|Behaviorism||Cognitive Construct (Bruner, Ausubel & Piaget)||Task Analysis||Humanistic Approach||Situated Cognition||Constructivism||Multiple Intelligences||Principles of instruction, Elaboration Theory of Instruction|
|Pioneers||Hatice:Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner Erdem: Pavlov, Skinner, Watson,||Evrim: Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel (Bilge: Gestalt, Bandura) Erdem: Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel)||Canan: Gagne Hatice E. :Bloom||Canan: Maslow, Rogers Bilge: Jerome Freiberg||Hatice: Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, Bransford||Canan: Dewey, Vygotsky; Sinem: Piaget, Montessori Bilge: Glaserfeld Defne:Fluery||Canan: Gardner||Bilge: Reigeluth Hatice E.: Merrill|
|Key Concepts||Canan: stimuli, immediate feedback Bilge: conciousness, introspection, Sinem: negative reinforcement, conditioning, stimuli, Erdem: Differentiation, Drill and Practice, Stimulus and Response, Feedback, Punishment, Extinction. Gamze: Reward, conditioning||nasim: meaningful learning, prior knowledge Burcu: disequilibrum, equilibration Erdem: Learning Domains, Cognitive Stages of Development, Metacognition, Prior Knowledge, Inquiry Based Learning, Accommodation, Adaptation||Hatice: Tasks Bilge: Detailed levels of a performance Hatice E: check the validity of the task, instruction, etc||Bilge: Freedom, learner autonomy, relation between knowledge and real life Gamze: respect for everybody, appreciate the differences Dincer: interaction as a whole person.||Hatice: Real conditions, Learning own by own,Solving Problem, Ability to think Bilge: Experiences||Canan: environment Bilge: Self understanding Sinem: constructing self-knowledge Burcu: self-regulation, self-reflection Dincer: social learning Gamze: learning by doing Defne:personal constructed reality, internal view||Hatice: Learning according to interest or type of intellegence; Sinem: anti-g intelligence, visual, musical, natural, bodily kinesthetical, mathematical, intra and inter personal, verbal intelligences Bilge: Way of consuming the information Canan: not one type of intelligence||nasim: Epıtomizing, Rationale Burcu: macro-level learning Hatice E.: problem-based, tasks, activities|
|Definition of Learning||Canan: rote learning, change in observable behaviour Bilge: Behavioral potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice, Sinem: reaching the predefined objectives via conditioning by using appropriate stimuli, Erdem: Differentiation of the desired/predetermined response/answer/behavior among other possible alternatives by the help of reinforcements. Gamze: regular responses to a certain stimuli, learning might occur in the same way for everybody||Canan:autonomous learning Hatice:Acquisition of knowledge and mental activities of learners Bilge: Notion on relation with prior and new information Erdem: Learning occurs by arranging (adding/adapting/adopting) learning domains/structures/networks in the brain. Burcu: processing information and storing it in memory including processes of attention, pattern recognition, encoding, chunking, rehearsal and retrieval||Bilge: Perform in a sequence of steps Hatice E. gradually (Bloom's taxonomy) you can do better||Canan: self-actualization Bilge: Self Discovery, freedom to chose what to learn||Hatice: Self-discovery of world Bilge: Contiınity in internalization. Dincer: integration with environment||Canan: meaning making Bilge: Learners own label on knowledge Gamze: construction of the knowledge with meaningful experiences||Sinem: each learner has its own capacity as intelligence, so learning occurs based on the intelligence that learner possesses Bilge: Channel to get engaged in learning Gamze: each learner has their own strengths and weaknesses but with the right help they can improve their skills and learn through their strengths||Nasim: to bring together all existing information at a macro level as far as possible Hatice E.:integrating new knowledge with real-life situations|
|Teacher/Instructor Role||Hatice:Center of instruction, Source of the knowledge, awarder, has a main role Bilge: Punisher, behavior shaper, Sinem: who provides positive or negative reinforcement, Erdem: Commander of the lecture, classroom order provider, manager and evaluator of learning. Burcu: Identifier of learning goals, controller of contingencies of reinforcements||Bilge: Facilitator Erdem: Half Commander, Half Facilitator (because cognitivists try to systematize brain processes of human being implying behavioristic principles) Burcu: enhancer of encoding and retrieval Dincer: organize the content carefully according to needs of students.||Hatice: Guider Hatice E.: the person who is responsible to determine correct task or actvity according to students' intellectual development||Bilge: Facilitator, guide||Hatice: Designer of learning process, Creator of real experineces in or out class activities Bilge: Facilitator Burcu: Senior partner in the learning enterprise||Bilge: Helping students to notice the reality/knowledge/learning outcome Burcu: Guide or facilitator, provider of complex and realistic learning environments that challenge learners to identify and solve problems Dincer: Mediator, a guide on the side. Gamze: design and provide an enivronment where the students can construct their own knowledge with the guidance of the teacher help of friends and learning experiences||Hatice: Facilitator of experienes related to eight types of intellegence; Sinem: Teacher should utilize more than one type of intelligences in the classroom not only for didactics but also for assessments.||Nasim: makes the process more effective, productive and attractive?! Hatice E.: designer of instruction|
|Teaching/Instructional Methods||Hatice: Punishment, Reinforcement, Time-out, Modeling, Extinction, Token Economy, Behaivoral Contact, Escape and Avodiance, Sinem: drill and practice Erdem: Positive and Negative Reinforcement, Drill and Practice, Punishment and Reward, Premack Principle, Immediate and Delayed Feedback, Questioning, Unit by Unit teaching.||Bilge: Interiorization, Developmental Stages, Erdem: Advance organizers, making connections to prior knowledge or past experiences, making connections among knowledge that was separately learned from different courses/topics/research, simple to complex progression in instruction.||Bilge: Definition of purposes, determination of tasks, analysis of task, evaluation, Hatice E.: tasks in terms of cognitive, psychomotor and emotional skills||Bilge: Realia||Hatice: Problem Solving, Self- Learning, Story based Teaching, Project Based Learning Bilge: Authentic activity||Defne: setting the scene for each to create their personal reality,||Bilge: Intelligences Canan: a very wide range of methods is the key, appropriate for each||Bilge: Concepts, procedures, theories|
|Instructional models||Hatice: Direct Instruction, Programmed Instruction(Linear and Branching Programming), Computer Based Instruction, Mastery Learning Bilge: Conditioning models Erdem: Direct Instruction, Bloom's Learning for Mastery, Personalized System of Instruction, Precision Teaching.||Bilge : Individuallized, Erdem: Keller's ARCS Model (Cognitive Apprenticeship has also cognitivist elements)||Bilge: Operation and decision Hatice E.:Decide and do||Bilge: Individualized and experiential||Hatice: Anchored Instruction, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Learning communities Bilge: Cooperative learning||Bilge: Personal Instructional Model||Bilge: Simple-to-complex, Prior knowledge relation Hatice E.: |
Nasim: relevant to cognitive domain
|Source of motivation||Evrim: extrinsic motivation (rewards, punishment) Bilge: Stimulus to activate the learner Erdem: Positive and Negative Reinforcement Gamze: based on external sources||Bilge: Prior knowledge, environment, experience, Erdem: Prior knowledge, meaningfulness of knowledge||Bilge: Need analysis Hatice E.: need assessment||abdllh: individual interest s Burcu: individual learning pace||Hatice: Intrinsic motivation (Curiosity about real conditions) Bilge: Focus on realia||Bilge: previous successes. Dincer: exploring personal interests.Defne:internal motivation||Bilge: Major intelligence Canan: making each student believe they are intelligent, they are all stars||abdllh: Curiosity for the problem Bilge: Natural process tendency Hatice E.: producing something in the end|
|Strengths||Hatice: Requires objectives(Measurable and observable behaviors), Standardized tests. Bilge: Experience is important Erdem: Effective for misbehavior (Here the reason for misbehavior should be examined. Behavioristic classroom may create this misbehavior because of its strictness.), Effective for reaching curricular objectives, Easy to measure the outcomes since what to measure is predetermined, there are lots of books, materials, lesson plans, study guides and etc for behavioristic classrooms - easy to find instructional resources.||Bilge: Leads to learn how to learn, Erdem: Effective for facilitating learning, to the point findings such as "the importance of prior knowledge, meaningfulness and relevance". |
Nasim: consider the learner as the focus of the design process. Enable consistency.
|Hatice:Sequence, Learning through experince, Draws a model Hatice E.: applicability and validity of instruction||Hatice: Concern Sts' needs Gamze: values the individuals and differences||Hatice: Focus on real conditions Bilge: Learning outcome becomes a part of real life||Bilge: Self interaction with knowledge |
Nasim:Content can be presented from multiple perspectives using case studies, learners can develop and articulate new and individual representations of information, and active knowledge construction is promoted over passive transmission of information. The learner is able to deal with real life situations.
|Canan: appreciating personal abilities Bilge: Variety in materials||nasim: better long-term retention, causing better motivation, form a stable cognitive structure, learners' freedom of choosing content Hatice E.: learning by doing, students are active|
|Weaknesses||Canan: seeing mind as a black box Bilge: Too primitive in our times Erdem: Individual differences are ignored, cognitive processes are ignored, intrinsic motivation is ignored, needs and interests of learners are ignored, rooting in animal-based research.||Erdem: Interests and needs of learners are ignored, having no consensus between pioneers about how learning occurs in the brain, the assumption that each brain uses the same operational systems while learning (piaget: equlibrium disequlibrium processes, ausubel: connections in and among learning domains, bruner: metacognition)|
Nasim:there are only finite, predetermined goals. The learner knows a certain way to do things based upon specific cues.
|Bilge: Time consuming and task uniqeness, not having clear or sequential steps||Canan: not very feasible, alternative rich education environment is needed Bilge: Not applicaple in all districts and levels||Hatice:Can be difficult to make connections to real conditions. Bilge: Subject matter depended Dincer: dependence to environment, difficulty in projecting solutions to new stuations/problems.||Bilge: Motivation loss Dincer: Too much defenders who call themselves as constructivists. Big differences among diffrent constructivist views. Ambigous views among constructivist which devaluate constructivist principles and make them seen as "vague". In short: no clear and unified views as a movement.||Bilge: Tiring for teachers, sometimes done just for the sake of doing it||nasim:has not the validation on the macro level Hatice E.: it is not appropriate for all teaching situations|
|Evaluation/Assessment||Hatice:Standardized tests, Teacher observation Burcu:multiple choice tests or classical written exams Erdem: Standardized tests and delayed feedbacks for summative assesment and evaluation, immediate feedbacks for formative assessment||Canan: discovery learning, memory exercises, experimenting||Hatice:Concept maps Hatice E: compare and contrast, anaylzing||Bilge: Portfolios, self assessment||Hatice: Observation, Peer assesment, Self-evaluation, Bilge: Self Actualization||Bilge: Implementing tasks, problems Gamze: process & product evaluation Burcu: essays, portfolios, projects||Gamze: In accordance with the intelligences||Hatice E.: comparing the teaching objective with the product|
|Critique||Hatice:Focuses on only measurablity Bilge: Repetitive actions Erdem: Precision Teaching is my favourite among behavioristic models. It can be used in any models different than behaviorism since it focuses on "tool skills". Dincer: Behaviorism is no longer the popular trend in education. There are some contexts that can match with new approaches. For everything else, there's Behaviorism."||Canan: still not interested in the human aspect,||Bilge: In teaching and learning, in large environments, not practical. Hatice E.: if it is done by people who know their job, it should be used all the time and it should be done before instruction to get the best result. however, because each lesson od task is unique, this makes task analyzers' job harder.||Bilge: In this approach, teachers and students can easily get lost if they are not well planned||Bilge: Learners' backgrounds may affect them and their levels||Bilge: Dynamic relation between learner, environment and peers may not be easily conducted Gamze: If teacher is not very careful, misconceptions can easily occurDefne:It takes time to prepare a well-contsructed atmosphere.||Canan: distinction between intelligence and ability is not clear, lack of emprical evidence, risk of labeling students Bilge: Being passive in other skills or intelligences, not any chance to try them once Gamze: difficult to determine intelligence types||Nasim: there is no prescription for providing “authentic” or “situated” learning Hatice E.: not always applicable but when it is applied, it is very benefical to get permanent learning|
|Evrim: Please complete the cells with your name in front of the text.|