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1. This is a collaborative crowdsourced list of the history and current status of social movements and other efforts to challenge United States military bases around the globe. The list provides basic details to allow members of movements, journalists, scholars, students, politicians, and others to learn from the history of these movements.2. Some of the information, in yellow and elsewhere, is incomplete or likely inaccurate, so please add or correct missing information. Almost everywhere there is a foreign base, there is some kind of protest movement, so many movements are surely not on the list. Please add any missing movements at the bottom of the list. 3. If you want to add a comment or explain something in more detail, please add your thoughts, with your name, in the "Notes and Comments" column at far right. If you are part of a movement, you can include an email or website address so people can contact you. 4. The question of whether a movement is a "success" or not is very complicated. Usually, the answer is not a simple "yes" or "no" and would require many pages to discuss. 5. "Success" here is meant to be a starting point for learning more. Please add any discussion in "Notes and Comments."6. The second sheet below will allow people to enter information about other movements challenging the foreign military bases of other nations (e.g., Britain, France, Russia, Turkey). Anyone interested in translating the lists would be a great help.7. Share the list: https://bit.ly/2CUMcUg 8. Questions? David Vine, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Americn University, vine@american.edu
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COUNTRY/TERRITORYLOCATION/BASE NAME(S)YEARS ACTIVEBASIC MOVEMENT COMPOSITION (e.g., local, national, government, politicians, labor)SUCCESS? (year if yes; TBD=to be determined)OTHER MAJOR OUTCOMES AND OTHER NOTESNOTABLE STRATEGIES AND TACTICSSOURCES (BOOKS, ARTICLES, OTHER EVIDENCE)NOTES AND COMMENTSMOVEMENT CONTACT INFORMATION, WEBSITES
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AfghanistanLaborStrike by employees of contractor ATCO Frontec.Empire's Labor: The Global Army That Supports U.S. Wars, Adam Moore.
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America, North (parts claimed by USA)Multiple1492-presentLocal, regional, continental movementMixedNon-violent protest, lawsuits, armed resistance, warfare
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American Samoa (U.S.)Map on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Antigua & BarbudaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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ArgentinaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Aruba (Netherlands)Map on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Ascension Island (UK)Map on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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AustraliaPine Gap, Alice Springs1960s-presentLocal, national movementNo/TBDAgreement signed in 1966.
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AustraliaDarwin2015-presentLocal, national movementNo/TBDIPAN conference to be held in Darwin, August 2-4, 2019US marine contingent present since 2012. 25-year agreement came into effect in 2015. Latest (2018) 'AUSMIN' talks recommended raising numbers of US marines to 2,500 as soon as possible.
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AustraliaNational1960s-presentNational movementNo/TBD
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AustraliaNurrungar1973-1999National movementmixedclosed 1999, some major functions transferred to Pine Gapintermittent NV protests (very remote site)A Suitable Piece of Real Estate (Des Ball)
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AustriaSalzburg, Linz, Vienna, Tulin1945-1955Political leaders1955Constitutional ban on foreign bases; removal of Soviet and all other foreign bases and troops
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BahamasMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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BahrainMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Barbados?1979p⁹⁹90p⁹l9ll9⁹p99o99lPettyjohn, Stacie L., and Jennifer Kavanagh. 2016. “Access Granted: Political Challenges to the U.S. Overseas Military Presence, 1945–2014,” Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation, 61.
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BelgiumKleine Brogel, other including military transports?-presentLocal and national anti-war and anti-militairsm movementsNoBlockades, tresspassing, advocacy, political pressure
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BrazilLatin America multiple2003-2009Civil rights movements and anti-militarism movements (CEBRAPAZ, others)NoPolitical protest
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BulgariaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Burkina FasoMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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BurundiMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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CambodiaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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CanadaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Central African RepublicMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory)Diego Garcia1968-presentExiled indigenous people seeking return, compensation; anti-base activists; Mauiritian government and other sovereignty activistsTBDMauritius disputes UK sovereigntyLawsuits, hunger strikes, civil disobedience
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ChileMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Colombia7 bases/locations2009-2010National movement2010Bases blocked by Colombian Supreme Court
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Costa RicaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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CubaGuantánamo Bay baseNational government, national movementNo/TBD
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CubaGuantánamo Bay prison2001-presentUS/international movement, US politiciansNo/TBD9$⁹$$99$99999opo99o999$⁹⁹pop9999op99p99op$$⁹⁹⁹p⁹⁹p⁹⁹⁹99p99999p
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Curacao (Netherlands)Map on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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Czech RepublicMissile defense radar installations~2009National movement, politicians2009$
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Denmark/GreenlandThule1950s-presentExiled indigenous people seeking return, compensationNoLawsuits
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DjiboutiCamp Lemonnier2013LaborStrike by base workers.https://www.stripes.com/news/africa/troops-help-fill-in-for-striking-djibouti-workers-1.230579#.WaiCEsh942wOn an article published 7/16/13, John Vandiver of Stars & Stripes wrote, "Local workers, upset over KBR’s plan to cut support staff from 1,000 to 600, have been staging daily demonstrations outside the base since late June". Also, "[Lt. Cmdr.] Johnson said the protests are focused on the workers’ dispute with KBR and that the demonstrators are not opposed to the U.S. military mission." This should be taken with a grain of salt.
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Dominican RepublicMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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EcuadorManta1999-2009National government, local/national/international movement2009Base closedpmoInternational Network against Foreign Military Bases conference and activism
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EgyptMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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El SalvadorMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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EthiopiaKagnew AS1977National government1977
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FijiNo bases, embassy in Suva
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FranceMulitple (Bordeaux-Mérignac AB, Châteauroux-Déols AB, Chaumont-Semoutiers AB, Damblain, Dreux-Louvilliers AB, Paris-Orly AB, Laon-Couvro AB, Chambley-Bussières AB, Toul-Rosières, Phalsbourg-Bourscheid AB, Étain-Rouvres AB, Évreux-Fauville AB1966-1967National government/Charles de Gaulle1967France withdraws from most of tlo8he NATO structure and orders the US to leave bases within a year8m9m⁰.........p.........pp.................Base Politics: Democratic Change and the U.S. Military Overseas, Alexander Cooley.“France’s expulsion of U.S. forces in 1 966 under Charles de Gaulle’s Fifth Republic and the refusal of the Panamanian government to renew U.S. basing rights during the 1990s could also fruitfully be explained by using this study’s theoretical perspectives” on regime-type and regime-shift (p. 52). Calder contradicts this somewhere in his book, I believe in chapter 9 or 10.
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French PolynesiaNo bases, French Territory and the French Military were kicked out.A French territory, the locals demanded that the French reduce their own military footprint across the island nation 50% by 2015, which seems to have happened based on Wikipedia’s latest base personnel counts.
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GabonMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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GeorgiaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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GermanyAnsbach2003-presentLocal movement, local politiciansNo
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GermanyBuechel, other including military transports?-presentLocal and national anti-war and anti-militairsm movementsYes, limitedGerman parliament allowed to oversee US nuclear deployments on Buechel AB.Blockades, tresspassing, advocacy, political pressure
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GermanyLandstuhl Regional Medical Center?-presentLocal movementNoNoise
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GermanyRamstein Air Base?-presentLocal, national movementTBDOverlapping movements challenging noise, drone use
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GhanaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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GreeceMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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GuamGuam Buildup/Pagat Village2009-presentLocal indigenous, Guam-wide politicians2014/TBDMovement forced the Marine Corps to move the planned location for a shooting range, saving a sacred indigenous archaeological siteNon-violent protest, hikes and cultural access, lawsuits, international solidarity, mobilization of Chamoru diaspora
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GuamGuam Buildup/Litekyan (Ritidian)2009Local indigenous movementProposed Marine Corps firing range will destroy indigenous archaeological sites, tradtional fishing and forest resources, endangered species, and continue military occupation of forcibly taken indigenous landsNon-violent protest, hikes and cultural access, lawsuits, international solidarity
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Hawai`iKaho’olawe Island training range1976-2003 Local indigenous/state-wide movement, Congressional representatives and other politicians2003Bombing ended in 1990; novel special legislation for clean up of UXO and transfer title of land to the state of Hawaiʻi in trust for a future Hawaiian nation to be recognized. The Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana continues to organize cultural access to the island and plays a key role in the state office that manages the island.Civil disobedience, lawsuits, asserting indigenous religious and cultural rights to access island and exercise cultural practices, international solidarity through the Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Movement
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Hawai`iMakua Valley training range1976-presentLocal indigenous/state-wide movementTBDLawsuit resulted in court injunction on training - no-live fire training since 2004. Cultural access to archaeological sites to conduct ceremony.Sit-in, civil disobedience, non-violent protest, lawsuit, cultural access, international solidarity
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HawaiʻiPōhakuloa training area1978-presentLocal indigenous/state-wide movementTBD2010 lawsuit against State of Hawaiʻi (Lessor) for failure to ensure environmental protection of public trust land by the Army (Lessee). Court halted negotiations on renewal of lease pending state's fulfillment of fiduciary duties as landowner.Sit-in, civil disobedience, non-violent protest, lawsuit, cultural access, international solidarity
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HawaiʻiWaikāne Valley training area1980s-2006Local indigenous movement2006Marines condemned Hawaiian family land due to UXO hazard, Marine jungle warfare training proposal defeated in 2004, training area closed in 2006 and UXO removal underwaynon-violent protest
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HawaiʻiPacific Missile Range Facility 1993-presentLocal indigenous/state-wide movementNo/TBDSeveral expansions of the base and its missile program; classified Applied Research Laboratory at UH established to support PMRF, but protest 2005-2006 reduced the scope of the proposalCivil disobedience, non-violent protests
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HondurasSoto Cano AB/Palmerola1980s-presentNational movementNo
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Hong KongMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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HungaryMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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IcelandReykjavik1940; 1945-1947; 1949-1950s?National government, unionsNo; 1947; ?Protest against British occupation of bases beginning in 1940Holmes 2014:11
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IndonesiaNoneThe country’s Foreign Affairs Minister Retno LP Marsudi recently stated that none of her country’s territory would be used for Foreign Military, neither Chinese, or otherwise (assuming she meant nor American) as her comments were in response to a U.S. Pentagon report suggesting otherwise.
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IranBandar Abbas1979Revolutionary government1979Harkavy 2007
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IraqMultiple locations2011National parliament2011New bases occupied since anti-ISIS war
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IrelandMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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IsraelMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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ItalyComiso, Sicily1980sLocal, national movement1991A success?
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ItalyVicenza2005-presentLocal, national, international movement. [We will be in Dublin from November 16th until November 18th for the International Conference on No Nato/No USA bases. We are endorsers.]Mixed We succeeded in "protecting" approximately 50% of the land which was destined to "host" the Dal Molin army base. We succeeded in creating the Parco della Pace (Peace Park) through our resistance, through our activism, through the journeys made to Washington D.C. and the interviews we released on left wing media. Vicenza's grassroot movements gave life to such a resistance, so much energy and enthusiasm was put into it, they could have never stopped us. Recent activities: January 2017 International Conference at the Presidio Permanente and as of June 2018 once again on the crest of the wave with the election of the new right wing mayor.Sit-ins, festivals, various journeys to Washington D.C., appointments with US government representatives, Code Pink, Democracy Now interviews, geologists, expert field researchers, ground water experts, pollution experts, two major demonstrations with more than 100.000 people participating from all of Italy. Concerts, art, performances, and interviews with international media, Indymedia, Sherwood Radio, GlobalProject.
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ItalyNaples?-presentLocal movementNo
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ItalyNiscemi, Sicily2011-presentLocal, national movementNo
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JapanSunagawa, Tachikawa AB1956-1977Local movement1977Base turned over to Japanese Self-defense Forces controlWikipedia, Cooley's Base Politics, Holmes' Social Unrest and American Military Bases in Turkey and Germany Since 1945.Wikipedia: "With the surveyors unable to conduct their work to prepare for the runway expansion, the expansion plans were 'indefinitely shelved' in late 1957, after which time the protests died away.[1] For a time, the U.S. military still maintained hopes that the runway expansion might be restarted after some time had passed, forcing the farmers to maintain some of their barricades indefinitely. However, in 1968, the U.S. Air Force officially gave notification to the Japanese government of cancellation of the expansion plans.[2] In 1977, following the conclusion of the Vietnam War, the base was handed over to the Japanese Self Defense Forces.[2]" Cooley (2008) classifies Japan during the main period of action here, 1955-57, as a "democratizing client" (1952-60). This means he classifies the Japanese regime's political dependence on its security contract with the US as high, but classifies the contractual credibility of Japanese political institutions as low, resulting in a politicized security relationship in his typology (see figure 6.3 on p. 214). Holmes (2014) points out that Cooley's regime-type/shift explanation of basing policy outcomes applies to a shrinking number of cases today, but does it make sense to apply it to the Sunagawa case?
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JapanIwakuni1984-presentLocal movementNohttp://www.jca.apc.org/wsf_support/2004doc/WSFJapUSBaseRepoFinalAll.html#U.S_Marine_Corps
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JapanOgasawara Islands1950s-1969Local movement, national government1969Sovereignty over islands returned to Japan
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JapanOita, Hijudai Maneuver Field (Japanese military base used by US forces)2007-present?Local movementNoNon-violent protest, people's observation post, civilian patrols to police off-duty troops
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Japan/OkinawaTakae2006-presentLocal movementNoSit-in, civil disobedience
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Japan/OkinawaHenoko2004-presentLocal, Okinawa-wide movement, Okinawa and national politiciansTBDSit-in, civil disobsedience, lawsuit against Pentagon on behalf of Dugong by local, environmental activists, international solidarity groups in Guam, Hawaiʻi, Korea, USA
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Japan/OkinawaOkinawa islands1945-presentOkinawa-wide, national movement, national politiciansMixed
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Japan/OkinawaMCAS Futenma, Ginowan City, Okinawa1995-presentLocal, prefecture, national movementMixedBase land returned, some restrictions on operations but Futenma remains open
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Japan/OkinawaIe Island training area1953-presentLocal movementMixedBombing range closed, land returned to farmers, US still maintains a base Sit-in, civil disobedience, marches, petitions. Ahagon Shoko, the "Okinawan Gandhi", began the anti-bases movement in Okinawahttps://apjjf.org/-C.-Douglas-Lummis/3369/article.html
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Johnson Atoll (U.S.)Map on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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JordanMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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KenyaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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KosovoMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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KuwaitMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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KyrgyzstanManas Air Base2014National government2014
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LiberiaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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LibyaWheelus AB1969-1970Revolutionary/coup government1969/1970
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MauritaniaMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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MauritiusDiego Garcia1968-presentExiled indigenous people seeking return, compensation; anti-base activists; Mauiritian government and other sovereignty activistsTBDMauritius disputes UK sovereigntyLawsuits, hunger strikes, civil disobedience
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Marshall IslandsBikini, Enewetok, Kwajelein, other atolls1946-presentIndigenous movement, national governmentMixedCampaign by nuclear testing displacees; non-violent re-occupation of military base by original inhabitants
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MicronesiaCompact of Free Association, where the U.S. provides Military & Economic support
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MoroccoSlidi Simane, Ben Guerir, Ben Slimane, Nouasseur, Atlas Mountains Air Warning System1963Newly independent national government/anti-colonial movement1963
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MoroccoPort Lyautey, Sidi Yaya, Sidi Bouknadel1977National government1977
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MozambiqueMap on p. S159 of Vine's "No Bases? Assessing the Impact of Social Movements Challenging U.S. Foreign Military Bases".
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NetherlandsVolkel?-presentLocal and national anti-war and anti-militairsm movementsBlockades, tresspassing, advocacy, political pressure
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New ZealandWaihopai1987-presentLocal, national movementNo