|Team number||What did Newton discover about light?||What does the author mean by “light”?||How is light similar to rain drops?||How does the human eye work?||Describe how a photomultiplier works.||Why do you think you would want to use a photomultiplier?||Describe how a photomultiplier works.||Imagine you have a room with a photomultiplier in each corner and a very dim bulb in the center. Why don't the photomultipliers click at the same time?||What are some common things that light does in everyday circumstances?||What does it mean for light to "partially reflect" off a surface? (also give some examples)||How do you think partial reflection relates to the idea that light is made of particles?||Describe the experiment of shining a light onto a glass plate. How is it set up?||If light were to totally reflect off the surface of the glass, how many photons (out of every 100) would bounce off? Is that what happens?||Why is the result of this experiment surprising? What is the difficult problem raised by the experiment's results?||Describe the theory of "spots" and "holes" and how it explains the partial reflection of light from glass.||Describe the theory of "wheels" and "gears" and how it explains the partial reflection of light from glass.||Which of these two theories is correct? Describe any evidence listed in the text.||According to philosophers and typical scientists, what is the role of prediction in science?||In quantum mechanics, you can't make exact predictions.|
|1||He discovered that "white" light is actually made up of a mixture of colors. Newton also reasoned that light was made of "corpuscles".||The author means all frequencies of light, both visible and invisible.||Light is divided into particles that are discreet. Higher and lower intensity ("dimmer" means fewer particles, "brighter" means more particles).|
The author also mentions that the "rain drops" are named photons.
|"Philosophers have said that if the same circumstances don't always produce the same results, predictions are impossible and science will collapse."|
"Try as we might to invent a REASONABLE THEORY that can explain how a photon "makes up its mind" ... it is impossible to predict which way a given photon will go."
1) Predictions allow us to know which direction to go with a line of scientific inquiry.
2) Predictions give opportunity to gather supporting or contradictory evidence for a theory.
Unfortunately, it seems that predictions can only be provisional and statistical in nature, not absolute.
|2||Photons activate nerve cells which send a message to the brain.||When a photon hits a plate, electrons are ejected. These photons are attracted to a positive plate. When the electrons hit the positive plate, several additional electrons are emitted. These electrons are attracted to yet another plate, releasing multiples of electrons propelled to the next plate.||A photon multiplier is used to increase signal strength (enhanced detection limits and resolution).||Predict the outcome or probability of a particular outcome to a future event.|
|3||Photon hits the bottom of a plate and releases multiple electrons which then hit other plates that successively multiply the electrical current strong enough to be measured.||Because the photons will not hit the photomultipliers at the same time, since the photons act as particles not waves.||Predictions in nature are based on probability and not exact.|
The word came up once.
Photo means light and multiplier means to make increase.
This was based on prior knowledge.
We guess that something is obstructing one of the sensors.
Glass is another example: if you have a lamp on in the room and you're looking out through a window during the daytime, you can see things outside through the glass as well as a dim reflection of the surface of glass.
|It's to predict.|
|5||The glass plate has a multiplier inside of it. Photons reflect off and up onto another multiplier that is above it.||Multiplier A SHOULD receive 100 photons, if light was to totally reflect off the surface of the glass. However, that is not what happens. Only 4 photons are reflected.||It is surprising because we would expect that either all or none of the photons would reflect.||Philosophers and typical scientists realize that the role of prediction in science is impossible, however, they would really like them to be!!!|
|6||Theory is not about the protons; but a characteristic of the surface of the glass. The glass has "holes" which let the photons go through, and "reflective spots" which the photons bounce off of.||This has to do with characteristics of the photons. The photons have "wheel" and "gear" which cause them to either reflect of penetrate the glass, depending on the direction the photon hits the glass.||Neither, both theories experimentally give the same 4% of photons reflected off the glass.||To philosophers, science must give only "exact" results to be provable. While science operates on probabilities to predict events in nature.|