Grammar Terms
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GreekSource or CommentsQuestionsExamples of UsageLatin
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Grammarἡ γραμματικὴ τέχνη
γραμματικός, ή, όν - knowing ones letters; γραμματικευομαι - to be a grammarian.
Adj? Noun? How do we use this in a sentence? "νυνί μανθάνωμεν τήν γραμματικήν"??? OR, ̈́εχομεν το γραμματικον μάθημα"
ars grammatica
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Part of speechμέρος λόγουpartēs ōrātiōnis
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Nounὄνομα, τόnōmen, nōminis (nt)
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Pronounἀντωνυμία, ἡprōnōmen, -inis (nt)
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Pronoun - Relativeἀναφορική
Annis 2012 (Note a diff. here wi. the use of "anaphoric" pronouns in most grammar books)
So would a relative pronoun be expressed as "ἡ ἀναφορική ἀντωνυμία" ???
prōnōmen relātīvum
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Pronoun - DemonstrativeδεικτικήAnnis 2012prōnōmen dēmōnstrātīvum
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Possessive (ἐμός, σός, κτλ.)
κτητικήAnnis 2012(prōnōmen) possessīvum
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Adjectiveἐπίθετον, τό"in ancient grammar considered a kind of noun" Annis 2012adiectīvum, -i (nt)
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Adverbἐπίρρημα, τόadverbium
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Verbῥῆμα, τόverbum
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Prepositionπρόθεσις, ἡpraepositiō
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Conjunctionσύνδεσμος, ὁconiūnctiō
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Participleμετοχή, ἡparticipium, ī
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Articleἄρθρον, τό"and also relative pronoun in the scholia" Annis 2012articulus
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Particleμόριον, τό; παραθήκηparticula
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Nouns and Adjectives
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Genderγένος, τόgenus
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masculineἀρσενικός, ή, όνalso ἄρρεν, ἀρρενικός in Attic, τὸ ἀρσενικὸν γένοςmasculīnum
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feminineθηλυκός, ή, όνalso θηλύ, τὸ θηλυκὸν γένοςfēminīnum
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neuterοὐδέτερos, οὐδετέρη, οὐδέτεροντὸ ουδέτερον γένος
οὐδετέρη? οὐδετέρα! τὸ ουδέτερον γένος - οὐδέτερον
τὸ οὐδέτερον γένοςneutrum
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Numberἀριθμός, ὁnumerus
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singularἑνικός, ή, όνὁ ἑνικός ἀριθμόςsingulāris
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dualδυϊκός, ή, όνdualis (numerus)
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pluralπληθυντικός, ή, όνὁ πληθυντικός ἀριθμόςplūrālis
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Caseπτῶσις, ἡ. αἱ πτώσειςalso used for "declension"cāsus, -ūs
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Nominativeεὐθεῖα, ὀνομαστική Buth lists ἡ ὀρθή πτῶσις and ὀνομαστική in ( ).
ἡ ὀνομαστική πτῶσις
nōminātīvus
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Genitiveγενικήgenetīvus
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Dativeδοτικήdatīvus
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Accusativeαἰτιατικήaccūsātīvus
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Locativelocātīvus
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Ablativeἀφαιρετίκη; ἀπενεκτικήablātīvus
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Vocativeκλητικήvocātīvus
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Instrumentalὀργανικόν, τό
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to decline (a noun/adj)κλίνειν0dēclīnāre
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Declensionκλίσις, ἡdēclīnatiō
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Subjectὁ ἐνεργῶν; ὑποκείμενον, τό
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Agentὁ δρῶνPaul Emile Anders
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Objectὁ ἐνεργούμενος; ἀντικείμενον, τό
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Objectκατηγόρημα, τό
Halcomb, T. Michael W. (2013-04-25). A Handbook of Ancient Greek Grammatical Terms (AGROS) (p. 55). GlossaHouse. Kindle Edition. ; cites Aristotle
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ἐπί + genin a case (e.g., in the accusative)
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Positivepositīvus
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Comparativeσυγκριτικόνcomparātīvus
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Superlativeὑπερθετικόν (εἶδος)superlātīvus
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Verbsτὰ ῥήματα (τὸ ῥῆμα)
in Gramm., a verb, opp. to ὄνομα (a noun), ῥήματα καὶ ὀνόματα Plat. (Liddell)
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Moodἐγκλίσις, ἡἐγκλίνειν - to bend
Buth defines it as "verbal mood, verbal scale of potentiality."
Plural: αἱ ἐγκλίσεις
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Indicativeὁριστικήτό ὅριον - boundary, limit (horizon)
"a statement, as though about a real situation" Buth
Moods are in Fem because of ἔγκλισις, e.g. "ἡ ὁριστκή ἔγκλισις"indicātīvus
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Subjunctiveὑποτακτικήἡ ὑποταγή - subordination
"a statement about a potential reality" Buth use with ἄν or after ἵνα, κτλ
coniūnctīvus
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Infinitiveἀπαρέμφατος
(adj) "not determinative" [φατός - adj of φημί "that may be spoken"]
types: īnfīnītīvus
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Imperativeπροστακτικήτό πρόσταγμα - commandimperātīvus
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Optativeεὐκτικήεὐκτικός - (adj) expressing a wishoptātīvus
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Voiceδιαθέσις, ἡgenera verbis
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Activeἐνέργεια, ἡ; ἐνεργητικός, ή, όνāctīvum
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Activeκοινή
common voice - coined on B-Greek to express absence of marking subject affectedness
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Middleμεσότης, ἡ; μέσος, η, ον
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Passiveπάθος, ὁ; παθητικόν, ή, ονpassīvum
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Middle/Passiveἑαυτικὴ διάθεσις
coined on B-Greek to express subject affectedness rather than either middle or passive http://www.ibiblio.org/bgreek/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=1758
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Categories of voice endingsκατηγορίαι τῆς μορφῆςUnfinished... Tentatively coined on B-Greek
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Categories of voice endingsπαράδειγμα Unfinished... Tentatively coined on Ancient Greek Best Practices
https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=en&fromgroups#!topic/ancient-greek-best-practices/2TQiroPPTdY
ἐν Ἑλλενικῇ, τρία παραδείγματα τῆς τῶν ῥημάτων μορφῆς πάρεστιν·.“τὸ ειν, σαι παράδειγμα” ἤ “τὸ εσθαι, ασθαι παράδειγμα” ἤ “τὸ θῆναι παράδειγμα”
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Personπρώσοπον, τόpērsona, ae
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Firstπρῶτος, η, ονprīma
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Secondδεύτερος, η, ονsecunda
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Thirdτρίτος, η, ονtertia
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Aspectὄψις, ἡ, -εως
http://www.ibiblio.org/bgreek/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=1758&p=11662&hilit=%E1%BD%84%CF%88%CE%B9%CF%82#p11662
modus, modī
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Aspect - Imperfectiveπαρατατική ὄψις
The aspect terms "imperfective" and "perfective" are used to describe many living languages.
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Aspect - Perfective / Aoristἀόριστος ὄψις
The aspect terms "imperfective" and "perfective" are used to describe many living languages.
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Aspect - Perfectπαρακειμένη ὄψις
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συντελείωσις (n), συντελικός (adj)Apollonius Dyscolos, On Syntax
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Tenseχρόνος, ὁtempus, oris
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Pastπαρεληλυθώςpraeteritum
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Presentἐνεστώςpraesēns
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Futureμέλλωνἐν μελλόντι χρόνῳ "In the future time."futūrum
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Perfectπαρακείμενοςὁ παρακειμένος χρόνος as distinct from ἡ παρακειμένη ὄψιςperfectum
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Imperfectπαρατατικόςὁ παρατατικὸς χρόνος as distinct from ἡ παρατατικὴ ὄψις
In English, the term "Imperfect" means "Imperfect Indicative." In Greek, the term "παρατατικός" (χρόνος) refers to the Imperfect Indicative. It is both PAST tense and παρατατική aspect.
imperfectum
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Aoristἀόριστοςὁ ἀόριστος χρόνος as distinct from ἡ ἀόριστος ὄψις
In both English and Greek (Aorist, ἀόριστος) is often used as an abbreviated term to refer to the Aorist Indicative. The Aorist Indicative has both PAST tense and ἀόριστος aspect.
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Pluperfectὑπερσυντέλικοςplūsquamperfectum
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Future Perfect
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Present Participleπαρατατική μετοχήButh's Morphology book
Note, Buth (and others?) calls "present" participles, subjunctives, and imperatives, not ἐνεστώς but παρατατική, because the aspect is continuous and there is no idea of time. BUT, future participle = μέλλουσα μετοχή.
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Aorist Participleἀόριστος μετοχήButh's Morphology book
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Conjugationἡ κλίσις, -εως; συζυγία, ἡconiūgātiō
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ordinary -ωβαρύτονος
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contract verbsπερισπώμενος
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-μι verbsεἰς -μι λήγων
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Transitiveμεταβατικόν
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Intransitiveἀμετάβατον
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Supinesupīnum
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Gerundgerundium
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Substantivesubstāntīvus
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