VOSG: SMEM and VOST Empirical Studies
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shVOSGSMEM and VOST Empirical Studies - Resource Sheetcompiled by @JoannaLane and @Rubonistcopyright © Virtual Operations Support Group - www.vosg.us contact: @joannalane - e: JLane@vosg.us
JL2013 (Sept)2014 (Feb)JeffCo VOSTMastering Social Media: An Analysis of Jefferson County’s Communications during the 2013 Colorado Floodshttps://www.cs.colorado.edu/~palen/palen_papers/StDenisPalenAnderson-jeffco-iscram2014.pdfLise Ann St. Denis ATLAS, Project EPIC, University of Colorado, Boulder, Leysia Palen Computer Science, Project EPIC, University of Colorado, Boulder. Kenneth M. Anderson Computer Science, Project EPIC, University of Colorado, BoulderWe report on the social media communications and work practices of the Jefferson County Type III Incident Management Team during the September 2013 Colorado Floods. In this case study, we examine flood-related communications across three platforms: Facebook, Twitter, and the team’s blog for insight into how this innovative team coordinated their communications to meet the information needs of a community outside of the media spotlight. Using a mixed method approach of interviews and social media content analysis, we describe their online behaviors in relation to the needs of the emergency response as a whole. We report on adaptations to their work practice that allowed them to extend traditional communications with social media to create an integrated communication plan. Finally, we look to the team’s experiences for direction in how to use social media in emergencies generally.
JL2014 (Feb)Designing for the Deluge: Understanding & Supporting the Distributed, Collaborative Work of Crisis Volunteershttp://faculty.washington.edu/kstarbi/CSCW2014_DesigningForTheDeluge.pdfCamille Cobb, Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington. Ted McCarthy, Biomedical & Health Informatics, University of Washington. Annuska Perkins, Ankitha Bharadwaj, Jared Comis, Brian Do, Kate Starbird, Human Centered Design & Engineering, University of Washington.Social media are a potentially valuable source of situational awareness information during crisis events. Consistently, “digital volunteers” and others are coming together to filter and process this data into usable resources, often coordinating their work within distributed online groups. However, current tools and practices are frequently unable to keep up with the speed and volume of incoming data during large events. Through contextual interviews with emergency response professionals and digital volunteers, this research examines the ad hoc, collaborative practices that have emerged to help process this data and outlines strategies for supporting and leveraging these efforts in future designs. We argue for solutions that align with current group values, work practices, volunteer motivations,and organizational structures, but also allow these groups to increase the scale and efficiency of their operations.
JL20112013 (Nov)Social Media and its Impact on Crisis
Communication: Case Studies of Twitter Use in
Emergency Management in Australia and New

http://eprints.qut.edu.au/63707/1/Terry Flew / Axel Bruns / Jean Burgess / Kate Crawford / Frances ShawThere is a growing awareness worldwide of the significance of social media to communication in times of both natural and human-created disasters and crises. While the media have long been used as a means of broadcasting messages to communities in times of crisis – bushfires, floods, earthquakes etc. – the significance of social media in enabling many-to-many communication through ubiquitous networked computing and mobile media devices is becoming increasingly important in the fields of disaster and emergency management. This paper undertakes an analysis of the uses made of social media during two recent natural disasters: the January 2011 floods in Brisbane and South-East Queensland in Australia, and the February 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand. It is part of a wider project being undertaken by a research team based at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia, that is working with the Queensland Department of Community Safety (DCS) and the EIDOS Institute, and funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) through its Linkages program. The project Australian Research Council (ARC) through its Linkages program. The project combines large-scale, quantitative social media tracking and analysis techniques with qualitative cultural analysis of communication efforts by citizens and officials, to enable both emergency management authorities and news media organisations to develop, implement, and evaluate new social media strategies for emergency communication.
JL2013 (May)Practical Extraction of Disaster-Relevant Information from Social Mediahttp://irevolution.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/pratical-extraction-paper-2013.pdfMuhmmad, Imran; Shady Elbassuoni; Carlos Castillo; Fernando Diaz and Patrick Meier. 2013. “Extracting Information Nuggets From Disaster-Related Messages in Social Media.” Proceedings of the 10th International ISCRAM Conference. T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and L. Yang, eds. Baden-Baden, Germany, May 2013. Available online (PDF).
JL2013 (Feb)Working & Sustaining the Virtual “Disaster Desk” http://faculty.washington.edu/kstarbi/cscw2013_final-2.pdfKate Starbird /Leysia Palen
JL2013Democratizing Mobile App Development for Disaster Managementhttp://irevolution.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/paper-2.pdfFuming Shih, Oshani Seneviratne, Daniela Miao, Ilaria Liccardi, and Lalana Kagal - Carlos Castillo, Patrick Meier, Shih, Fuming, et al. 2013. Democratizing Mobile App Development for Disaster Management. IJCAI Semantic Cities.Massachusetts Institute of Technology
JL2013Information Verification during Natural Disastershttp://irevolution.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/verily-swdmwww13.pdfAbdulfatai Popoola, Dmytro Krasnoshtan, Attila Toth, Victor Naroditskiy, Carlos Castillo, Patrick Meier, Iyad RahwanPopoola, Abdulfatai; Dmytro Krasnoshtan, Attila Toth, Victor Naroditskiy, Carlos Castillo, Patrick Meier and Iyad Rahwan. 2013. Information Verification during Natural Disasters. Paper presented at the Social Web for Disaster Management Workshop, WWW 2013, Rio, Brazil. Available online (PDF).
JL2012 (Jan)Situational Awareness in Mass Emergency: A Behavioral and Linguistic Analysis of Microblogged Communicationshttp://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1029&context=viewegSarah Elizabeth Vieweg Graduate School Thesis University of Colorado
JL2011 (10-16 January)2012 (Jan)Crisis Communications on Twitter in the 2011 South East Queensland Floodshttp://cci.edu.au/floodsreport.pdfAxel Bruns and Jean Burgess, Creative Industries Faculty, Queensland University of Technology. Kate Crawford and Frances Shaw, Journalism and Media Research Centre, University of New South Wales Social media, including Facebook and Twitter, played an important role in crisis communication at the height of the 2011 South East Queensland floods crisis (10-16 January). This report examines the role of the short-messaging system Twitter in disseminating and sharing crisis information and updates from state and local authorities as well as everyday citizens. We assess the overall use of Twitter, as well as that of the most important emergency service account, the Queensland Police’s @QPSMedia account.
JL2012JOPLIN TORNADO - The Use of Social Media for Disaster Recoveryhttp://extension.missouri.edu/greene/documents/PlansReports/using%20social%20media%20in%20disasters.pdfGuidelines written by Rebecca and Genevieve Williams of Neosho, Mo., the founders of Joplin Tornado Info. Publication edited and designed by David Burton, civic communication specialist, University of Missouri Extension. This publication will be updated periodically. (3/7/12) Version 1.3 .Lessons learned while creating and managing “Joplin Tornado Info” (2011) on Facebook and further implemented with “Branson Tornado Info” (2012)
R2012Social Media Use during Disasters - A Review of the Knowledge Base and Gaps http://www.start.umd.edu/sites/default/files/files/publications/START_SocialMediaUseduringDisasters_LitReview.pdfNational Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to TerrorismGiven the increasingly important information role social media play during disasters, it is essential to understand what is known about social media use during disasters and what remains to be tested. Otherwise, policy makers and emergency managers risk making disaster communication decisions based on intuition or inaccurate information. To that end, this report summarizes what is empirically known and yet to be determined about social media use pertaining to disasters.
R2012Responding to Liability: Evaluating and Reducing Tort Liability for Digital Volunteershttp://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/responding-to-liability-evaluating-and-reducing-tort-liability-for-digital-volunteersEdward Robson, Esq.
JL2011 (Sept)2011 SOCIAL MEDIA EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT CAMP – Transforming the Response Enterprisehttp://www.scribd.com/doc/72281369/2011-Social-Media-Emergency-Management-Camp-Transforming-the-Response-EnterpriseClarence Wardell III Yee San Su, September 2011
2011VOST OsbourneTrial by Fire: The Deployment of Trusted Digital Volunteers in the 2011 Shadow Lake Firehttp://epic.cs.colorado.edu/wp-content/uploads/TrustedDigitalVolunteersStDenisHughesPalen.pdfSt.Denis / Palen / HughesWe report on the use of a team of trusted digital volunteers during the 2011 Shadow Lake Fire that occurred in the US Pacific Northwest to extend the social media capacity of a Type I incident management team. In this case study, we outline the tools and processes used by this virtual team to coordinate their activities, monitor social media communication and to establish communications with the public around the event. Finally, we discuss the potential merits and limitations of implementing a team of trusted volunteers and explore how this idea could be incorporated into emergency management organizations.Duplicate entry (see above)
JL2011Natural Language Processing to the Rescue?: Extracting “Situational Awareness” Tweets During Mass Emergencyhttp://epic.cs.colorado.edu/wp-content/uploads/vermaetal.pdfSudha Verma, Sarah Vieweg, William J. Corvey, Leysia Palen, James H. Martin, Martha Palmer, Aaron Schram, Kenneth M. Anderson
JL20102011Beacons of Hopehttps://www.cs.colorado.edu/~palen/Home/Articles_by_Year_files/Sarcevic-et-al-HaitiMedicalTwitterers.pdfAleksandra Sarcevic / Leysia Palen / Joanna White / Mossaab Bagdouri / Kenneth AndersonHaiti
R2010A follow up to The Case for Integrating Crisis Response with Social Media and call to action for the disaster response communityhttp://i.dell.com/sites/content/shared-content/campaigns/en/Documents/Red-Cross-White-Paper-The-Path-Forward-Crisis-Data-Dec-2010.pdfAmerican Red CrossOn August 12, 2010,more than 150 people attended an Emergency Social Data Summit at the American Red Cross national headquarters to discuss what possible steps could be taken to move toward integrating social data with disaster response.This was originally sourced from iDisaster but the link is broken
R2007A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Social Media as a Crisis Communication Channel in the Aftermath of the BP Gulf of Mexico Oil Spillhttp://studenttheses.cbs.dk/bitstream/handle/10417/2939/kylie_ann_dowthwaite.pdf?sequence=1Kylie Ann DowthwaiteA Theoretical and Empirical Study of Social Media as a Crisis Communication Channel in the Aftermath of the BP Gulf of Mexico Oil SpillUnsure of validity of source URL - is this a repository for student theses?!...
R2007EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS: APPLICATION OF AN INTRANET PORTAL FOR DISASTER TRAINING AND RESPONSE AN EXAMINATION OF EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN A LOCAL EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTERhttp://pqdtopen.proquest.com/pqdtopen/doc/304707206.html?FMT=AIKathleen DoveThis dissertation examined one city's implementation of an intranet virtual web portal for improved emergency management. Municipal Emergency Operation Center (EOC) managers face many security issues in response to potential natural or terrorist threats since the attacks of September 11, 2001. The purpose was to understand how technology had created new learning and response methods for EOC managers.A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership
R2005Interagency Communication Networks During Emergencies Boundary Spanners in Multiagency CoordinationProprietary (paid) document onlyNaim Kapucu University of Central FloridaThis article examines the problem of effective interagency communication among organizations and the role of information technologies to achieve effective communication and decision-making goals in emergencies. It explores what factors contribute to effective interorganizational communication and decision making and what factors inhibit their development.This item is pre-VOST and pre-SMEM to some extent, so should perhaps go on a seperate sheet. It nonetheless holds some valid points aboit multi-agency communications during emergencies.
JL20122013Digital Mobilization in Disaster Response: The Work & Self-Organization of On-Line Pet Advocates in Response to Hurricane Sandy https://www.cs.colorado.edu/~palen/palen_papers/WhitePalenAndersonSandypetsJoanne I. White, Leysia Palen & Kenneth M. AndersonHurricane Sandy Pets / Facebook Page
JL2010 (Jan)From Crowdsourced Mapping to Community Mapping: The Post-Earthquake Work of OpenStreetMap Haiti https://www.cs.colorado.edu/~palen/palen_papers/HaitiCOOP_Final.pdfRobert Soden and Leysia PalenHaiti
JL2009Microblogging During Two Natural Hazards Events: What Twitter May Contribute to Situational Awarenesshttps://www.cs.colorado.edu/~palen/vieweg_1700_chi2010.pdfSarah Vieweg / Amanda Hughes / Kate Starbird / Leysia Palen
R2011Social media playing major role in Joplin tornado recoveryhttps://www.diigo.com/item/image/17dps/au7hBransetter, Z.
R2011Social Media and Disasters: Current Uses, Future Options, and Policy Considerationshttps://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41987.pdfCongressional Research Service
JL2014 (August 28)Closing the Citizen-Government Communication Gap: Content, Audience, and Network Analysis of Government Tweetshttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2488681Clayton Wukich, Sam Houston State University and Ines A. Mergel, Syracuse University - Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public AffairsA key task in emergency management is the timely dissemination of information to decision makers across different scales of operations, particularly individual citizens. Incidents over the past decade highlight communication gaps between government and constituents that have led to suboptimal outcomes. Social media provide tools to reduce those gaps. This article contributes to the existing literature on social media use by empirically demonstrating how and to what extent state-level emergency management agencies employ social media to increase public participation and induce behavioral changes intended to reduce household and community risk. Research to this point has empirically examined only response and recovery phases related to this process. This article addresses each phase of emergency management. We analyze Twitter messages posted over a three-month period, finding that while most messages conformed to traditional one-to-many government communication tactics, a number of agencies employed interactive approaches including one-to-one and many-to-many strategies. Also see blog at: http://inesmergel.wordpress.com/2014/09/02/conference-paper-twitter-use-in-state-emergency-management-smem/
JL20112014 (May)Visible Skepticism:
Community Vetting after Hurricane Irene
http://faculty.washington.edu/kstarbi/Dailey_Starbird_ISCRAM_2014.pdfDharma Dailey
Human Centered Design & Engineering
University of Washington
Kate Starbird
Human Centered Design & Engineering
University of Washington
Social media enable rapid, peer-to-peer information flow during crisis events, affordances that have both
positive and negative consequences. The potential for spreading misinformation is a significant concern.
Drawing on an empirical study of information-sharing practices in a crisis-affected community in the Catskill
Mountains after Hurricane Irene, this paper describes how an ad hoc group of community members, led by a
handful of journalists, employed specific work practices to mitigate misinformation. We illustrate how the group
appropriated specific tools and performed visible skepticism, among other techniques, to help control the spread
of false rumors. These findings suggest implications for the design of tools and the development of best
practices for supporting community-led, crowd-powered response efforts during disasters.
JL20122014 (sept)Evolution of a Search: The Use of Dynamic Twitter Searches During Superstorm Sandyhttp://currents.plos.org/disasters/article/evolution-of-a-search-the-use-of-dynamic-twitter-searches-during-superstorm-sandy/Sara Harris Smith, Kelly J. Bennett, Alicia A. LivinskiBackground: Twitter has emerged as a critical source of free and openly available information during emergency response operations, providing an unmatched level of on-the-ground situational awareness in real-time. Responders and survivors turn to Twitter to share information and resources within communities, conduct rumor control, and provide a “boots on the ground” understanding of the disaster. However, the ability to tune out background “noise” is essential to effectively utilizing Twitter to identify important and useful information during an emergency response.
JL2014 (Feb)March 26, 2015VOST VicVOST VICTORIA: COVERAGE OF THE HAZELWOOD MINE FIREhttps://www.emknowledge.gov.au/resource/?id=5703Australian Emergency Management - Knowledge HubCase StudyOn 9 February 2014, a fire broke out in the Latrobe Valley’s Hazelwood coal mine, the unruly nature of the blaze meaning it was not declared under control until 10 March. During that month, the incident caused two major emergencies – a complex fire emergency and a public health emergency. Victoria’s Virtual Operations Support Team (VOST) monitored both aspects via Twitter, and to assist other social media in emergency management (SMEM) operators, created a record of the disaster through the eyes of this social media channel. This case study details the origins of VOST Victoria and its significant work during the Hazelwood mine fire less than a year later, its most demanding task to date.
JL10/1/2015Tapping into social media and digital humanitarians for building disaster resilience in Canada. http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc197/p802376_A1b.pdfKate Kaminska
JLN/A9/30/2015A strategy for communication between key agencies and members of the public during crisis situationshttp://media.wix.com/ugd/47451d_f31bf5490c1e48a694cd6e7b12a91ac1.pdfPaul Reilly1 Dimitrinka Atanasova1 Xavier Criel2 1 University of Leicester (ULEIC) 2 Safety Centre Europe (SCE)Three case studies were explored in order to develop a communication strategy that could be employed by key agencies in conjunction with members of the public during incidents that had the potential to generate cascading effects: 1) The floods in South-West England (December 2013 - February 2014); 2) The thunderstorm that hit the Pukkelpop music festival in Belgium (18 August 2011); and 3) The rioting in the town of Haren, in the Netherlands (21 September 2012), after thousands of young people gathered for a local girl’s birthday party advertised as ‘Project X Haren’.
Other related reportsHuman Centered Design & Engineering
JL20112103Tale of Two Sandyshttp://superstormresearchlab.org/white-paper/University of Washington Responses to Hurricane Sandy consistently cluster into two types according to how the issues have been defined and understood. On one hand, the crisis was seen as an extreme weather event that created physical and economic damage, and temporarily moved New York City away from its status quo. On the other hand, Hurricane Sandy exacerbated crises which existed before the storm, including poverty, lack of affordable housing, precarious or low employment, and unequal access to resources generally. A Tale of Two Sandys describes these two understandings of disaster and discuss their implications for response, recovery, and justice in New York City.
JL2014IAEM Recommedned Tech for EOCshttp://www.iaem.com/documents/IAEM-ETC-Recommended-Tech-for-EOCs-Jan2014.pdfddailey@uw.edu Recommended Technological Capabilities for Emergency Coordination and Operations Centers . A Resource Developed by the International Association of
Emergency Managers - Emerging Technology Caucus Version 1.1 February 2014
JLDeveloping Humanitarian Data Standardshttp://docs.hdx.rwlabs.org/wp-content/uploads/HXL_Paper-forsite.pdfKate StarbirdAn introduction and plan for 2014
JLJan 2014Feb 2014The AZPD Social Media Program And “Baptism By Fire”https://azusapd.org/images/forms/Baptism%20By%20Fire.pdfHuman Centered Design & Engineering This report describes not only the social media activities involved with the Colby Fire of January 2014, but the initial launch of the Azusa Police Department’s Social Media Program, which occurred 15 days prior to the fire
University of Washington
JLContinuiy Insights (VOST mentioned p.10)http://www.continuityinsights.com/sites/continuityinsights.com/files/legacyimages/CIN419_CrisisCommReportFinal.pdfkstarbi@uw.edu
JL2014A review of the value of social media in countrywide disaster risk reduction public awareness strategies [PDF download]http://works.bepress.com/neil_dufty/34Neil Dufty, Molino Stewart Pty Ltd (Australia)Neil Dufty. 2014. "A review of the value of social media in countrywide disaster risk reduction public awareness strategies" Input paper developed for the HFA Thematic Review and as an input to the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 (GAR15) - Bushfire, Crisis management, Planning, Prevention, Social media, Technology, Warning systems, Risk management
JL2014 (Jan)OC VOSTVOST Whitepaper 2013http://www.slideshare.net/mjflynn001/vost-white-paper-2013Mary Jo Flynn, Emergency Management Assistant Director at City of Anaheim and othersThis paper identifies the history and best practice uses of VOST and lays out a plan for developing and incorporating VOST teams into the Orange County, California disaster communications structure. It proposes use of specially trained Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) volunteers who are already members of the CERT Mutual Aid Program in Orange County.
Rn/aTBCTBCCrisisLex: A Lexicon for Collecting and Filtering Microblogged Communications in Criseshttp://crisislex.org/papers/icwsm2014_crisislex.pdfA. Olteanu, C. Castillo, F. Diaz, S. Vieweg.Locating timely, useful information during crises and
mass emergencies is critical for those forced to make
potentially life-altering decisions. As the use of Twitter
to broadcast useful information during such situations
becomes more widespread, the problem of finding
it becomes more difficult. We describe an approach
toward improving the recall in the sampling of Twitter
communications that can lead to greater situational
awareness during crisis situations.
JLn/a12/12/2014Junior VOSTVOSG Whitepaper: Junior VOST: Guidelines for an Under 18 Programhttp://vosg.us/blog/2014/12/12/junior-vost-guidelines-for-an-under-18-program/Authors and Contributors: Joanna Lane, Carol Dunn, Kim Stephens, Caroline Milligan, Nathan Hunerwadel, Micki Trost.Research clearly shows risks to children and teens from exposure to visual materials that can trigger a strong visceral reaction, yet Virtual Operations Support Teams routinely tasked with monitoring social media in an emergency or disaster situation cannot control the material to which they are exposed in the live stream. Once something is seen, it can’t be unseen. This paper aims to: 1. help agencies and organizations address key issues related to the participation of youth and children in VOST missions, including monitoring social media accounts. 2. raise awareness of the science and research about the risks to children, and 3. establish responsible and safe VOST policy guidelines to recommend to those considering a Junior VOST or community youth volunteer program as part of their social media emergency management strategy.
JLn/aMay 2015Papers to be presented at the SWDM'15 workshop in Florence, Italy, on May 18th, 2015. The links to pre-prints of papers below are provided by authors—the final versions are the ones published by ACM.https://sites.google.com/site/swdmwww15/papersList of papers
JLn/aJune 2015"Social Media Monitoring for Emergency Managers - a comprehensive guide" http://sotechem.syr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/SocialMediaMonitoring_MPAStudentReport.pdfAlys Alley - aaalley@syr.edu
Mariko Mori - mamori@syr.edu
Amanda Vitullo - avitullo@syr.edu
Janelle Wallace - jvwallac@syr.edu
Supervised by Dr.Ines Mergel - iamergel@syr.edu
Created for Region 4 of the New York State, Office of Emergency Management
by the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Master of Public Administration Workshop Team
JL11/7/201311/6/2014NoA Guide to Social Media Emergency Management Analytics Understanding the Place of Analytics through Typhoon Haiyan Social Media Analysishttp://humanityroad.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/HRSWB-SMEM-Guide-FINAL-20141106.pdfCat Graham | Chris Thompson
Humanity Road
Michiko Wolcott | Joseph Pollack | Minh Tran
Statistics Without Borders
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