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1. YOUR COMMUNITYNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat did you learn about building a community? What are important things to think about when building a community?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEThis lesson introduces students to the phenomena of volcanic sediment and the hazards it presents to communities that live along rivers that flow from volcanoes. In this lesson, students take on the role of a city council member designing a new community. This community is located along a river that flows from a big mountain, students later learn that this mountain is a volcano. In groups or individually, students design their community. Students are asked to consider the following in their design: What types of things do people need and where do they get those things? Where do people live? Where do people spend their time outside of the home, for work and for play? How do people and things move from place to place? What services are there in your community? Are there any places where people have celebrations or practice traditions?

Students are asked to consider that their community is located on the river and to determine if they should include any special planning because of this location. Students are asked to design and build (in real life) at least one building for their community.

Students learn that their community is located by a volcano, and are asked to consider some of the risks of living near a volcano.

Throughout the entire storyline, students refer back to their community and are asked to modify their design based on what they learn.
Geography 2 - Understands human interaction with the environment.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEACommunities are formed from many interconnected pieces. When designing a community, it is important to think about how people, goods, resources will move into, out of, and through the community. There is no right or wrong way to design a community!
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Students are introduced to their KLEWS chart, which they will add to throughout the unit and use for independent research & their culminating project.
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2. I SAW ITNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessiosn)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat are some ways that mudflows from volcanoes can affect communities?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEThis lesson introduces students to the phenomena of volcanic sediment and the hazards it presents to communities that live along rivers that flow from volcanoes. In this lesson, students take on the role of a city council member. Students learn about an eruption that happened at a nearby volcano and the impact on a community that lived downstream that was flooded and suffered damage by the mudflows.

As trusted members of the community, students are asked to research what happened and to share back with their community whether what they observed in the other community could be a hazard in their own community. To accomplsh this, students are asked to produce an article for the community newsletter. To learn more about what happened, students review different types of media in the form of videos, photographs and stories. For each piece of media, students are asked to make observations, respond to guidig questions, and to take notes in their journal and KLEWS chart. To create the newsletter article, students are asked to write original text and to incorporate photographs. The purpose of their newsletter article is to better inform members of their community about what happened.

At the end of the lesson, students are asked to create a social media post to write about what they learned.
ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Patterns:
Patterns can be used as evidence to
support an explanation.
Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information:
Obtain and combine information from books and other reliable media to explain phenomena.
LITERACY.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

SSS2.4.2 Identify the main ideas from a variety of print and non-print texts.


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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAVolcanoes produce large amounts of sediment that can cause mudflows and flooding in rivers that flow from them. Sediment carried by rivers that flow from volcanoes can damage human communities that live along these rivers when it causes mudflows and flooding. Mudflows that occur in rivers can carry large boulders, mud, ash, and other debris. This can bury buildings and wash away brigdes and roads.
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3. EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTSNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessiosn)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat are some ways that mudflows from volcanoes can affect communities?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEStudents will read and listen to stories of people who experienced the impact of debris flows from the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens to learn about the mudflows caused by this eruption impacted communities that live along rivers that flow from the volcano.

Students will engage with a variety of first person soures for stories including oral histories, video interviews, historical news footage, and other primary source material. Students will take notes on what they learn from each story by filling out a story chart. Through this activity, students will form their own ideas and questions about the impact of volcanic sediment on communities.
ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Patterns:
Patterns can be used as evidence to
support an explanation.
Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information:
Obtain and combine information from books and other reliable media to explain phenomena.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.4.3
Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions).

SSS2.4.2 Identify the main ideas from a variety of print and non-print texts.


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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAVolcanoes produce large amounts of sediment that can cause mudflows and flooding in rivers that flow from them. Sediment carried by rivers that flow from volcanoes can damage human communities that live along these rivers when it causes mudflows and flooding. Mudflows that occur in rivers can carry large boulders, mud, ash, and other debris. This can bury buildings and wash away brigdes and roads. The May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens caused a mudflow that impacted the community of Toutle Washington. First person accounts provide information about what happened.
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4. FROM BIG MOUNTAINS TO SMALL ROCKSNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 minute sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhere does the rock material in mudflows come from?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEAfter writing a newsletter article about what happened to a nearby community affected by mudflows triggered by a volcanic eruption, students receive a question from a community member. Where does sediment from volcanoes come from?

To learn more, students contact a friend who works studyingn volcanoes at the Cascades Volcano Observatory. This scientist shares photographs and videos to help students answer their question as well as guides them on a virtual helicopter tour up to the volcano Mount St. Helens. For each piece of media, students are asked to respond to guidig questions. Students are asked to respond to the question they receive by creating a social media post.
ESS2.A Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity breaks rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.Systems and Systems Models:
A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.
Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information:
Obtain and combine information from books and other reliable media to explain phenomena.

LITERACY.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearlyG1: Understands the physical characteristics, cultural characteristics, and location of places, regions, and spatial patterns on the Earth’s surface.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEASediment carried by rivers that flow from volcanoes can damage human communities that live along these rivers when it causes mudflows and flooding. Sediment (broken up pieces of rocks and debris) is created on all mountains. Rocks are carried from the top of the mountain down by rivers, rain, wind and other forms of erosion. Volcanoes produce especially large amounts of sediment because explosive eruptions create lots of pieces of broken rock (sediment). Volcanoes can contain glaciers, snow and ice on their slopes which are forms of water that can carry sediment down river valleys.
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5. SEDIMENT MOVESNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions) plus time for the student-led investigation. Investigation can be conducted at home or in the classroom, based on availability of materials and time. Instructions for the investigation including supplies are listed in the student Storypack.LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat causes different types of mudflows to occur from volcanoes? What is the difference between a lahar and a debris flow?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEIn this lesson, students begin by receiving a question from a community member asking whether mudflows could occur even when the volcano is not erupting. As members of the city council, students are responsible to investigate this question to learn more about the hazard that mudflows present to their community.

Students then visit with a scientist at the U.S. Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory and learn more about how scientists study volcanoes. By viewing a variety of media content, including photographs, videos, and other interactive slides, students learn more about how sediment moves away from volcanoes. 

Students conduct their own investigation to explore what factors contribute to large or small mudflows from volcanoes. At the end of the activity, students write back a response to the question they initially received informed by what they learned.
ESS2.A Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity breaks rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.Patterns:
Similarities and differences in patterns can be used to sort, classify, communicate and analyze simple rates of change for natural phenomena and designed products.
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations:
Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon or to test a design solution.
LITERACY.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearlyG1: Understands the physical characteristics, cultural characteristics, and location of places, regions, and spatial patterns on the Earth’s surface.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAMudflows occur when large amounts of sediment are carried away from volcanoes by water. Mudflows occur when there is a larger amount of water than the average river flow. Mudflows can be triggered by many processes including heavy rainstorms, the melting of glaciers, or volcanic eruptions. Scientists and emergency managers classify mudflows in two categories: debris flows and lahars. Debris flows describe mudflows that are relatively small and are not as likely to affect communities of people that live nearby. Lahar is an Indonesian word that describes large mudflows from volcanoes that have the potential to damage communities of people that live nearby. Scientists study mudflows that form from volcanoes to better understand how they impact human communities.
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6. STOP THAT SEDIMENTNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 minute sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat engineering solutions exist to keep communities safe from flooding because of volcanic sediment and how could they work?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEIn this lesson, students role play as city council members living in a community that is along a river that flows from a volcano. Students have learned that sediment produced by volcanoes and volcanic eruptions can flow downstream and through their community. Flooding of volcanic sediment poses a risk to their community.

Students learn about an example of a structure built upstream of a community near Mount St. Helens that is engineered to slow the flow of sediment and protect against flooding. Students are asked to evaluate this model and apply what they learn to their own community.

Students are asked to deisng a structure for their own community to hold back the sediment. Students are given a budget and physical constraints of the location that determine how many supplies (wood, metal, etc.) they can use to build their structure. Students are asked to create a report about their structure describing their design and its cost. Students are asked to compare and contrast their designs with other students. At the end, students are asked to reflect on what they learned about engineering solutions that could keep communities safe from flooding.
ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Systems and Systems Models:
A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions:
Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.4.1
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly
4. OA Operations and Algebraic Thinking:
Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
Geography 2 - Understands human interaction with the environment.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEASediment produced by volcanoes and volcanic eruptions can flow downstream presents a hazard to communities living downstream along rivers that flow from volcanoes. Scientists and engineers recognize this is a problem in many places around the world where there are volcanoes and have designed a variety of engineering solutions to slow the flow of sediment and protect against flooding. It is not possible to create a perfect design (all designs have strengths and weaknesses) but depending on where the structure is located, the size of the river and scale of the sediment it is protecting from, structures can make a difference in mitigating the risk for downstream communities.
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7. SO MUCH SEDIMENTNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat affects how long sediment could be an issue for communities near volcanoes? How long could it be an issue for your community?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEAfter creating an engineering solution in the previous "Stop that Sediment" lesson, students learn that their design may only last for 50 years. Students receive a letter from a member of the city council asking how long sediment could be an issue for their community.

To help them answer this question, students decide to accompany two geologists who are going to measure the amount of sediment in the rivers that drain the volcano Mount St. Helens. With these geologists, students learn about how they quantify and measure rates of erosion, how quickly sediment is broken down and transported. Students are asked to calculate how many years sediment could be a problem for their community by calculating how much sediment from a recent eruption of Mount St. Helens remains in the rivers and how many years it may take for all of this sediment to move downstream. Students learn a bit more about Mount St. Helens and other volcanoes, and then respond to the city council member's question with their prediction of how many years sediment may be a problem for their community.
ESS2.A Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity breaks rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.Scale, Proportion, and Quantity:
Natural objects and/or observable phenomena exist from the very small to the immensely large or from very short to very long time periods.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data:
Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena, using logical reasoning, mathematics, and/or computation
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.4.NBT Numbers and Operations in Base 10G1: Understands the physical characteristics, cultural characteristics, and location of places, regions, and spatial patterns on the Earth’s surface.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAVolcanoes, and especially those that have explosive eruptions, create large amounts of sediment (rock, mud, ash and debris) that is eroded (broken down and moved) from the slopes and area around the volcano by rivers. Communities that live along rivers that flow from volcanoes can be at risk from volcanic sediment because this sediment can move downstream even when there is not a volcanic eruption. For volcanoes like Mount St. Helens, which had a recent eruption that sent large amounts of sediment downstream, there remains a considerable amount of sediment still left in the upper river valley. By measuring changes in the amount of sediment in the river each year, scientists can quantify how much sediment remains to be eroded and estimate the scale of the hazard.
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8. SEDIMENT MOVES ... THROUGH OUR COMMUNITYNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions) plus time for the student-led investigation. Investigation can be conducted at home or in the classroom, based on availability of materials and time. Instructions for the investigation including supplies are listed in the student Storypack.LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONHow are different areas around a river bend affected differently by rivers and moving sediment? What parts of your community are more at risk from erosion and from flooding?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEIn this lesson, students explore the question of how rivers carrying sediment affect different parts of a river around a river bend. Students learn how scientists create hazard maps that show areas that are more or less at risk from volcanic hazards such as lahars. Students make observations of photographs and video of river behavior to learn more about flooding and erosion in rivers.

Students design and run their own investiation to test how water and sediment behaves around river bends. In this investigation, students make observations to determine what parts along river bends are more likely eroded and what parts are more likely flooded.

Students apply what they learn to creating a hazard map for their community of the risk of flooding along the river that flows through their community. Students learn that sediment carried by by rivers will accumulate on the inside of river bends and erode the outside of river bends. Students are asked to reevaluate their community design based on what they learn.
ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Patterns:
Patterns of change can be used to
make predictions.
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations:
Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon or to test a design solution.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.1
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
Geography 2 - Understands human interaction with the environment.
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FOSS GUIDE
SPANISH
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEARivers that flow from volcanoes carry large amounts of sediment, broken rocks and debris. Rivers can cause erosion and flooding depending on the shape of river bends: Sediment carried by rivers will accumulate on the inside of river bends and erode the outside of river bends. A hazard map is a useful tool for determining the relative risk of different areas in a community. Scientists make volcanic hazard maps to communicate what areas near volcanoes are more or less at risk from lahars. The process of creating a hazard map helps identify which areas are more or less at risk from flooding and erosion from volcanic sediment.
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9. SEDIMENT MOVES ... TO OTHER COMMUNITIESNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat are some issues that communities can face when sediment flows from one river to another? What are some possible solutions?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEStudents receive a letter from a member of the community who wants to open up a business that relies on shipping goods in the river channel. Students are asked to think about how flooding from sediment in the river could reduce the depth of the river and make it difficult for ships to travel. As members of the city council, students are asked to consider this additional affect of too much sediment in the river.
In this lesson, students observe patterns from aerial photographs and learn about what happened to sediment that flooded rivers near the volcano Mount St. Helens. Together with other members of the city council, students create a report to evaluate the risk of flooding on the shipping channel and ability to move supplies along the river.
ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Patterns:
Patterns can be used as evidence to
support an explanation.
Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information:
Obtain and combine information from books and other reliable media to explain phenomena.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.1
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.


Geography 2 - Understands human interaction with the environment.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEARivers that flow from volcanoes carry large amounts of sediment, broken rocks and debris. During flooding evens, sediment can build up in the river channel and reduce the depth of the river, making it difficult for ships to travel up the river. For communities that rely on shipping to move supplies, it can be important to dredge, or remove sediment from the river channel quickly after a flooding event.
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10. LAHAR WARNING SYSTEMNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONExplain how the people in your community could stay safe during a lahar using a lahar warning system.
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEStudents learn about lahar warning systems that are used in other communities that live near volcanoes. Students evaluate varying perspectives about how to keep communities safe from lahars. Students design for their own communities a safety zone if an evacuation was to occur during a lahar. Students create an emergency plan to share with family and friends. Students design a lahar warning system based on their calculation of multiple factors, including distance from the volcano and distance of various parts of their community from the designated safety zone. Students conclude by sharing what they learned with the city council. ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Systems and Systems Models:
A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions:
Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.1
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.


4.NBT Numbers and Operations in Base 10Geography 2 - Understands human interaction with the environment.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEALahar warning systems are a way that communities that live near volcanoes can manage the risk of living in a volcano hazard zone. There are many types of lahar warning systems and recommendations for evacuation routes. The process of determining safe evacuation procedures, emergency preparedness plan and designing a lahar warning system is builds community awareness and preparedness in the act. A lahar warning system will be unique for each community.
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11. INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
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1 hourLESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat new information did you learn to help you answer some of your questions? How did you learn this information?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEStudents are asked to reflect on what they learned so far in the unit and what they still have questions about. Students can use their KLEWS chart to help them identify what questions thaty still have and what they are still curious about. Students (individually or in small groups) are asked to conduct independent research to help answer some of their questions and to learn more about the phenomena of volcanic sediment. At each step in the research process, students share with each other or in small groups about what they are trying to learn more about, how they are conducting their research and what they find.
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ADDITIONAL RESOURCESSPANISH
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAReviewing what has been learned so far is a tool to help students identify where they still have questions or need more research to deepen their understanding. Independent research is driven based on individual student questions.
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12. TOWN HALLNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTIONWhat did you learn about the stakeholders (people who have an interest or concern regarding certain issues) in your community?
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEThe town hall meeting is the cumulative activity for this unit, in which students are asked to bring together all that they have learned about the phenomena of volcanic sediment and to evaluate the impact on their community. Students begin by listing various ways that volcanic sediment can impact their community. Students also list various solutions they learned throughout the unit to mitigate the impacts of volcanic sediment. Students then role play as various stakeholders in a mock town-hall meeting. Stakeholders include emergency planners, emergency managers, fish conservationists, volcanologists, farmers and business owners. During the town hall, students share their opinions on how volcanic sediment will impact them and how their community can best prepare for this hazard from the perspective of various stakeholders. Students conclude by reflecting on the town hall meeting and adding to their list of impacts and solutions to the hazard of volcanic sediment in their community. ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.Systems and Systems Models:
A system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot
Engaging in Argument from Evidence:
Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem by citing relevant evidence and how it meets the criteria and constraints of the problem.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.4.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.Social Studies Learning Standards: Social Studies Skills 3. Deliberates public issues.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAThe role of the city council is to determine what is best for a community, whether engineering designs or creating emergency management plans. For decisions that can affect many people in the community, it is important to include a diversity of opinions. Stakeholders are members of the community who have a specific interest or concern regarding certain issues. A town hall meeting is one way to hear and discuss the views of various stakeholders and provides an opportunity to come to consensus on large decisions.
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13. SHARE WITH OTHERSNGSS Disciplinary Core IdeasNGSS Crosscutting ConceptsNGSS Science & Engineering PracticesCommon Core ELACommon Core Math Social Studies Learning Standards
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60 minutes (or two 30 min sessions)LESSON PLANSTUDENT STORYPACKQUESTION What advice can you offer to other communities that live in similar places near volcanoes?USE KLEWS & FINAL STUDENT PRODUCT TO ASSESS STANDARDS
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LEARNING EXPERIENCEStudents review what they learned about the hazard of volcanic sediment in this unit. Students are asked to create a communication piece (a video, newsletter article, social media post, etc.) to share with a community in a different part of the world that also deals with the hazard of volcanic sediment. This community is located in a similar place along a river that flows from a volcano. In the communications piece, students are asked to write about three topics: 1. sharing strategies to mitigate the impact of flooding from volcanic sediment along the river, 2. sharing strategies for the placement and design of their community to be better equipped to handle flooding, 3. sharing strategies for preparing evacuation plans and other emergency preparedness measures in their community. Students are asked to share their pieces with each other and to provide and incorporate feedback from their peers. ESS3.B A variety of hazards result from natural processes; humans cannot eliminate hazards but can reduce their impacts.
Systems and Systems Models:
A system is a group of related parts that make up a whole and can carry out functions its individual parts cannot
Obtaining, Evaluating and Communicating Information
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.4.10:
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
SSS4: Creates a product that uses social studies content to support a claim and presents the product in a manner that meaningfully communicates with a key audience.
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RUSSIANCONNECTING IDEAVolcanic sediment presents a long-term challenge for communities that live along rivers that flow from volcanoes. Communities that are located in similar places around the world share have to deal with the same hazard. By learning about the impacts of volcanic sediment in one place, we can better understand the situation of people living in other places. When planning ways to live safely with this hazard, we can offer and receive advice from other places that deal with a similar problem.
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