Social Movements Related to U.S. Foreign Military Bases Crowdsourced List
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1. This is a collaborative crowdsourced list of the history and current status of social movements and other efforts to challenge United States military bases around the globe. The list provides basic details to allow members of movements, journalists, scholars, students, politicians, and others to learn from the history of these movements.2. Some of the information, in yellow and elsewhere, is incomplete or likely inaccurate, so please add or correct missing information. Almost everywhere there is a foreign base, there is some kind of protest movement, so many movements are surely not on the list. Please add any missing movements at the bottom of the list. 3. If you want to add a comment or explain something in more detail, please add your thoughts, with your name, in the "Notes and Comments" column at far right. If you are part of a movement, you can include an email or website address so people can contact you. 4. The question of whether a movement is a "success" or not is very complicated. Usually, the answer is not a simple "yes" or "no" and would require many pages to discuss. 5. "Success" here is meant to be a starting point for learning more. Please add any discussion in "Notes and Comments."6. The second sheet below will allow people to enter information about other movements challenging the foreign military bases of other nations (e.g., Britain, France, Russia, Turkey). Anyone interested in translating the lists would be a great help.7. Questions? David Vine, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Americn University, vine@american.edu8. Share the list: https://bit.ly/2CUMcUg
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COUNTRY/TERRITORYLOCATION/BASE NAME(S)YEARS ACTIVEBASIC MOVEMENT COMPOSITION (e.g., local, national, government, politicians, labor)SUCCESS? (year if yes; TBD=to be determined)OTHER MAJOR OUTCOMES AND OTHER NOTESNOTABLE STRATEGIES AND TACTICSSOURCES (BOOKS, ARTICLES, OTHER EVIDENCE)NOTES AND COMMENTSMOVEMENT CONTACT INFORMATION, WEBSITES
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America, North (parts claimed by USA)Multiple1492-presentLocal, regional, continental movementMixedNon-violent protest, lawsuits, armed resistance, warfare
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AustraliaPine Gap, Alice Springs1960s-presentLocal, national movementNo/TBDAgreement signed in 1966.
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AustraliaDarwin2015-presentLocal, national movementNo/TBDUS marine contingent present since 2012. 25-year agreement came into effect in 2015.
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AustraliaNational1960s-presentNational movementNo/TBD
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AustraliaNurrungar1973-1999National movementmixedclosed 1999, some major functions transferred to Pine Gapintermittent NV protests (very remote site)A Suitable Piece of Real Estate (Des Ball)
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AustriaSalzburg, Linz, Vienna, Tulin1945-1955Political leaders1955Constitutional ban on foreign bases; removal of Soviet and all other foreign bases and troops
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Barbados?1979Pettyjohn, Stacie L., and Jennifer Kavanagh. 2016. “Access Granted: Political Challenges to the U.S. Overseas Military Presence, 1945–2014,” Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation, 61.
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BelgiumKleine Brogel, other including military transports?-presentLocal and national anti-war and anti-militairsm movementsNoBlockades, tresspassing, advocacy, political pressure
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BrazilLatin America multiple2003-2009Civil rights movements and anti-militarism movements (CEBRAPAZ, others)NoPolitical protest
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Chagos Archipelago (British Indian Ocean Territory)Diego Garcia1968-presentExiled indigenous people seeking return, compensation; anti-base activists; Mauiritian government and other sovereignty activistsTBDMauritius disputes UK sovereigntyLawsuits, hunger strikes, civil disobedience
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Colombia7 bases/locations2009-2010National movement2010Bases blocked by Colombian Supreme Court
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CubaGuantánamo Bay baseNational government, national movementNo/TBD
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CubaGuantánamo Bay prison2001-presentUS/international movement, US politiciansNo/TBD
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Czech RepublicMissile defense radar installations~2009National movement, politicians2009
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Denmark/GreenlandThule1950s-presentExiled indigenous people seeking return, compensationNoLawsuits
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EcuadorManta1999-2009National government, local/national/international movement2009Base closedInternational Network against Foreign Military Bases conference and activism
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EthiopiaKagnew AS1977National government1977
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FranceMulitple (Bordeaux-Mérignac AB, Châteauroux-Déols AB, Chaumont-Semoutiers AB, Damblain, Dreux-Louvilliers AB, Paris-Orly AB, Laon-Couvro AB, Chambley-Bussières AB, Toul-Rosières, Phalsbourg-Bourscheid AB, Étain-Rouvres AB, Évreux-Fauville AB1966-1967National government/Charles de Gaulle1967France withdraws from most of the NATO structure and orders the US to leave bases within a year
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GermanyAnsbach2003-presentLocal movement, local politiciansNo
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GermanyBuechel, other including military transports?-presentLocal and national anti-war and anti-militairsm movementsYes, limitedGerman parliament allowed to oversee US nuclear deployments on Buechel AB.Blockades, tresspassing, advocacy, political pressure
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GermanyLandstuhl Regional Medical Center?-presentLocal movementNoNoise
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GermanyRamstein Air Base?-presentLocal, national movementTBDOverlapping movements challenging noise, drone use
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GuamGuam Buildup/Pagat Village2009-presentLocal indigenous, Guam-wide politicians2014/TBDMovement forced the Marine Corps to move the planned location for a shooting range, saving a sacred indigenous archaeological siteNon-violent protest, hikes and cultural access, lawsuits, international solidarity, mobilization of Chamoru diaspora
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GuamGuam Buildup/Litekyan (Ritidian)2009Local indigenous movementProposed Marine Corps firing range will destroy indigenous archaeological sites, tradtional fishing and forest resources, endangered species, and continue military occupation of forcibly taken indigenous landsNon-violent protest, hikes and cultural access, lawsuits, international solidarity
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Hawai`iKaho’olawe Island training range1976-2003 Local indigenous/state-wide movement, Congressional representatives and other politicians2003Bombing ended in 1990; novel special legislation for clean up of UXO and transfer title of land to the state of Hawaiʻi in trust for a future Hawaiian nation to be recognized. The Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana continues to organize cultural access to the island and plays a key role in the state office that manages the island.Civil disobedience, lawsuits, asserting indigenous religious and cultural rights to access island and exercise cultural practices, international solidarity through the Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Movement
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Hawai`iMakua Valley training range1976-presentLocal indigenous/state-wide movementTBDLawsuit resulted in court injunction on training - no-live fire training since 2004. Cultural access to archaeological sites to conduct ceremony.Sit-in, civil disobedience, non-violent protest, lawsuit, cultural access, international solidarity
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HawaiʻiPōhakuloa training area1978-presentLocal indigenous/state-wide movementTBD2010 lawsuit against State of Hawaiʻi (Lessor) for failure to ensure environmental protection of public trust land by the Army (Lessee). Court halted negotiations on renewal of lease pending state's fulfillment of fiduciary duties as landowner.Sit-in, civil disobedience, non-violent protest, lawsuit, cultural access, international solidarity
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HawaiʻiWaikāne Valley training area1980s-2006Local indigenous movement2006Marines condemned Hawaiian family land due to UXO hazard, Marine jungle warfare training proposal defeated in 2004, training area closed in 2006 and UXO removal underwaynon-violent protest
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HawaiʻiPacific Missile Range Facility 1993-presentLocal indigenous/state-wide movementNo/TBDSeveral expansions of the base and its missile program; classified Applied Research Laboratory at UH established to support PMRF, but protest 2005-2006 reduced the scope of the proposalCivil disobedience, non-violent protests
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HondurasSoto Cano AB/Palmerola1980s-presentNational movementNo
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IcelandReykjavik1940; 1945-1947; 1949-1950s?National government, unionsNo; 1947; ?Protest against British occupation of bases beginning in 1940Holmes 2014:11
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IranBandar Abbas1979Revolutionary government1979Harkavy 2007
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IraqMultiple locations2011National parliament2011New bases occupied since anti-ISIS war
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ItalyComiso, Sicily1980sLocal, national movement1991A success?
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ItalyVicenza2005-presentLocal, national, international movement. [We will be in Dublin from November 16th until November 18th for the International Conference on No Nato/No USA bases. We are endorsers.]Mixed We succeeded in "protecting" approximately 50% of the land which was destined to "host" the Dal Molin army base. We succeeded in creating the Parco della Pace (Peace Park) through our resistance, through our activism, through the journeys made to Washington D.C. and the interviews we released on left wing media. Vicenza's grassroot movements gave life to such a resistance, so much energy and enthusiasm was put into it, they could have never stopped us. Recent activities: January 2017 International Conference at the Presidio Permanente and as of June 2018 once again on the crest of the wave with the election of the new right wing mayor.Sit-ins, festivals, various journeys to Washington D.C., appointments with US government representatives, Code Pink, Democracy Now interviews, geologists, expert field researchers, ground water experts, pollution experts, two major demonstrations with more than 100.000 people participating from all of Italy. Concerts, art, performances, and interviews with international media, Indymedia, Sherwood Radio, GlobalProject.
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ItalyNaples?-presentLocal movementNo
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ItalyNiscemi, Sicily2011-presentLocal, national movementNo
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JapanSunagawa, Tachikawa AB1956-1977Local movement1977Base turned over to Japanese Self-defense Forces control
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JapanIwakuni1984-presentLocal movementNohttp://www.jca.apc.org/wsf_support/2004doc/WSFJapUSBaseRepoFinalAll.html#U.S_Marine_Corps
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JapanOgasawara Islands1950s-1969Local movement, national government1969Sovereignty over islands returned to Japan
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JapanOita, Hijudai Maneuver Field (Japanese military base used by US forces)2007-present?Local movementNoNon-violent protest, people's observation post, civilian patrols to police off-duty troops
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Japan/OkinawaTakae2006-presentLocal movementNoSit-in, civil disobedience
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Japan/OkinawaHenoko2004-presentLocal, Okinawa-wide movement, Okinawa and national politiciansTBDSit-in, civil disobsedience, lawsuit against Pentagon on behalf of Dugong by local, environmental activists, international solidarity groups in Guam, Hawaiʻi, Korea, USA
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Japan/OkinawaOkinawa islands1945-presentOkinawa-wide, national movement, national politiciansMixed
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Japan/OkinawaMCAS Futenma, Ginowan City, Okinawa1995-presentLocal, prefecture, national movementMixedBase land returned, some restrictions on operations but Futenma remains open
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Japan/OkinawaIe Island training area1953-presentLocal movementMixedBombing range closed, land returned to farmers, US still maintains a base Sit-in, civil disobedience, marches, petitions. Ahagon Shoko, the "Okinawan Gandhi", began the anti-bases movement in Okinawahttps://apjjf.org/-C.-Douglas-Lummis/3369/article.html
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KyrgyzstanManas Air Base2014National government2014
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LibyaWheelus AB1969-1970Revolutionary/coup government1970
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MauritiusDiego Garcia1968-presentExiled indigenous people seeking return, compensation; anti-base activists; Mauiritian government and other sovereignty activistsTBDMauritius disputes UK sovereigntyLawsuits, hunger strikes, civil disobedience
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Marshall IslandsBikini, Enewetok, Kwajelein, other atolls1946-presentIndigenous movement, national governmentMixedCampaign by nuclear testing displacees; non-violent re-occupation of military base by original inhabitants
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MoroccoSlidi Simane, Ben Guerir, Ben Slimane, Nouasseur, Atlas Mountains Air Warning System1963Newly independent national government/anti-colonial movement1963
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MoroccoPort Lyautey, Sidi Yaya, Sidi Bouknadel1977National government1977
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NetherlandsVolkel?-presentLocal and national anti-war and anti-militairsm movementsBlockades, tresspassing, advocacy, political pressure
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New ZealandWaihopai1987-presentLocal, national movementNo
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New ZealandOmega; Woodbourne (USAF); Mount John (USAF/NORAD); Black Birch (USN); Harewood/Operation Deep Freeze/Christchurch1987-presentLocal, national movementsNo
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Northern Mariana Islands, CommonwealthPagan Island, Tinian Island2013-presentMariana Islands-wide movementTBD
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Pakistan1969Pettyjohn, Stacie L., and Jennifer Kavanagh. 2016. “Access Granted: Political Challenges to the U.S. Overseas Military Presence, 1945–2014,” Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation, 52.
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PalauCompact of Free AssociationNational movementUS forced Palau to change its nuclear free constitution in order to comply with Compact of Free Association military access requirement. Leaders of the nuclear free movement were assassinated.
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PanamaMultiple locations in Panama Canal Zone20th centuryNational government1999
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PhilippinesClark AB, Subic Bay NB, other locations?-presentNational movement, national parliament1992/TBDOngoing movement monitoring US military presence since 1992 closures
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Puerto RicoCulebra1960s-1970Local, Puerto Rico-wide movement; Puerto Rican governor1970Blocked attempt to displace all locals
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Puerto RicoVieques1940s-presentLocal, Puerto Rico-wide, national movement, Puerto Rican and other US politicians2003Closed Navy bombing range; ongoing work to ensure environmental clean upSit-in, civil disobedience, international solidarity, mobilizing Puerto Rican disaspora
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Saudi ArabiaPrince Sultan AB, Taif AB, other locations1991-2003Militant organization2003al Qaeda
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Saudi ArabiaKhobar Towers1991-1996Militant organization1996al QaedaBombing
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South Korea (Republic of Korea)Multiple locationsNational movementMixed
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South Korea (Republic of Korea)Maehyang-riLate 1980s-2005Local movement2005
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South Korea (Republic of Korea)Pyeongtaek/Camp Humphreys2001-2007Locals facing eviction, national movementNoSit-in, civil disobedience
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South Korea (Republic of Korea)Gangjeong, Jeju2002-presentLocal, national movement, local mayorNoSouth Korean base officially. Integrated with US military operations. Movements in Gangjeong village from 2007 after two prior villages rejected plans for the base.Sit-in, civil disobedience
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South Korea (Republic of Korea)Soseong-ri, Seongju2016-presentlocal, national, internationalTBD? no?sitins have limited the amount of THAAD equipmentSit-in, civil disobedience
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South Vietnam1970-1974Government/military of North Vietnam, anti-South Vietnamese government military forces1974War
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SpainTorrejón, Madrid1980sLocal movement, national government1992/Mixed
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SpainRota1980sLocal movement, national governmentNo
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SpainZaragoza1980sLocal movement, national government1992
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ThailandMultiple (at least 4 air force bases)1975Government1975Response to US launching rescue mission from Thai bases without permission in operation to free hijacked Mayaguez. Pettyjohn and Kavanagh, 14, 121.
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Trinidad and TobagoWaller Field, Chaguaramas1963Newly independent national government/anti-colonial movement1963
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TurkeyBelbasi, Karamursel, Konya, Samsun, Sinop, Yesilkoy, Izmir NB, Kargaburun, Iskenderun, Diyarbakir1960s-1975, 2002-2003National movement, labor unions, politicians, militants1975The movemement to block the use of US bases during the buildup to the 2003 US-led war in Iraq largely succeeded in preventing their use, although Turkey assisted US forces in some waysHolmes, Amy: https://books.google.com/books?id=RNFkAwAAQBAJ&dq=holmes,+amy+turkey+germany&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
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United KingdomGreenham Common1981-2000National, international movement/Women's Peace Camp1987US base closed 1987; U.K…..Continuous sit-in/all-women's peace camp
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United KingdomMultiple
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UzbekistanKarshi-Khanabad air base2002-2005Government2005Government responded to US criticism of Uzbek human rights record Pettyjohn and Kavanagh, 53, 61, 115, A-1.
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