at the University in Cologne, inspired by the modern art which had been at the Folkwang Museum there until purged by the Nazis in 1933. Bandmann's dissertation written under <a href="kauffmannh.htm">Hans Kauffmann</a> in 1942 focused on the abbey church of Essen-Werden. The work steered clear of ideology (which could have to have been consistent with Nazi doctrine), examining instead the reasons why specific facades (<em>Westwerk</em>) and nave forms were selected in early architecture. This approach spurred his interest in intellectual meanings of historic form (Metzler). While seeking a position still during World War II, Bandmann produced a small guide on the architecture of Cologne, <u>Die Kölner Rheinfront</u> in 1944. After the War, Bandmann emerged as a theorist of the post-Reich era historians at the first Schloss Brühl (Cologne) conference of art historians in 1948 and a second at Schloss Nymphenburg in 1949. He was named an Assistant at the University of Bonn and then <em>Privatdozent</em> in 1949. At Bonn Bandmann published his <i>habilitationsschrift</i>, the groundbreaking <u> Mittelalterliche Architektur als Bedeutungsträger</u> (Medieval Architecture as a Bearer of Meaning), a work which would become a classic in the field. The work took aim at the dual predominant traditions of architectural history that asserted architecture's form was largely determined by its use ("Form follows Function") and architectural significance as primarily read formally through its sculptures or images. Instead, Bandmann focused on a reception theory for architecture contemporary with its construction. The controversial work divided the German architectural-history community, with either strong embrace or derision (Böker). Bandmann was advanced to <em>außerordentlicher Professor</em> (associate professor) in Bonn in 1955. His strong interest in the principles of art and theoretical problems of history led Bandmann to write an innovative entry on German double chapels in 1953. He was named Professor at Tübingen in 1965 to the chair formerly occupied by <a href="einemh.htm">Herbert von Einem</a>. He broadened his analysis to nineteenth-century interpretations of the Gothic and even a book on Picasso's Guernica. Perhaps his most famous work, an encyclopedia of architectural iconography, <u>Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie</u> was begun in 1968. Bandmann weighed into the battles raging with the student uprisings at German universities in 1968, coming out against their urgings for revision of the curriculum and interpreting contemporary political issues into the cannon of architectural history. He died suddenly at age 57, preceding many of those who taught him. His Tübingen students included Wolfgang Kemp (b.1946). Bandmann drew on the historical circumstances and social factors (<i>Zeitmächten</i>) of the middle ages to create a new criteria for architectural history, most influentially seen in his <u>Mittelalterliche Architektur als Bedeutungsträge</u>. Building upon the 1942 article of <a href="krautheimerr.htm">Richard Krautheimer</a>, "Introduction to an Iconology of Medieval Architecture," Bandmann's book challenged architectural methodology by denying the prevailing German Formalist approach of architectural historians--of which <a href="pinderw.htm">Wilhelm Pinder</a> was the major exponent--who analyzed buildings through a theory of stylistic development of form and space. Instead, he examined the transmission of building types from late Aniquity to the early Middle Ages, arguing against a constructional explanation in favor of one based on the intellectual meaning of the form Böker). For Bandmann, architecture itself did not "live" as the common methaphor went, rather it was the people who at different times used architecture differently that made a building alive. Artistic originality was not a valued goal in the middle ages, he argued, rather symbolic and historical form were the principal ways of understanding medieval architecture. Bandmann desparage overlaying modern architectural sensibilities to medieval form, criticizing those historians who did not consider the events and mindsets that took place within the architecture and society that helped build it. Although clearly drawing from the work of <a href="eversh.htm">Hans Gerhard Evers</a> and <a href="sedlmayrh.htm">Hans Sedlmayr</a> he diverged from the latter's postivisitc view of an ideal medieval church form. Bandmann's opposition to traditional architectural history created enemies, particularly the historians <a href="bauchk.htm">Kurt Bauch</a> and <a href="gosebruchm.htm">Martin Gosebruch</a>. The book became, in the words of Hans Josef Böker, "the single most influential book on methodological approaches in medieval architectural history--at least in Germany," despite seldom being cited. The fullest result of his work was only later realized by his pupil, Kemp. HB/LSGermanyKleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u> Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 67 cited; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, no. 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, p. 71 mentioned; Böker, Hans Josef. "Afterward." in Bandmann, Günter. <u>Early Medieval Architecture as Bearer of Meaning</u>. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005, pp. 249-255; <u>Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon: zweihundert Porträts deutschsprachiger Autoren aus vier Jahrhunderten</u>. 2nd. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2007, pp. 6-9; [obituaries:] Urban, Günter. "Günter Bandmann." <u>Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch</u> 37 (1975): 7-10; <u>Münster</u> 28 (June 1975): 180-181.[complete bibliography:] <u>Kunst als Bedeutungsträger: Gedenkschrift für Günter Bandmann</u>. Berlin: Mann, 1978, pp. 573-586; [dissertation:] <u>Die Werdener Abteikirche (1256-1275): Studie zum Ausgang der staufischen Baukunst am Niederrhein</u>. Cologne, 1942, published, Bonn: R. Habelt, 1953; <u>Die Kölner Rheinfront</u>. Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 1944; [habilitation:] <u>Mittelalterliche Architektur als Bedeutungsträger</u>. Berlin: Gebrüder Mann, 1951, English, <u>Early Medieval Architecture as Bearer of Meaning</u>. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005; "Doppelkapelle, Doppelkirche." <u>Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte</u> 3 (1952): 196-215; <u>Melancholie und Musik: ikonographische Studien</u>. Cologne: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1960; <u>Picasso: Les demoiselles d'Avignon</u>. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1965; <u>Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie</u>. 8 vols. Rome: Herder, 1968-1976.Günter Bandmann
Banham, ReynerMarch 2, 1922March 18, 1988London, United KingdomMaverick architectural theorist and historian; modernism and pop-culture revisionist. Banham's parents were Percy Banham, a gas engineer, and Violet Reyner (Banham). The younger Banham was educated at King Edward VI School, Norwich, UK. Too young to join the military during World War II, he worked as an engine fitter at the Bristol Aeroplane Company. Banham entered the Courtauld Institute of London University in 1945 to study art history. He married Mary Mullett the following year. During this time he wrote criticism on contemporary architecture for <u>The Architectural Review</u> and other journals. As a critic, he particularly espoused modernist architecture. Banham wrote his thesis under <a href="pevsnern.htm">Nikolaus Pevsner</a> at the Warburg, <u>Theory and Design in the First Machine Age</u> which appeared as a book in 1960. His topic focused on Expressionism and Futurism's contribution to architecture, but it became the definitive text throughout the world on the modern movement in architecture (Lyall). In 1959 Banham was hired to the permanent staff of <u>The Architectural Review</u>. He began lecturing at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College, London in 1960, rising to senior lecturer in 1964. Banham's revisionist stance on Modern architecture influenced the Independent Group (IG), a loose association of artists, architects and historians (e.g., <a href="allowayl.htm">Lawrence Alloway</a>) connected with the London-based Institute of Contemporary Art. In 1966 his book on modernist architecture, <u>The New Brutalism</u> appeared. He championed the 1960s futurism of the Archigram group. Banham rose to professor of the history of architecture in 1969. At the same time, Banham had found a Lebensberuf in appreciating Los Angeles, California. His seminal <u>Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies</u> appeared in 1971. The following year he produced the film, <u>Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles</u>. followed. The success of <u>Theory and Design</u> and <u>Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment</u>, particularly in the United States, brought Banham an offer to teach there in 1976. He accepted the chair of the department of design studies at the State University of New York at Buffalo. By 1980, he had been named professor of art history at the University of California, Santa Cruz. In California he was a member of Architect-Selection Panel for the J. Paul Getty Trust, which, in 1984, selected Richard Meier to design the museum in Santa Monica, CA. He joined the faculty of New York University's Institute of Fine Arts as Sheldon H. Solow Professor of the History of Architecture in 1988, but never taught. Bonham was diagnosed with cancer the same year and returned to England where he died at age 66. His students included <a href="jencksc.htm">Charles Jencks</a>. Banham was known for "a propensity for a vigorous and often destructive criticism" (<u>Times</u>, London). His appreciation for proto-Pop and Conceptual art resulted in the IG's fascination of the same. Banham's work revised the 1940s history of the Modern Movement, including that of his mentor, Pevsner, which he saw as "a nice, tidy propagandist's firmament, ordered by a cosmology so simple as to be almost simple-minded." He was among the first architectural historians to "give the same degree of attention to the architecture of the everyday landscape that scholars give to monuments and cathedrals, and he was particularly entranced with the American cityscape" (Goldberger).United KingdomWhiteley, Nigel. <u>Reyner Banham: Historian of the Immediate Future</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002; Mumford, Eric. "Reyner Banham: Historian of the Immediate Future." <u>Architectural Record</u>, May 1, 2004, p.71; Vidler, Anthony. "Futurist Modernism: Reyner Banham." in <u>Histories of the Immediate Present: Inventing Architectural Modernism</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008, pp. 106-155; [obituaries:] "Professor Reyner Banham." <u>Times</u> (London), March 22 1988; Lyall, Sutherland. "Reyner Banham: Apostle of built hi-tech." <u>Guardian</u> (London), March 21, 1988; Goldberger, Paul. "Reyner Banham, Architectural Critic, Dies at 66." <u>New York Times</u>, March 22, 1988, p.B 5[dissertation:] <u>Theory and Design in the First Machine Age</u>. Warburg Institute, 1958, published, London: Architectural Press, 1960; <u>Guide to Modern Architecture</u>. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1962; <u>The Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment</u>. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1969; <u>Los Angeles: the Architecture of Four Ecologies</u>. New York: Harper & Row, 1971; <u>The Aspen Papers: Twenty Years of Design Theory from the International Design Conference in Aspen</u>. (New York: Praeger, 1974; <u>Age of the Masters: a Personal View of Modern Architecture</u>. New York: Harper & Row, 1975; <u>Megastructure: Urban Futures of the Recent Past</u>. New York: Harper and Row, 1976; <u>A Concrete Atlantis: U.S. Industrial Building and European Modern Architecture, 1900-1925</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986; <u>A Critic Writes: Essays by Reyner Banham</u>. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.Reyner Banham; Peter Reyner
Banti, Luisa 1894Florence, Italy1978Florence, ItalyEtruscan specialist. Banti worked at the Vatican Library between 1930 and 1940 and on the excavations at Crete before her appointment to the University of Rome in the history of religions. In 1948 she was appointed chair of archaeology at the University of Pavia, moving two years later to Florence to teach Etruscan studies, 1950-65 [<u>Archivio biografico italiano</u> states 1954-74]. She also lectured at various American universities during this time. In 1965 she became director of the Istituto di Studi Etruschi, which she held until 1972. In 1968 she published a monograph on the Etruscans (published in English in 1973 as <u> Etruscan Cities and Their Culture</u>). Although largely a technical archaeological report, the first chapters provided one of the best overviews of Etruscan art at the time. Her library of some 930 volumes was left to the l'Università di Firenze.ItalySerra Ridgway, F. R. "Luisa Banti." <u>Encyclopedia of the History of Classical Archaeology</u>. Nancy Thomson de Grummond, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996, p. 116; <u>Archivio biografico italiano</u> 2. Munich: K. G. Saur, 1992-1994, fiche 36, entries 107-109.[complete bibliography:] Studi in onore di Luisa Banti. "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 1964, pp. xi-xvii; <u>Il mondo degli etruschi</u>. Rome: A cura dell'Ente per la diffusione e l'educazione storica, 1968, English, <u>Etruscan Cities and Their Culture</u>. Erika Bizzarri, trans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973; and Pernier, Luigi. <u>Il palazzo minoico di Fest: scavi e studi della Missione archeologica italiana a Creta dal 1900 al 1950</u>. 2 vols. Rome: Libreria dello stato, 1935-51; <u> Exhibition of Works of Art Recovered from Germany</u>. Morey, Sara T., trans. Rome: Istituto poligrafico dello Stato, 1947; "Myth in Pre-Classical Art." <u>American Journal of Archaeology</u> 58 (1954): 307-310.
Barasch, Moshe1920Czernowitz, Romania (modern Ukraine)2004Jerusalem, IsraelBarasch was born to Menachem and Gusta Barasch and grew up in Czernowitz, Romania, once an important center of Jewish culture. His father was a Zionist who introduced his son to the tradition of <i>Haskala</i>, the Jewish Enlightenment. The young Barasch showed himself to have substantial art talent. By age 13, he had already exhibited his drawings and paintings in Czernowitz, Prague, Budapest and Boston, which he visited. He wrote daily in his notebooks, one of which was a diary. As a member of the <i>Haggana</i>, the Jewish military organization later to become the Israeli army, he used his artistic skills to forge passports for fleeing Jews. He married Berta Gandelman in 1942, emigrating to Israel in January 1948 where he fought for the country's independence, proclaimed in May of that year. He joined the Teacher's College in 1949. Barasch was completely self-educated in the history of art, but his study included extended visits to the Warburg Institute in London and Princeton, under Erwin Panofsky (q.v.). In 1958 he founded the Department of the History of Art, including the art library and slide collection, at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Barasch was appointed a senior lecturer in 1961, becoming head of the department in 1964. He served as a Member, Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, 1967-68. Barasch was Senior Visiting Fellow at the Harvard Univ. Center for Italian Renaissance Studies ("I Tatti"), Florence, in 1969. He was appointed Jack Cotton Professor of the History of Art and Chair of of Institute of Fine and Performing Arts, Hebrew University in 1971, which he held until 1975, intermittently acting as a Visiting Professor and Research Associate at New York University between 1970-79. He was Senior Fellow at Cornell University's Society for Humanities in 1981and the same year Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Pennsylvania State University. In 1982 he taught as a visiting professor at the Freie Universität, Berlin. He published the first edition of his collected documents on the history of art theory in 1985. Between 1986-88 he taught at Yale University. In 1987 he published his <u>Giotto and the Language of Gesture</u>, major contribution to the literature on that artist. He became emeritus in 1988. In 1996 he was the recipient of the Israel Prize, and elected corresponding member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences. Barasch was the first Israeli art historian to attain worldwide recognition, lecturing widely at institutions in Europe and the United States (Freedman). His methodology closely follows that of the early Warburg tradition rooted in the relationship of objects rather than periodized art history. Barasch was particularly influenced by Jacob Burckhardt (q.v.) and Arnaldo Momigliano, reading their works every year. The book that made the deepest impression on him was Panofsky's <u>Idea: A Concept in Art Theory</u>. His topics ranged from late antiquity, the Middle Ages, to the Renaissance. His lectures and books, many of which were written in Hebrew, helped to develop the art historical terminology in that language and drew attention to many of the themes that were to attract scholars in the humanities. Three generations of Israelis grew up on the books he wrote, edited. He was also instrumental in having important art history texts translated into Hebrew. Francis Peters' 1985 book on Jerusalem was dedicated to him and his wife. Romania; IsraelFreedman, Luba. "Thinking in Images: In memoriam Moshe Barasch." <u>Artibus et Historiae</u> 52 (2005): 9-12; [interview] <u>Uj Kelet</u> (1934): 305-306; Assmann, Jan. "Introduction." In Assmann, Jan and Albert Baumgarten, eds. <u>Representation in Religion: Studies in Honor of Moshe Barasch</u>. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2000, pp. ix-xvii<u>Blindness: the History of a Mental Image in Western Thought</u>. New York: Routledge, 2001; <u>The Language of Art: Studies in Interpretation</u>. New York: New York University Press, 1997; <u>Imago hominis: Studies in the Language of Art</u>. Vienna : IRSA, 1991, and New York: New York University Press, 1994; <u>Icon: Studies in the History of an Idea</u>. New York: New York University Press, 1992; <u>Theories of Art: from Plato to Winckelmann</u>. New York: New York University Press, 1985, updated and revised as, <u>Modern Theories of Art</u>. 2 vols. New York : New York University Press, 1989-1998; <u>Giotto and the Language of Gesture</u>. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987; <u>Light and Color in the Italian Renaissance Theory of Art</u>. New York: New York University Press, 1978; <u>Gestures of Despair in Medieval and Early Renaissance Art</u>. New York: New York University Press, 1976; <u>Crusader Figural Sculpture in the Holy Land: Twelfth Century Examples from Acre, Nazareth and Belvoir Castle</u>. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1971.
Barber, Leila CookChair of the department of Art History, Vassar College.United States
Barnes, Albert18721951collectorUnited StatesKMP, 7
Barocchi, Paola[manuscript] Paola Barocchi. <u>Interviews with Art Historians, 1991-2002</u>. Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA.
Baroni, CostantinoDocumentary architectural historianItalymentioned, Ackerman, James S. "In Memoriam: Manfredo Tafuri, 1935-1994." <u>The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians</u> 53, No. 2 (Jun., 1994): 137.<u>Documenti per la storia dell'architettura a Milano nel Rinascimento e nel Barocco</u>. 2 vols. Florence: Sansoni, 1940-68.
Barr, Alfred H., Jr. 1902Detroit, MI1981Salisburg, CTFounder, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Barr was the son of a Presbyterian minister, Alfred Hamilton Barr, Sr., and a homemaker Annie Elizabeth Wilson (Barr). The family moved to Baltimore where Barr was raised. His childhood friends included Edward Stauffer King (q.v.), later director of the Walters Art Gallery. Barr graduated at age 16 (valedictorian) from high school and entered Princeton University in 1918. At that the same year he read Henry Adam's <u>Mont Saint Michel and Chartes</u> influencing him toward art history. At Princeton he selected art history as his major in 1920, the year Allan Marquand (q.v.), the department founder, retired. Barr's classes included the 1920 medieval course by Charles Rufus Morey (q.v.), and the Italian renaissance and modern classes of Frank Jewett Mather (q.v.). His fellow undergraduate art history students included Millard Meiss (q.v.). After gratuation (Phi Beta Kappa) in 1922, Barr received his A. M. in 1923 and began teaching at Vassar College while pursuing his Ph.D. at Harvard. His students at Vassar included the later Art Institute of Chicago curator Katharine Kuh (q.v.). Barr made his first trip to Europe in 1924. At Harvard, he studied with Paul J. Sachs (q.v.) in Sach's legendary art museum course. In 1925 Barr taught at Princeton and in 1926-1927 at Wellesley (Wellesley's first modern art course). His students at Wellesley included Helen M. Franc (q.v.), who would later work under him at the Museum of Modern Art. Barr curated the first modern-art exhibition at Harvard's Fogg art museum under Sachs. <u>Vanity Fair</u> magazine published his requirements for entrance into his art class the same year. At Harvard, Barr met fellow art student Jere Abbott (q.v.) and the two spent much time in Paris studying art. In 1927 Barr visited the Bauhaus in Dessau, Germany, and witnessed modernism firsthand. In 1928, when Sachs was asked to recommend a student to Abby Aldrich Rockefeller (1874-1948) to direct a new museum for modern art, Sachs chose Barr. Rockefeller's board of directors included Duncan Phillips (1886-1966) and A. Conger Goodyear (1877-1964). Barr met fellow Harvard classmate Philip Johnson (q.v.) in 1929 who would be a personal advisor in later years. Shortly after the stock market crash in 1929, Barr opened the first exhibition of the new museum in the 12th floor of the Heckscher building. Barr appointed Abbott to be his associate director and Abbott took care of much of the day-to-day operations of the museum. But a mysterious falling out between Abbott (who was a homosexual) and Barr (or the Board of directors) took place, and Abbott left the Museum. In 1932 Barr married Margaret "Marga" Scolari-Fitzmaurice (d. 1987), an Italian-born art historian studying at New York University on a fellowship, in 1930. In 1931 for an exhibition on modern architecture, Barr coined the term "international style" to describe the movement, a show curated by Henry-Russell Hitchcock (q.v.) and Johnson. In 1932 Johnson funded the new department of architecture and became its first curator. Barr was in Germany in 1932 and witnessed the Nazi closing of art galleries. In 1933 he wrote on behalf of Erwin Panofsky's appointment to the Courtauld Institute and in 1934 at Panofsky's suggestion, sponsored Panofsky's student H. W. Janson (q.v.). During these years Barr's main job was to advise the trustees of the museum on their personal art purchases; the museum spent only $1000 on art purchases the first six years of its existence. In 1935 Barr was one of those invited to the famous, informal gathering of art scholars organized by Meyer Schapiro (q.v.) that included Robert Goldwater (q.v.), the dealer Jerome Klein (q.v.), Panofsky and Lewis Mumford (q.v.). That year he hired Beaumont Newhall (q.v.) to be curator of photography and Iris Barry (1895-1969) to establish the first film library to part of a museum. In 1939 the first of Barr's panegyrics to Picasso appeared: <u>Picasso: Forty Years of his Art</u>. The same year, a critique of Barr's approach to Cubism was published by the Columbia art historian Meyer Schapiro (q.v.). In 1943 Steven Clark, a conservative, became chairman of the Board of the MoMA. Disputes with Barr erupted and Clark fired him. The popular legend, told years later, that Barr retired to the library, refusing to leave, however, is not true. Barr was a poor administrator and procrastinator; his long-awaited history of modern art never appeared. The same year James Thrall Soby (q.v.) was appointed assistant director, and a special position created for Barr (his salary cut to $6000/year). In 1944 the Museum appointed René d'Harnoncourt as its director. d'Harnoncourt's sensitivity to the situation with Barr and gentle personality allowed both men to function positively. Barr remained true to the artists whom he championed. In 1944, during the height of World War II, Piet Mondrian when died in New York, Barr arranged for his funeral. In 1946, <u>Picasso: Fifty Years of his Art</u> appeared by Barr. Though he had left Harvard for the Museum without completing his dissertation, Barr submitted the Picasso book in 1947 and through special arrangement, Harvard awarded him a Ph.D. Barr assumed the title of "Director of Collections" that year, returning to his old office, and his salary changed to $10,000. In 1949 Princeton awarded him an honorary doctorate. Barr's MoMA focused on European modern art; the Guggenheim gave the first exhibitions to Pollock, Rothko (whose work Barr never purchase), and Baziotes. Even in the 1960s, Barr declined to purchase Pop art, refusing a work at one point in order to buy a twelfth Leger. In 1948, the position of the MoMA vis-a-vis the Metropolitan Museum of Art and other museums brought an agreement that MoMa would sell its works to the Met for $191,000 in order for it to constantly house only truly modern art. By 1951 the deal had dissolved and in 1953 MoMA Board chairman John Hay "Jock" Whitney (1904-1982) confirmed that the MoMA would not pass on works to other museums. In 1951 Barr published his extended catalog and book, <u>Matisse: His Art and his Public</u>, written during the time he was without a musuem appointment. The book was a standard in Matisse studies for many years. Barr was approached during this time to write the volume on modern art for the <u>Pelican History of Art</u> series, but he declined. The volumes in the series were later divided into European and American art, written by Kurt Badt (q.v.) and John Wilmerding (q.v.). Barr officially retired from the Museum in 1967. In the years after his retirement, Alsheimers disease set in. In 1975 he was committed to a nursing home. He died at the Salisburg, CT facility in 1981. Barr was the great publicizers of modern art for the American Public, the major catalyst for public-acceptance of modern art in America. Hired initially by the wealthy New York art collecting elite to validate their tastes by creating a museum for their art, he acted as their advisor and procurer of art during the early years when the Museum bought almost no art at all. Much has been written about the "eye" of Barr, (i.e., his ability to identify the highest quality work of art). The works he selected for the museum and its benefactors (many of which were eventually donated to the the Museum) formed the canon of modern art history. But his blindnesses to other art movements were equally glaring. The Museum was late to purchase the work of the New York abstract expressionists even though they lived and exhibited in the shadow of the museum. As a museum director, he instituted aggressive advertising campaigns for the museum at a time when few other art museums did, insisting that exhibition catalogs be accessible both financially and intellectually to the public. He was not a scholar. His histories of modern art and artists are largely drawn from personal experience (though he spoke neither French nor German) and from questionnaires mailed to the artists (such as Matisse). His concept of art history was a construct of "isms" linked in a linear fashion. Meyer Schapiro's famous critic of Barr's theory in 1937 accused him of explaining the rise of abstract art "independent of historical conditions." Yet Kuh, recalling his lectures at Vassar, cited him as an inspirational force because he wove social history into his lectures. Barr avoided employing theories from other disciplines, such as Freudian analysis for example, in art history. The respect Barr commanded in a largely conservative art world is best summed in the fact that he was the only historian to write on the subject of modern art for the <u>Gazette des Beaux Arts</u> in the 1940s.United States"Nature of Abstract Art." <u> Marxist Quarterly</u> 1 (1937): 77-98 [the critique of Alfred Barr's Cubism]; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Research Guide to the History of Western Art</u>. Sources of Information in the Humanities, 2. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982, pp. 89-90; Kleinbauer, W. Eugene. <u>Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts</u>. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 69; Marquis, Alice Goldfarb. <u>Alfred H. Barr, Jr.: Missionary for the Modern</u>. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1989; Kantor, Sybil Gordon. <u>Alfred H. Barr, Jr., and the Intellectual Origins of the Museum of Modern Art</u>. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002; Kuh, Katherine. <u>My Love Affair with Modern Art: Behind the Scenes with a Legendary Curator</u>. New York: Arcade, 2006, p. xvii.[dissertation:] <u>Picasso: Fifty Years of his Art</u>. Harvard University, 1947; <u>Matisse: his Art and his Public</u>. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1951; <u>What is Modern Painting?</u> Introductory Series to the Modern Arts, 2. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1943; <u>Cubism and Abstract Art</u>. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936; and Cahill, Holger. <u>Art in </u> <u>America; a Complete Survey</u>. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1935; and Cahill, Holger. <u>Art in </u> <u>America in Modern Times</u>. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, 1934; <u>Eighth Loan Exhibition: Corot, Daumier</u>. New York: Plandome Press, 1930; <u>Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism</u>. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1936; <u>German Painting and Sculpture</u>. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1931; <u>Modern Works of Art</u>. New York: The Museum of Modern Art; W.W. Norton & Company, 1934 [fifth anniversary exhibition]; <u>Picasso: Forty Years of his Art</u>. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1939; <u>Picasso: Fifty years of his Art</u>. [revision of "Forty Years of His Art," above] New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1946; <u>Art in Our Time: an Exhibition to Celebrate the Tenth Anniversary of the </u><u> Museum of Modern Art and the Opening of its New Building, Held at the Time of the New York World's Fair</u>. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1939.Alfred Hamilton Barr, Jr.
Barthel, Gustav 19031972Director of the Städtische Kunstsammlungen Breslau (Municipal Art Collections Breslau) and Nazi art ideologue. After the German attack on Poland in 1939, Barthel collaborated with the head Nazi art plundering in Poland, Kajetan Mühlmann (q.v.) to write Nazi-ideological books on Polish culture, making the arguement that Poland was really part of Germany. During the Third Reich years, Barthel participated in art looting in Poland and co-authored the catalogue "Secured Works of Art in the General Government" that listed cultural assets that had been confiscated in Poland. He took advantage of his relationships to Jewish private collectors to acquire their works inexpensively. Barthel's Polish art histories, justifying the looting of Polish art treasures and Germany's conquoring Poland fell into a larger movement in German art literature, most notably the book by Dagobert Frey (q.v.) on Krakau, 1941, where Frey decline to identify Cracow as a Polish city. Germany"Raub und Resitution" Jüdisches Museum Berlin (exhibition webpage) <a href="http://www.jmberlin.de/raub-und-restitution/en/home.php">http://www.jmberlin.de/raub-und-restitution/en/home.php</a> andMühlmann, Kajetan. <u>Sichergestellte Kunstwerke im Generalgouvernement</u> [printed by andMühlmann?], 1940?; andMühlmann, Kajetan. <u>Krakau: Hauptstadt der deutschen Generalgouvernements Polen: Gestalt und künstlerische Leistung einer deutschen Stadt im Osten</u>. Breslau: Korn Verlag, 1940.
Bartsch, Adam von1757Vienna, Austria1821Vienna, Austria Museum curator; author of first modern comprehensive catalog of prints, <u>Le Peintre-graveur</u>. Bartsch was the son of a court official of Prince Starhemberg of Austria. He studied academic subjects at the University in Vienna and then drawing and engraving at Viennese Academy of Arts (Kupferstecherakademie) under Jacob Schmuzer (1733-1811). From 1777-1781 he worked in the Imperial Library, cataloging books. Between 1783-4 he was sent to Paris with the print collection's registrar, Paul Strattmann, to acquire the print collection of the Johann Anton de Peters (1725-1795). Though this attempt was unsuccessful (it was snapped up by the Bibliothèque Royale in Paris) Bartsch learned the art of analyzing prints quickly and first hand. He used his time in Paris to study other print collections, and was successful in purchasing twenty-one Rembrandt prints from Pierre-François Basan (1723-1797). In 1784 Bartsch was in Brussels, where he met the art dealer Domenico Artaria (1765-1823) and further to the Netherlands. Returning to Vienna, Bartsch received his first commission for a <i>catalogue raisonné</i> of prints, that of the collection of Charles Antoine Joseph, Prince de Ligne (1759-1792). Ligne's death in one of the first battles of the Franco-Austrian war meant Bartsch's catalog was in fact an auction catalog (it was published in 1794). In it, Bartsch set out the organizing principles of what would be his famous later work, <u>Le Peinture graveur</u>. In 1791 he was appointed curator of the imperial print collection by its director, Gottfried, Baron van Swieten (1734-1803). Bartsch purchased prints, mostly Italian and German ofthe 15th- and 16th-centuries, including those by Marcantonio Raimondi, Heinrich Aldegrever, Wenceslas Hollar, Rembrandt van Rijn, Jacque Callot and Claude Lorrain. The Imperial collection expanded nearly 20-fold under his direction. Bartsch was elected to the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts in 1792. In 1794 was named adviser to Albert, Duke of Saxe-Teschen, on his drawings collection. In 1795 Bartsch embarked upon a series of artist's oeuvre catalogs, beginning with the prints of Antoni Waterlo (1610-1690). Catalogs of the prints of Guido Reni and his pupils, (1795), Rembrandt (1797) and Lucas van Leyden (1798) followed. When the woodblocks commissioned by Emperor Maximilian I celebrating the achievements of his reign were discovered in a monastery, Bartsch set about reprinting them. This series, beginning with <u>Der Triumphzug Kaiser Maximilians I</u> (135 woodcuts, 1796), <u>Die Ehrenpforte</u> (1799), <u>Der Weisskunig</u> (1799) and <u>Die Heiligen aus der Sipp-, Mag- und Schwägerschaft des Kaisers Maximilian I</u> gained him a great reputation. But Bartsch's greatest achievement lay yet before him. Beginning in 1803, he issued his systematic catalog of major graphic artists, <u>Le Peintre-graveur</u>. In 1812 he was knighted for his work and in 1816 placed in charge of the print collection. Bartsch continued to issue his catalog, completing the final volume of the 21-volume set in 1821, the year of his death. To Bartsch, the term <em>peintres graveur</em> was assigned only to highest graphic works. As opposed to those engravers who merely copied other works, Bartsch viewed the "painter engravers" as artists with originality and technical accomplishment. Bartsch summarized his findings in a collector's manual entitled <u>Anleitung zur Kupferstichkunde</u>, also published in 1821. His son Friedrich <a href="bartschf.htm">Josef Adam von Bartsch</a>, followed him in office of the collection of the Imperial library and was also a knighted as art historian. Bartsch's classification of prints draws heavily from the lists and annotations made by Pierre Jean Mariette, <i>fils</i> (1694-1774) the son of the Parisian art dealer and the compiler of print collection of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Mariette's classification, which included an index of prints, was divided by art periods and artists (in alphabetical sequence) to create a finding aid to the imperial collection. Bartsch's <u>Peintre-graveur</u> used this classification schema, organizing more than 500 artists by country and school. Each entry was subdivided by subject-matter. He added brief descriptions of the print for easier identification as well as differences in states, and rarity. To help distinguish fakes, illustrations were provided. Bartsch's work became the first modern print oeuvre catalog in that his systemization depended upon no particular collection or theme. It was intended for collectors, connoisseurs and historians to further scholarship. Following his death, other corpora followed, in some cases addressing artist who were thought not to be <i> peintre-graveurs</i>, such as the 1829 catalog of Maarten van Heemskerck by the librarian Thomas Kerrich (1748-1828). Additional contributors to the <u>Le Peintre-graveur</u> included <a href="hellerj.htm">Joseph Heller</a>. HB/LSAustriaBazin, Germain. <u>Histoire de l'histoire de l'art; de Vasari à nos jours</u>. Paris: Albin Michel, 1986, p. 382; <u>Metzler Kunsthistoriker Lexikon: zweihundert Porträts deutschsprachiger Autoren aus vier Jahrhunderten</u>. 2nd. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2007, pp. 9-10; Suffield, Laura. "Adam von Bartsch." <u>Dictionary of Art</u>; Koschatzky, Walter. "Adam von Bartsch: An Introduction to his Life and Work." <u>The Illustrated Bartsch</u>, vol. 1, pt. 1. New York: Abaris, 1978, pp. vii-xvii; Rieger, R. "Bartsch, Johann Adam." <u>Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker</u>. vol. 7. Munich: K.G. Saur, 1993, pp. 313-14; Stix, Alfred, ed. "Pariser Briefe des Adam Bartsch aus dem Jahre 1784." <u>Festschrift für Max J. Friedländer: Zum 60. Geburtstag</u>. Leipzig: E. A. Seemann 1927, pp. 312-351.<u>Le Peintre-graveur</u>. 21 vols. Vienna: J. V. Degen, 1803-21; revised and reissued as <u>The Illustrated Bartsch</u>. Walter Strauss, editor. New York: Abaris, 1978- ; <u>Anleitung zur Kupferstichkunde</u>. Vienna: J. B. Wallishausser, 1821, English: <u>Concerning the Administration of the Collection of Prints of the Imperial Court Library in Vienna</u>. New York: Abaris, 1982; <u>Catalogue raisonné de toutes les estampes qui forment l'œuvre de Rembrandt et ceux de ses principaux imitateurs</u>. Vienna: A. Blumauer, 1797. Adam von Bartsch; Ritter Johann Adam von Bartsch
Bartsch, Friedrich Joseph Adam, Ritter von1798Vienna, Austria1873Vienna, AustriaAuthor of a history of Greek and Roman artists. Bartsch was the son of the more famous, <a href="bartscha.htm">[Johann] Adam von Bartsch</a>. From 1814 onwards he assisted his father in the imperial library collection of prints. In 1818 he published a catalog of his father's collection, the<u> Catalogue des estampes de J. Adam de Bartsch</u>. He succeeded his father at the imperial print collection in 1827. In 1835 Bartsch issued a history of artists of the classical Greek and Roman era, <u>Chronologie der griechischen und römischen Künstler</u>. Like his father, too, he was an etcher. AustriaRieger, R. "Bartsch, Friedrich Josef Adam." <u>Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker</u>. vol. 7. Munich: K.G. Saur, 1993, p. 312.<u>Catalogue des estampes de J. Adam de Bartsch</u>. Vienna: De l'impr. d'A. Pichler, 1818; <u>Die Kupferstichsammlung der K. K. Hofbibliothek in Wien: In einer auswahl ihrer merkwürdigsten Blaetter</u>. Vienna: Braumüller, 1854; <u>Chronologie der griechischen und römischen Künstler: bis zu Ablauf des fünften Jahrhundertes nach Christi Geburt: nebst vorangehender Uebersichtstafel der aegyptischen Kunst</u>. Vienna: Bei Rohrmann und Schweigerd, 1835.Friedrich Joseph Adam von Bartsch