Aboriginal deaths in custody
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Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody final report released15/04/1991<strong>NOTE: This page contains the names of deceased persons only where they have been previously released by the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody; regional art has been used in place of images of the deceased.</strong><br><br>On August 10, 1987, Prime Minister Bob Hawke announced the formation of a Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCADIC) in response to growing public concern over the frequency of indigenous deaths in police custody and their poor explanation. The Commission was tasked with examining all deaths in custody in each state and territory of Australia between 1 January 1980 and 31 May 1989; in all, they considered <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/" target="_blank">99 cases</a> and made <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/national/vol5/5.html" target="_blank">339 recommendations</a>, few of which have been implemented. This TimeMap documents those deaths considered by the RCADIC. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/http://treatyrepublic.net/images/2012/jun/deaths-custody.jpg"Deaths in Custody" by Robert Campbell Junior. Campbell, a Ngaku man, was one of the first generation of urban Aboriginal artists; he died in his home town of Kempsey in 1993. Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Australia#N/A
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Robert Anderson28/02/1983Robert Anderson, aged approximately 27, was found dead in the Wiluna Police Station lockup around 7am on Februrary 28, 1983. Anderson was detained due to inebriation but had sobered up by the time of his death, and so should have been released. A coronial inquiry found his cause of death to be epilepsy and that he had not received his medication during his detention.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_ra/2.htmlhttp://www.clubhotelwiluna.com/uploads/6/5/2/7/6527233/2476428_orig.jpgArt by a local Wiluna artist, held in the Club Hotel Wiluna collection.No artist listed on the siteThompson St, Wiluna WA 6646, Australia#N/A
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Shane Kenneth Atkinson05/10/1986Shane Kenneth Atkinson, aged 23, hanged himself in Griffith police cells. He had a history of self-harming behaviour and during a period of detention a month earlier, the police officer on duty had been instructed to check on Shane every 20 minutes to ensure his safety. On October 5, 1986, he was placed in a cell at 4.20pm and spent the next 2.5 hours yelling and pounding on the door of the cell. He was not visited by police until 6.45pm, when he was found dead.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_ska/http://www.bangerang.org.au/images/aunty-irene-thomas-art.jpgArt by Aunty Irene Thomas, an indigenous artist from Shepparton, Atkinson's place of birthBangerang Cultural CentreGriffith NSW 2680, Australia#N/A
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Faith Barnes27/10/1982Faith Barnes, aged approximately 27, was found unconscious on the streets of Kalgoorlie on October 26, 1982 and, assumed drunk, was taken to the lockup without medical attention being sought. After a number of cell checks during which she remained semi-conscious or unconscious, dried blood was noticed on the side of her head around 4pm and she was taken to Kalgoorlie Hospital. When her condition failed to improve, she was transferred to the Royal Perth Hospital where she was found to have a severe head injury. She died during emergency surgery at 7.36am on October 27 after a cardiac arrest. The cause and timing of her fatal head injury is unknown; the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody found that she may have been injured when she was found on the street, or may have fallen or been assaulted while in custody.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_fb/2.htmlhttp://www.iba.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Image-Inspire-issue-nine-Jason-Dimer-painting.jpgLocal artist Jason Dimer painted the foyer dome in the Indigenous Business Australia building in Kalgoorlie.Jeanette Dimer for Indigenous Business AustraliaBrookman St, Kalgoorlie WA 6430, Australia#N/A
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Walter James Barney22/02/1981Walter Barney, aged 39, died in HM Townsville Prison (now Townsville Correctional Centre) as the result of haemorrhaging in the lungs secondary to chronic lung disease and liver cirrhosis. Walter was homeless and an alcholic; he was convicted 236 times for public drunkenness in Townsville and at the time of his death, was serving his 54th term of imprisonment for failing to pay related fines -- a total of 7 years behind bars between 1964 and 1981. The RCADIC found that while his death was unpredictable, his medical and other treatment during his time in custody was deplorable.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_wjb/2.htmlhttp://firstthingsgallery.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/9-Kangaroo-M8-746x600.jpg"Kangaroo" by Max Conlon. Conlon is an indigenous artist from the Kabi Kabi and Kuli tribes of Palm Island, Barney's place of originDwyer Street, Townsville QLD 4811#N/A
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Bobby Bates02/06/1986Bobby Bates died of pneumonia on June 2, 1986, in Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (Perth, WA). He entered the hospital system on May 9 while in custody at the Eastern Goldfields Prison in Boulder, WA; he was first admitted to Kalgoorlie Regional Hospital and was transferred to Sir Charles Gairdner on May 14 when his condition worsened. He was scheduled for release from prison on May 26, but on May 20 the remainder of his sentence was remitted on compassionate grounds, as Bates was then in intensive care and doctors considered his death imminent. It was rumoured locally that Bates was sung (affected by sorcery) as part of a traditional punishment. The RCADIC found that the local police were sensitive to the cultural needs of their constituency and that there was no evidence Bates requested traditional aid.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/bobby/2.htmlhttp://right-now-media.s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/118_lake-baker-480x229.jpg"Lake Baker" by Neville Mcarthur, 2007. Lagerberg-Swift Collection.Lagerberg-Swift Collection.Vivian Street, BOULDER WA 6432#N/A
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Edward Frederick Betts06/10/1987Edward Betts, aged 49, died of heart failure in the cells at the Port Lincoln Police Station an hour after being picked up at the Port Lincoln Hospital for public intoxication. It was his second visit to the hospital that day; in his first visit, around 4am, he complained of tremors and was treated for DTs, before leaving the hospital against medical advice around 10.30am. He returned to the hospital two hours later and, without a medical examination, a doctor concluded he was intoxicated and discharged him to police custody at 12.45, noting in his medical record that Betts' presentation was 'an insult'. Betts was placed in a cell at 1pm and found dead at 1.45pm. Autopsy revealed that at the time of his death, his blood alcohol level was low and considered unlikely to affect his behaviour.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_efb/2.htmlhttp://www.scotdesco.com/images/new5.jpgArt by Scotdesco Aboriginal Community artists-in-residence. Scotdesco is an artist community dedicated to the Wirangu people, Betts' tribe.Scotdesco Aboriginal Community1/5 Liverpool St, Port Lincoln SA 5606, Australia#N/A
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Muriel Gwenda Catheryn Binks11/03/1989Muriel Binks was arrested for public intoxication 50m from her home around 7pm on February 22, 1989, and transported to the Queensland Police Force's Innisfail watchhouse. The next morning, a fellow prisoner noticed that she looked sick but did not mention this to guards; at breakfast, guards noted that she seemed unwell but put this down to a hangover, conducting no further examination. Around 4pm, a guard noticed her lying down in her cell, semi-responsive, and determined that she required medical attention. A doctor arrived at the watchhouse at 4.40pm and described Binks as "nearly dead", immediately arranging her admission to Innisfail Hospital; due to the severity of her condition, she was transferred that night to Cairns Base Hospital and then, after further deterioriation, to Townsville General Hospital on February 27. She died in intensive care there on March 11 of multiple organ failure brought on by pneumonia-related sepsis. The RCADIC found that if she had received treatment at her initial arrest, she may well have survived.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_mgcb/4.htmlhttps://scontent.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xap1/v/t1.0-9/11659561_1609382105989475_1148994162887808371_n.jpg?oh=3a144f9a3296ad1554f9b1a1f1f66460&oe=56293BEFFabric being printed with traditional motifs at the Yarrabah Arts & Cultural Precinct. Binks was born in Yarrabah, at the mission where her parents were placed after their removal from their families.Yarrabah Arts & Cultural Precinct2 Mcgowan Dr, Innisfail, 4860#N/A
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Nita Blankett14/01/1982Nita Blankett died while she was being transported from Bandyup Women's Prison to St Andrew's Medical Centre Midland (Perth, WA). Nita was a chronic asthmatic whose disease was poorly controlled and after multiple periods of imprisonment, Bandyup staff were aware of her condition and need for treatment. Around 7pm on January 14, Nita complained that she felt unwell, believed she had been given the wrong medication, and anticipated that she would have an asthma attack requiring hospitalisation that night as a result; she requested examination by a doctor. She was examined by a nurse 40 minutes later, who rejected the request to see a doctor. When supper was served at 8.30pm, Nita did not leave her cell; she received medication at 9pm, at which point a guard considered her condition to have deteriorated markedly. At around 9.40pm, a guard determined that Blankett was so ill as to require the attention of a doctor and she was removed from the prison around 10.15pm. The trip to the medical office was delayed when the officers driving got lost. Blankett lost consciousness en route and her treatment upon arrival at the medical centre was delayed by poor visibility within the prison van and mechanical resusciation was not attempted due to the distance of the parking lot from the surgery. Medical evidence presented to the RCADIC concurred that earlier treatment and attempted resuscitation could have saved Nita's life.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_nb/2.htmlhttps://vimeo.com/94279353"Evil Spirit Charnook Woman", by Narrogin Primary School students and Steven Aiton. This animation shows the story of Charnook Woman, a Noongar Dreamtime tale. Blankett was born in Narrogin.Community Arts Network Western AustraliaBandyup Women's Prison, WA, Australia#N/A
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Patrick Thomas Booth15/11/1988Patrick Booth was 17 years old when he hanged himself in a cell at Rockhampton Prison (now closed and replaced by the Capricornia Correctional Centre) on November 15, 1988. He had been arrested for the unlawful use of motor vehicles six weeks earlier and sentenced to three months' imprisonment. On the day of his death, he was involved in some confrontations with prison staff and charged with two additional offences of using obscene language, which resulted in a loss of privileges. His body was first observed through a window by another 17 year old prisoner, who alerted prison guards. CPR was commenced at 8.50am; an ambulance arrived at 9.15am and Patrick was declared dead at 9.25am. Patrick had previously exhibited suicidal ideation and behaviour, beginning with hospitalisation for a self-inflicted cut to his wrist in August 1986 while he was in the care of the state; his records in other criminal and institutional settings reflected ongoing depression and suicidal ideation. The RCADIC concluded that Patrick should not have been left unmonitored in his cell on the day of his death, given his depressed mood following the confrontations.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_ptb/2.htmlhttp://www.humancreative.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/IMG_1236.jpgA child practices traditional hand-painting as part of a mural project at Woorabinda; the mural was designed and executed by traditional landowners, local artists and kids as part of an outreach program. Woorabinda is a remote community and the site of the mission where Patrick's parents were placed when their families were forcibly removed from their land. Human CreativeEtna Creek QLD 4702, Australia-23.23053, 150.47198
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Lloyd James Boney06/08/1987Lloyd Boney was arrested on August 6 in Brewarrina, NSW, and placed in the back of a police van by three officers. Nobody other than these officers ever saw him alive again. They locked him alone in the station at 3.55pm after completing their paperwork; at around 5.30pm, the lockup keeper arrived at the cells to bring Lloyd an evening meal and found him hanging by a football sock from a metal grille above the cell door. An ambulance officer was unable to resuscitate Lloyd and as neither of the town's two doctors were in the area, the regional commanding officer instructed local staff to take Lloyd's body to Bourke, an hour's drive away. Lloyd's family was not notified until after the car had left for Bourke. The local indigenous community believed that police had killed Lloyd based on various physical evidence, a long history of antipathy between Lloyd and the police, the conduct of the investigation into his death and police behaviour following the events. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_ljb/1.htmlhttp://www.futurs.org/_blog/media/blogs/futursblog/NoonghaburraKnowledge_full-painting-small.jpg"Noonghaburra Path to Knowledge" by Tex Skuthorpe. Skuthorpe is a Noonghaburra artist from Goodooga, where Lloyd spent his childhood.Bathurst St, Brewarrina NSW 2839, Australia#N/A
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Stanley Brown27/06/1987Stanley Brown hanged himself using a mattress cover in the cells at Broome police station. He had been arrested for drunkenness around 3.30pm -- six hours after his release from the cells following a three-day stay for another drunkenness charge. He died in his cell three hours later. Brown was considered a chronic alcoholic and had many arrests for drunkenness and domestic violence, but was well-respected locally for his expertise in tribal law. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_sb/2.htmlhttp://www.gdc.wa.gov.au/uploads/image/community_profile/burringurrah/Burringurrah_4794.jpgLocal art from Burringurrah, Stanley's community of origin. Stanley was a full Gngarla man from the Pardoo and DeGrey River region, and his family were Berringurrah tribal peopleGascoyne Development CommissionHamersley & Fredick Street, Broome WA 6725, Australia-17.9563956, 122.24117269999999
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Burralungi13/10/1987NB. This man's name has been withheld from publication at the request of the family and in line with traditional practices regarding naming the dead. He is referred to here by his skin name, as approved by his family.

Burralungi was in Darwin Prison (now Darwin Correctional Centre) for the breach of a bond at the time of his death from a heart attack. He had been in custody for one week when, at 8.28pm on October 12, he reported to a prison official that he was in pain and was transported, handcuffed, to Royal Darwin Hospital in a police vehicle. He was examined by a registrar at 10.45pm who admitted him for further testing and prescribed morphine for Burralungi's ongoing pain. At 6am the next morning, his ECG revealed signs of cardiac infarction; as his condition continued to deteriorate, he was transferred from Coronary Care to Intensive Care. Burralungi suffered his first cardiac arrest at 4pm and following subsequent arrhythmias and arrests, died at 5.45pm. An inquest concluded that Burralungi had received adequate care while at the hospital.
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/buralang/2.htmlhttp://www.aboriginalarts.co.uk/other_art/eddie_blitner_2/goanna_meeting.jpg"Goanna Meeting" by Eddie Blitner. Blitner is from Naiyalrindji in the Ngukurr region, where Burralungi grew up.AboriginalArts.co.ukVerrinder Rd, Berrimah NT 0828, Australia-12.4469389, 130.94470320000005
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Malcolm Buzzacott19/07/1982Malcolm Buzzacott suffered a sudden heart attack while out of Port Augusta Gaol on a work detail. Malcolm and another prisoner left the institution in the company of a guard in the morning and travelled to stables adjacent to the Port Augusta race course to collect manure for the gaol garden. After filling the truck for the first time -- heavy labour involving shovelling manure and tossing it over a fence into the truck bed -- the group departed for the gaol. Five minutes into the 20-minute journey, Malcolm began flailing his limbs and frothing at the mouth. His fellow prisoner believed Malcolm was having an epileptic seizure and suggested that he be taken to the hospital; the prison officer demurred, stating that they had instead better hurry back to the prison so that paperwork could be signed so that Malcolm could then be transferred to the hospital. Malcolm then fell unconscious. When the group arrived at the prison, an ambulance was summoned but Malcolm could not be resuscitated.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_mb/2.htmlhttps://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/63/ba/38/63ba38ebb8540a4f6e677de9e3b106ef.jpg"Dreamtime Sisters" by Colleen Wallace Nungari. The painting depicts the Irrernte-arenye, ancestral spirit figures of the Arrernte people, of whom Malcolm was an initiated man. Central Art Aboriginal Art GalleryPort Augusta, Australia-32.4924399, 137.76281760000006
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Edward Cameron08/07/1988Edward Cameron was found hanged in his cell in the Geraldton police station at 6.25am on July 8, with his time of death estimated to be around 3.30am. He had been picked up drunk around 2.30am on sexual assault charges following from an encounter on June 18, 1988, and was taken to the local police station. After he was placed alone in a cell at 3am, he was not checked until his body was discovered the next morning -- despite Station Orders which required prisoners be visited at least hourly. The Officer-in-Charge of the shift was ill and left the station at least twice between 4am and the discovery of Edward's body, never informing staff or delegating his duties. After Cameron's body was discovered, no attempt was made to resuscitate him -- the body was not approached, cut down or assessed for signs of life. Police officers involved refused to cooperate with an internal police investigation.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/edward/2.htmlhttp://d10di9f9rxgr90.cloudfront.net/Images/Projects/Gascoyne/Carnarvon-Library-and-Art-Gallery/1038_3971_798x532_Carnarvon-Library-and-Art-Gallery-2.jpgLocal art on display in Carnavon, WA, Edward's birthplace. This is part of the Fireballs on Display exhibit at the Carnarvon Library and Gallery.
BiggerPicture WA21 Marine Terrace, Geraldton WA 6530, Australia#N/A
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Peter Leonard Campbell12/02/1980Peter Campbell was found dead in his cell in Long Bay Gaol (Sydney, NSW) at the age of 33. His throat had been slit and he had exsanguinated; blood patterns suggested that his throat had been slit while he stood at his cell basin and that he had then fallen or lain down on the adjacent bed. There was no sign of any struggle or that any other person had been in the room, leading forensic pathologists to conclude that Peter's death was the result of suicide; however, a general practitioner who advised the family suggested that the documented absence of 'hesitation marks' (preliminary cuts) would lead to an assessment of foul play. The RCADIC found that the initial pathologist did locate such cuts, documenting them in an archival copy of his records but omitting them from his original report; the Commission found the archival document compelling and concluded that Peter's death was at his own hands.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_plc/5.htmlhttps://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/67/2d/3a/672d3ab2fcd9932e3868b8a693ba1bc0.jpgA piece by Ngarrindjeri artist Roger "Bushfire" Saunders, exhibited as part of his joint exhibition with Chern'ee Sutton, "Elder and Young", in 2012. Peter Campbell is descended from the leaders of the Ngarrindjeri.Roger SaundersLong Bay Gaol, Australia#N/A
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Thomas Carr23/03/1981Thomas Carr was 17 years old when he died in Minda Remand Centre (Sydney, NSW; the facility closed in 2003 and is now Juniperina, a detention facility for young women) from heart failure, an outcome the RCADIC notes is uncommon in teenagers. Thomas had been diagnosed with an innocent heart murmur at the age of 10, a condition that did not, for example, preclude him playing sport -- as he did from that time up until his death, including during his time in Minda. On March 22, the night before he was to fly to Dubbo for a court date, Thomas became anxious about his possible relocation to an adult prison as his eighteenth birthday approached. At 3.55am on the 23rd, one of Thomas' dorm-mates found him lying on the floor and after failing to wake him, covered him with a blanket to sleep out the night. Half an hour later, the dorm officer came to wake Thomas for his flight and found him unresponsive. Two of Thomas' friends attempted CPR as the remand workers were not well versed in resuscitation procedures. Thomas was transported by ambulance to Auburn Hospital where he was pronounced dead at 5.35am.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_tc/2.htmlhttp://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200802/r226998_901480.jpgArtwork by Dubbo Cultural Centre artist in residence Lewis Burns, 2008. Thomas was born and lived in Dubbo when not in detention.Justin Huntsdale for ABC Western Plains169 Joseph St, Lidcombe NSW 2141, Australia#N/A
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Donald Chatunalgi15/12/1988Donald Chatulnagi died in the Halls Creek Police Station lockup at the age of 27 following a severe seizure. He was known to suffer from epilepsy and had been imprisoned for non-payment of two traffic fines. He suffered a seizure eight hours into his detention after the prisoners had been locked in the detached lockup for the night. As there was no communication system connecting the lockup to the police station, other prisoners attracted the attention of a passing civilian around 7.35pm; she in turn alerted the Aboriginal police aide on duty. He called an ambulance and then went to the cell where he found no signs of life in Donald and did not attempt resuscitation -- nor did the senior police officer who then attended the scene, nor did the nurse who attended at 7.55pm. Donald was pronounced dead at 8pm.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_dc/2.htmlhttp://www.aboriginal-art-australia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/68478032.JPG"Alice Downs Way" by Jack Britten. Donald was born at Alice Downs Station in the East Kimberley region of WA.Aboriginal Art AustraliaLOT 68 Great Northern Highway, Halls Creek WA 6770, Australia-18.2352744, 127.65686060000007
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Glenn Allan Clark27/03/1986Glenn Allan Clark was observed tearing a pillow case into strips and tying the strips to the bars at 12.50am in his cell in Glenorchy Police Station. The police officers who witnessed this removed the bedding, thinking Glenn might be contemplating suicide and advised him that he would be transferred to Hobart for a court appearance the next morning. They then left the station to attend a call up the road, leaving Glenn unobserved. When they returned, they prepared paperwork for Glenn's transfer, noting his removal at 1.30 and placing his file and property in the car in readiness; they then went to collect Glenn and found him hanged by his jumper from the bars on the cell door. They called an ambulance and attempted CPR; Glenn was transported to Royal Hobart Hospital where resuscitation attempts continued, but he was pronounced dead at 2.23am.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_gac/3.htmlhttp://www.abc.net.au/tv/messagestick/img/stringer_0_m1900816.jpgShell strings from Cape Barren Island, Glenn's place of birth. Cape Barren Island represented the only surviving indigenous community in Tasmania after the last survivor of the Black War, Truganini, died in 1876, marking the "official" extinction of Tasmanian Aboriginals; Tasmania refused to acknowldge the identity of the Island community or the possibility of any local indigenous population.Message Stick, ABC Indigenous
315-319 Main Road, Glenorchy TAS 7010, Australia#N/A
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Harrison Day23/06/1982Harrison Day was a mild-mannered alcoholic with a long history of arrests for drunk and disorderly conduct in Echuca; he was repeatedly arrested for public drunkenness, although never belligerence or property damage, and imprisoned for 12-hour spells for non-payment of the associated fines. On the day of his death, he was arrested, sober, at 11.30am for non-payment of two earlier fines and scheduled for release at 6pm. He was placed alone in the cells, about 7m from the building in which police officers worked, with no way of attracting attention beyond yelling. He did not receive visits from officers or meals until 5.15pm, when he was found in the middle of an epileptic seizure after an officer heard gurgling sounds coming from the cells. He was transported by ambulance to Echuca District Hospital, where medication given to stop the seizure depressed his breathing and he could not be resuscitated. Doctors at the hospital believed he had been fitting for a considerable time and noted that the longer the seizure continued without intervention, the less Harrison's chance of recovery. Harrison had a long history of seizures, known to the police, and these were often brought on by low blood sugar; the RCADIC notes that if Harrison had been provided meals, observation and medication, his death could have been averted.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/harrison/3.htmlhttp://www.pepaeducation.com/media/images/SpiritualJourney.jpg"The Beginning of Our Journey" by Kahli Luttrell. Lutrell is a descendant of the Yorta Yorta people, like Harrison.Program of Experience in the Palliative Approach
7-11 Dickson Street, Echuca VIC 3564, Australia-36.11891, 144.74458500000003
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Kingsley Richard Dixon09/07/1987Kingsley Dixon was 19 years old and one month into a 3.5 year prison sentence for arson when he was found hanged in his cell, dangling from a noose made of bedding with another noose-like arrangement, similarly fashioned, in the cell. On the day of his death, a prison officer observed that Kingsley looked high and upon searching him, found that he was holding a small amount of weed. Kingsley was then placed in an observation cell for a strip search while his cell was searched, a process that left the cell in disarray and the safety covering over the window bars removed -- both of these practices were a violation of prison policy. He was returned to his cell around 3pm and found hanged some time later. His body was still warm when he was discovered, but resuscitation attempts -- both in the cell and in the ambulance en route to the Royal Adelaide Hospital -- were unsuccessful.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/kingsley/27.htmlhttp://news.aboriginalartdirectory.com/photos/aboriginal_art_comes_home_image1.jpg"Tingari Dreaming", artist unknown. The Tingari cycle is one of a network of Dreaming storylines from the Western Desert region, which includes parts of South Australia.Aboriginal Art Network18 Gaol Rd, Thebarton SA 5031, Australia#N/A
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Wayne John Dooler19/06/1980Wayne Dooler was 19 years old when he died of acute alcohol poisoning in his cell at the Carnarvon police station lockup. He had been out drinking with friends through the night before and passed out under the railway bridge around 10am. His friends were unable to rouse him and left him to sleep it off in the cool, windy weather; he was found in the same condition around noon by two police officers. They were likewise unable to wake him, so arrested him on a charge of 'being found drunk' and transported him to the lockup around 12.15. They placed him in the recovery position on the cell bed, but left him in his wet clothes and did not cover him with a blanket -- although both went home to change into dry clothes themselves. At 12.30, another officer observed Wayne to still be unconscious, but breathing; thirty minutes later, other prisoners in the lockup observed that Wayne had stopped breathing. A police aide found no pulse and observed no breathing; he did not attempt resuscitation, and nor did senior officers who then attended the cell. An ambulance was summoned 15 minutes later and arrived at 1.30pm, at which time paramedics could find no signs of life and did not attempt resuscitation. Wayne was pronounced dead at 1.50pm and his post-mortem found his blood alcohol content to be 0.614%.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_wjd/3.htmlhttp://d10di9f9rxgr90.cloudfront.net/Images/Projects/Gascoyne/Carnarvon-Library-and-Art-Gallery/1034_2236_798x532_Carnarvon-Library-and-Art-Gallery-1.jpgLocal art on display in Carnavon, WA, where Wayne lived out his life. This is part of the Fireballs on Display exhibit at the Carnarvon Library and Gallery.Anton Blume - Simply DesignedRobinson Street, Carnarvon WA 6701, Australia#N/A
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Albert Dougal09/12/1980Albert Dougal was found unconscious outside the Roebuck Bay Hotel around 8.45pm on December 4, 1980, and police officers transported him to the Broome police station lockup because they perceived him to be drunk. He did not regain consciousness and police registered no change in his condition until the next morning, when he suffered a seizure. He was examined by a nurse who found that he was not responding to verbal or painful stimuli, and arranged his transfer to Broome District Hospital. An x-ray eventually revealed that he had a fractured skull -- the result of hitting his head on the road after being punched in the face -- and Albert underwent emergency brain surgery, before being transferred to Derby Regional Hospital and placed on a ventilator in the hopes that his brain would decompress. He remained unconscious until the ventilator was turned off and he died on the morning of December 9. Doctors testifying before the RCADIC disagreed on the inevitabilty of Albert's death following his assault, although they agreed that earlier medical attention could have improved his chances.
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_ad/3.htmlhttp://shortstgallery.com.au/sites/shortstgallery.com.au/files/imagecache/detail_pic/artwork_image/3430.jpg"Naru" by Spider Kalbybidi, 2005. The artist statement reads: "This is Spider's landscape, the counutry where he belongs. Naru is the
place where Wati Kutjarra men stopped in the dreamtime, and it is the site where Spider was initiated into manhood. Spider says, "This is
where they make me man, Spider. We been walking around but that boys country now." The landscape has an abundance of mayi (bush tucker) amongst the tali (sand dunes)." Kalbybidi was born at Unjada on the Canning Stock Route, in the Bidyadanga region, not far from Broome where Albert was born and died.
Short St Gallery, BroomeHamersley & Fredick Street, Broome WA 6725, Australia-17.9563956, 122.24117269999999
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Gregory Michael Dunrobin02/08/1984Gregory Dunrobin suffered from alcoholism and was frequently treated at the Cherbourg Hospital for the effects of his disease. A few days before his death, he was admitted and treated for hallucinations, but discharged himself before treatment was complete on the morning of August 2. Around 6pm that night, he returned to the hospital and was turned away as he was not considered clinically ill; when he persisted in requesting treatment, he was threatened with the police and left -- but the police had already been contacted. They picked him up half an hour later while he was still on his way home, arresting him for drunkenness. Gregory was placed alone, with a blood alcohol content of 0.22%, in the lockup while the police officer went home for dinner. Gregory appeared to be sleeping when he was visited at 8pm, but was found hanged from the wire mesh enclosing the watchhouse exercise yard. He was 30 years old.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_gmd/2.htmlhttp://rationshed.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/mother-child3-600x600.jpg"Mother and Child" by Jennifer Hart. Hart is a Wakka Wakka artist who lives in Cherbourg, which was the first colonial government Aboriginal settlement established in Queensland and is now the third largest Aboriginal community in the state. The Cherbourg reserve was an oppressive community populated with Aboriginal people forcibly removed from their lands and communities for trabsgressions including "being old"; by 1934, members of 28 different linguistic groups were crammed together on the reserve.Ration Shed Museum
Fisher St, Cherbourg QLD 4605, Australia-26.2898408, 151.9564249
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Joyce Thelma Egan05/08/1988Joyce Egan was 58 years old when she died of a drug overdose at Mount Gambier on August 5. That morning, she had taken a large quantity of prescription drugs and liquor, and phoned the Mount Gambier Police Station to request that officers come to her home and arrest her. When police attended the residence, they declined to arrest her despite ongoing goading, until she followed them into the street and continued to hurl abuse in the presence of a woman and child; the officers then decided to arrest her for using indecent language. Joyce's behaviour immediately calmed and she entered the police car voluntarily. She was locked in the cells at 2.20pm; about 50 minutes later, she was found to be deeply unconscious and was transported to Mount Gambier Hospital by ambulance. Attempts at resuscitation were unsuccessful and she was declared dead at 4.41pm.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/joyce/2.htmlhttp://aboriginalsa.com.au/carpet.shark.H400.jpg"Wobbegong (Carpet Shark)" by Joseph "Jo-Jo" Cattermole. Cattermole is an Adjahdura artist from the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, where Joyce was born.Adjahdura Aboriginal Coastal Arts42 Bay Rd, Mount Gambier SA 5290, Australia#N/A
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Paul Farmer11/04/1984Paul Farmer, who went by "Farmer", was found dead with his throat slit in an observation cell at Albany Regional Prison. Prison officers had noticed that morning that he had become depressed and over the course of the day, he'd barricaded himself in his cell and become destructive, breaking out the glass in the window. He was removed from his cell as officers believed he intended to harm himself and a strip search revealed that he had hidden a large improvised blade in his pants; after his body was found, prison officials found that he had boot laces wound around his torso (possibly hidden in a fold of fat during the earlier search), and he had managed to keep the razor blade with which he took his life. Farmer had been in and out prison since he was 15, spending 13 of his last 18 years incarcerated. A lawyer for Farmer's family noted the cultural insensitivity of Farmer's medical treatment during his incarceration; Farmer had a long history of visions which "In Nyungar culture [demonstrated] he was in spirital danger. The European view was that Farmer had an alcohol problem and was schiziphrenic. He was best treated by medication with anti-depressive drugs ... [This] did not address in any way the state of spiritual anxiety which may have been the real basis of Farmer's unpredicable behaviour.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_pf/2.htmlhttp://www.thebrighamgalleries.com/Artists/Aboriginal/Images/Troy-SongLines3-large.jpg"Noongar Song Lines, Part I" by Troy Bennell. This is part of a series of paintings depicting Noongar song lines. From the artist's statement: "The lines in these paintings are the songs being sung. The songs were used for a number of reasons: to confer good luck upon Noongar hunters, for special meetings and to mark significant places. Song Lines would have been a powerful way of communicating, and the use of the reds and the yellows reflect that strength. The dots in the paintings represent the Noongar people who come from the South West of Western Australia." Noongar is an alternate spelling for Nyungar, Farmer's people.The Brigham GalleryAlbany Regional Prison, Princess Ave, Torndirrup WA 6330, Australia-35.046511, 117.820365
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Darryl Horace Garlett26/05/1980Darryl Garlett was 26 years old when he died of a heart attack in Wooloroo District Hospital, an institution which is part of the Wooloroo Prison Farm and which also provides services to the surrounding population. Darryl he was serving a six-month sentence for drunk driving and driving without a license. He was first incarcerated in Fremantle Prison on March 19, 1980, and transferred to Wooloroo on April 10. Darryl underwent a basic medical examination when he was admitted to the prison system; this was undertaken by a hospital officer and is meant to be checked and signed off by a doctor, although that did not happen in this case. The exam revealed elevations in Darryl's blood glucose level and blood pressure (neither of which were further evaluated), but did not detect the coronary artery disease which killed him. At around 2am on the night of his death, Darryl complained of chest pain during a routine bed check and was walked over to the hospital -- around 200m -- when the supervising officer completed his rounds. The nurse on duty suspected heartburn but around 3am admitted Darryl for observation. She checked on him at 3.15, 3.30 and 3.45, at which time he appeared to be having an epileptic seizure. She tried to get his attention by calling his name, but could not -- she then called the hospital matron, who advised her to call the doctor, who lived in a nearby town. Before making that call, the nurse returned to check on Darryl and found him still, with no heartbeat or respiration. She did not attempt resuscitation; she testified before the RCADIC that she could not remember whether CPR had been part of her initial training or recertification procedures.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/darrylho/2.htmlhttp://www.kinshipconnectionswa.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/DSCF9447.jpg"Bark Panting" by Vivienne Narkle. Narkle is a Noongar woman from the Ballardong language group; the Ballardong lands include Tammin, the small country town where Darryl was born.Kinship Connections WAWooroloo Prison Farm, Great Eastern Highway, Wooroloo WA 6558 Australia-31.815377, 116.337360
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Michael Leslie James Gollan19/06/1988Michael Gollan was 17 years old when he died by hanging while in custody at the South Australian Youth Training Centre where he was serving two concurrent six-month sentences for breaking and entering. On the afternoon of his death, Michael got into a fight without another resident during an indoor soccer game and was shut in his bedroom/cell to 'cool off'. Approximately 25 minutes later, a residential care worker and another resident went to Michael's cell and found him hanging by a sheet from a ventilator grill. Staff members attempted resuscitation and called an ambulance promptly, but Michael was pronounced dead at 6.28pm at Royal Adelaide Hospital. The RCADIC inquiry found that staff members acted in violation of unit policy by leaving Michael unsupervised for so long; standard procedure was to check on any child shut in their room every 10-15 minutes. The inquiry also suggested that Michael likely did not intend to take his own life; he trashed his room and made a lot of noise while ripping and tearing up his sheets, noise that was head by at least three residents outside the room. As an experienced resident of the SAYTC, he would probably have expected to be checked on earlier as a matter of routine, even if he had not made the loud noises that seemed designed to attract attention.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_mljg/3.htmlhttp://www.deadlyvibe.com.au/wp-content/uploads/legacy/cedric.jpgArt by Cedric Varcoe. Varcoe is a Narangga Ngarrinjeri man with strong family connections to Raukkan, the Aboriginal mission where Michael's grandparents grew up.Deady Vibe / Tali GalleryGlen Stuart Road, Magill, South Australia-34.906605, 138.684635
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Stanley John Gollan07/03/1986Stanley Gollan died from a head injury on March 7, 1986 at Mount Gambier Hospital. He'd collapsed two days earlier at Mount Gambier Police Station, where he had been detained on a charge of unlawfully entering premises. The head injury preceded his detention, although the date and nature of the injury is not clear. Stanley attended the casualty department of the Mount Gambier Hospital in the early hours of March 2 because he had left his epilepsy medications interstate; he was given a day's worth and told to return the next day for a prescription, although he did not come back. Later that night, he was found walking along the highway with a wound on his forehead; police arranged for him to be transported to Millicent Hospital for stitches and observation. He also obtained and filled a prescription for his epilepsy medication. On March 5, Stanley broke into a bedroom at the Sportsmans Hotel in Millicent, apparently suffering delusions, and was taken to hospital by police. Once at the hospital, Stanley resisted treatment and the attending physician told the police he could not treat Stanley against his will and that his behaviour was the result of severe intoxication (evidence given to the RCADIC suggests that Stanley was in fact suffering the DTs). Stanley was then arrested and transported to Mount Gambier Police Station, where he was placed in the cells at 6am on March 5. He was observed five times in the next 2.5 hours. When he was taken to be photographed at 7.10am, he was having trouble walking; when he was taken for fingerprinting 30 minutes later, he collapsed and fell unconscious. Stanley was taken by ambulance to Mount Gambier Hospital and underwent an emergency craniotomy, but died on March 7 having never regained consciousness.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/stanley/2.htmlhttp://img.aasd.com.au/47424444.jpg"Watching White People Going Up and Down the River in a Houseboat" (2008) by Ian Abdulla. Abdulla is a Ngarrindjeri man, considered one of Australia's foremost naive artists. The Ngarrindjeri people originally populated the Lower Murray lakes and were removed to the Point McLeay mission now called Raukkan, where Stanley's family lived.Australian Art Sales Digest276-300 Wehl Street North, Mount Gambier, SA 5290-37.805780, 140.786454
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Dixon Green19/11/1985Dixon Green died suddenly of heart failure at the age of 25 while imprisoned in Broome Regional Prison. A post-mortem revealed extensive coronary artery disease, so severe that he 'could have dropped dead at any time without any precipitating factor'. Dixon complained to a fellow prisoner the day before his death that he felt unwell, had pain in the left side of his chest, and intended to seek medical treatment when the nurse visited the prison on Wednesday. The next day, Tuesday, Dixon played basketball but again complained of chest pain around 8pm. At 9.15pm, a fellow prisoner found Dixon slumped on the seat of a toilet with the cubicle door closed; he couldn't get Dixon to respond, so brought in another prisoner who entered the cubicle to look at Dixon before summoning assistance. Two prison officers responded and found no signs of life; one called the Broome District Hospital for an ambulance. At 9.33, a doctor attended the prison as a result of that call and pronounced Dixon dead at 9.35pm. Resuscitation was never attempted.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/dixngree/2.htmlhttp://www.aboriginal-art.com/IMAGES/directors_images/Rover-67.jpg"Bullock Hide Story" (1995) by Rover Thomas. Rover Thomas was one of Australia's foremost indigenous artists and a founder of Jirrawun Arts, an indigenous-owned art centre in Wyndham, WA. Dixon was born and spent part of his childhood in Wyndham.Aboriginal Art Australia51 Carnarvon St, Broome WA 6725, Australia-17.961457, 122.241479
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David John Gundy27/04/1989David Gundy was shot by police during an unlawful police raid on his home. Police had obtained warrants for surprised armed raids on six premises, including David's home, as part of the search for a gunman who had shot two police officers three days prior. The warrants were legally dubious, as police had no reason to believe that Porter or his effects were in the premises for which warrants had been obtained, and authorised the use of force only when 'a demand for admittance was made and not compied with'. On the morning of the raid, police entered Gundy's house at 5.53am -- seven minutes before the warrant came into effect -- and did not make any demand for admittance, instead bursting in and holding the occupants at gunpoint, pointing cocked shotguns at residents who had made no signs of resistance. Less than two minutes after the team left their form-up point, an ambulance was called for David Gundy. The following material is taken from the RCADIC report:<br>"In the intervening 110 seconds many things had happened. The team had driven their vehicle 200 metres to the premises, dismounted, formed up outside the door, smashed the door open with a sledge-hammer, entered the premises with a team of eight persons, and taken into custody Richard McDonald who was sleeping in the lounge room immediately inside the door, and a man and boy who were sleeping in the first bedroom. Sergeant Dawson had kicked open the door of the second bedroom, confronted an unarmed man in underpants who approached him and, he believed, was trying to take his shotgun off him. He had told the man to desist, and had struggled to retain his weapon which had gone off, seriously injuring the man. First-aid attention to the man had commenced, and a member of the team had assessed the situation and gone from the room through the house to the vehicle and there called up the Command Post to ask for an ambulance. All within 110 seconds."<br>There is no criminal association between anyone living at Gundy's address and the gunman being sought.http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/rciadic/individual/brm_djg/3.htmlhttp://jambama.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Graeme-Walker_Cooling-Pond.jpg"Cooling Pond" by Graeme Walker. Walker is a Bundjalung/Goorie man born in Casino, David Gundy's home town.Jambama Gallery & Arts Centre193 Sydenham Road, Marrickville, NSW-33.906627, 151.158600
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