Chemistry
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8/17/18HS Chemistry
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HS-PS1-1 (Matter and Its Interactions)
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Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level and the composition of the nucleus of atoms.
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Clarification Statement
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Physical Science: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include metals, nonmetals, metalloids, number of valence electrons, types of bonds formed, or atomic mass. Emphasis is on main group elements.
Chemistry: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, atomic radius, atomic mass, or reactions with oxygen. Emphasis is on main group elements and qualitative understanding of the relative trends of ionization energy and electronegativity.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Developing and using models: Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

• Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (HS.PS1A.a)

The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.(HS.PS1A.b)

TYPES OF INTERACTIONS
Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects.(HS.PS2B.c)
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Crosscutting Concepts
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PATTERNS
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
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HS-PS1-2 (Matter and Its Interactions)
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Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
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Clarification Statement
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Physical Science: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, carbon and oxygen, or hydrogen and oxygen. Reaction classification includes synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, and acid-base.
Chemistry: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, carbon and oxygen, or carbon and hydrogen. Reaction classification aids in the prediction of products (e.g. synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, and acid-base).
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Constructing explanations and designing solutions:
Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering) in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

• Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom's nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states. (HS.PS1A.b)

CHEMICAL REACTIONS
The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions. (HS.PS1B.c)
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Crosscutting Concepts
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PATTERNS
Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
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HS-PS1-3 (Matter and Its Interactions)
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Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the macroscale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.
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Clarification Statement
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Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and network solids (such as graphite). Examples of macro-properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Planning and carrying out investigations:
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions (science) or test solutions (engineering) to problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

• Plan and conduct an investigation individually and/ or collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
The structure and interactions of matter at the macro scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (HS.PS1A.c)

TYPES OF INTERACTIONS
Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects. (secondary) (HS.PS2B.c)
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Crosscutting Concepts
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PATTERNS Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena.
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HS-PS1-4 (Matter and Its Interactions)
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Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.
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