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Note: The following spreadsheet applies metrics for whether to adopt an open data standard. Information collected from June to August of 2015. Authored by Rachel Bloom for Geothink.
Explanation for spreadsheet at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1T2-fVOb_l3QD8sBTpEpubFSzWi2qAkwEdPIz1JhJrWU/edit?usp=sharing
Metrics in red signify openness of standards process.
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NameDomainPublisherPublisher reputationLicense informationDescription and purposeTransferability to Other JurisdictionsTransferability to Other Jurisdictions rationaleStage in DevelopmentVersionDate Last Updated by PublishersLevel of Use by GovernmentsExtensionsExtensions rationaleExampleExample InformationMachine ReadableMachine Readable rationaleHuman ReadableHuman Readable rationaleSpecifies Up-to-Date DataSpecifies Up-to-Date Data rationaleTakes into account associated metadata for the datasetTakes into Account Associated Metadata for the Dataset rationaleApplications Built from StandardStandard’s DocumentationReferencesDate Last Updated in DashboardOpen LicenseStakeholder ParticipationStakeholder Participation rationaleConsensus-Based governanceConsensus-Based governance rationale
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Fiscal Data PackageAnnual BudgetOpen Knowledge with technical advice from the International Budget Partnership, Omidyar Network, and GooglePartnership among private sector and nonprofit organizations. Open Knowledge has published the Open Knowledge Definition and has developed open data projects such as CKANCreative Commons Attribution - ShareAlike 4.0 International LicenseStandardizes annual government budget by revenue and expenditure. These categories exist at the transactional or aggregated levels.YesSpecification is an extension of the Tabular Data Package. It consists of CSV data files and metadata descriptor file in JSON format. Standard utilizes universal components so everyone may access it. The aggregated expense category requires classification according to the United Nations’ Statistics Division’s Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG). Aggregated revenue data requires classification according to the IMF’s Government Finance Statistic Manual 2001 (GFSFM). Classifications according to these institutions are widely implemented and broad enough to be applied across national governmentsDraft0.3.001-28-2016The specification has been adopted in Cameroon under the 'Cameroon Budget Inquirer' in order to track public moneyYesOpenSpending Data Packagehttps://github.com/openspending/fiscal-data-package/tree/master/examplesGitHub ExamplesYesStandard uses tabular form. Data stored in CSV format. The CSV’s structuration consists of a data table in which each tuple represents a single budget item. The first tuple of the data file signifies the required fields for the appropriate dataset type in addition to the required fields for all the dataset categories (dataset type is notated under metadata descriptor file)YesSpecification uses metadata, field identifiers and semanticsYesThe standard dictates that the data be updated every yearYesMetadata included in the required JSON file descriptor, datapackage.json. The datapackage.json is a metadata descriptor file that contextualizes the data and gives insight to the data file structure and budget attributes. The metadata object for each data file in the resource array has to contain the specific attributes related to budget data type (i.e. currency, whether the data reflects revenue or expenditure, the data’s granularity, and status within the budget cycle)Budget Explorer - Managing Public Money in Cameroon https://github.com/openspending/cameroon.openspending.orghttps://github.com/openspending/budget-data-packagehttp://openspending.okblogfarm.org/tag/budget-data-package/, http://fiscal.dataprotocols.org/spec/#overview08-01-2016YesNoStandard is in consultation with budget data community. Adapts input from private sector and nonprofit organizationsYesCan follow development of standard on the 'issue' tracker posted to Github. Contributions from the community will be maintained by democratically elected persons (to be determined)
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Operating Budget SchemaAnnual BudgetSocrataPartnership among state actors and the Socrata company. Socrata offers technological services for opening up government data. Socrata company consists of software engineers, designers, open government advocates, and business professionalsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0Socrata Open Budget application requires Operating Expense and Operating Revenue datasets to match the Operating Data SchemaYesThe schema's documentation is publicly available. Video tutorials and web articles discuss how municipalities can adopt the schema and update their datasets so that Socrata's Open Budget product worksCompleted2 04-07-2015Several cities have adopted the standard. Including Hickory, North Carolina, and Plano, TexasNoN/Ahttp://evergreen.budget.finance.socrata.com/#!/year/defaultCity of Evergreen's Open Budget website YesTwo separate datasets (Operating Expenses and Operating Revenues) have to be organized into flat-files. Some fields for the data are required and some are optional. The data is not normalized. YesSpecification uses metadata, field identifiers and semanticsYesThe standard dictates that the data should be updated every yearYesSocrata recommends to include a column in the datasets to describe the data, but it is not required. Socrata Open Budget producthttps://docs.google.com/document/d/1KWPMeUzWJv8hmG6LBvHRXlm4hnxFYNxm_bNpetBvTeI/edit#http://www.opennorth.ca/2012/11/22/open-data-standards.html , https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/12wcUhE6waDz0RPT81E5aebcJf58AH92FstMZQKy5kRc/edit#gid=0, http://www.socrata.com/case-study/boston-makes-budget-transparency-top-priority/ ,https://support.socrata.com/hc/en-us/articles/206148457-Operating-Data-Schema-Expense-and-Revenue-08-02-2016YesUnsureNo information found on stakeholder participationNoNo way for public and interested parties to contribute to the development of the schema
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Capital Budget SchemaAnnual BudgetSocrataPartnership among state actors and the Socrata company. Socrata offers technological services for opening up government data. Socrata company consists of software engineers, designers, open government advocates, and business professionalsCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0Socrata Open Budget application requires Capital Budget datasets to match the Capital Budget Schema.YesThe schema's documentation is publicly available. Video tutorials and web articles discuss how municipalities can adopt the schema and update their datasets so that Socrata's Open Budget product worksCompleted2.310-06-2015Several cities have adopted the standard. Including Hickory, North Carolina, and Plano, TexasNoN/Ahttp://evergreen.budget.finance.socrata.com/#!/year/defaultCity of Evergreen's Open Budget website YesTwo separate datasets (Operating Expenses and Operating Revenues) have to be organized into flat-files. Some fields for the data are required and some are optional. The data is not normalized. YesSpecification uses metadata, field identifiers and semanticsYesThe standard dictates that the data should be updated every yearYesSocrata recommends to include a column in the dataset to describes the data, but it is not required. Socrata Open Budget producthttps://support.socrata.com/hc/en-us/articles/215303918-Capital-Budget-Data-Schemahttps://support.socrata.com/hc/en-us/articles/215303918-Capital-Budget-Data-Schema08-02-2016YesUnsureNo information found on stakeholder participationNoNo way for public and interested parties to contribute to the development of the schema
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Vocabulario para la representación de datos sobre presupuestos de entidades localesAnnual BudgetSmartCities, Oscar Corcho at Polytechnic University of Madrid, City of Zaragoza, Pamplona City Hall, City of Segovia, GMV, and LocalidataThe European Innovation Partnership for Smart Cities and Communities is committed to transforming European cities into 'smart cities'. The partnership asserts that open and standardized data is the most economical path to obtaining cross service and sector interoperabilityCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 InternationalThis standard specifies vocabulary for local budget data in Spain. Content of the standard includes both government income and expensesUnsureVocabularies intend to make it possible to share the standard across localities across SpainDraft0.1.001-2014Vocabulary is limited to budget data for localities in SpainUnsureThe standard should in the future be able to extend to the national and global levelsN/AN/AUnsureEach vocabulary field has its own URIYesThe standard provides defined vocabulariesYesRequires the data be updated every quarterUnsureN/AN/Ahttp://vocab.linkeddata.es/datosabiertos/def/hacienda/presupuestos.htmlhttp://opendatacon.org/beyond-raw-data-creating-city-standards-for-priority-datasets/ // https://eu-smartcities.eu/sites/all/files/SIP.pdf06-14-2016YesYesThe SmartCities partnership organizes municipal actors, the private sector, SMEs, banks, research and other smart city actors for the open standard processNoNo way for the public and interested parties to contribute to the development of the budget vocabularies
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Building & Land Development Specification (BLDS)Building PermitsContributors to initial draft: Accela, BuildFax, Buildingeye, Civic Insight, DR-i-VE Decisions, SiteCompli, Socrata, and Zillow. Partners interested in the development of the standard: Chicago Cityscape, ESRI, Junar, NuCivic, Open Counter, Ontodia, and VizalyticsStandard brings together publishers from the private sector and civic government. Collective process between stakeholders within the Housing and Real Estate field of the Open Data NetworkNo informationA specification for building and construction permit data. Comprises of basic required fields and optional dataset fields. Data about building permits are a good proxy for economic activity. Therefore, more accessible data about permits informs data users about the well-being (or lack of well-being) of a community. In addition, opening up this information helps establish trust between governing bodies and the publicYesThe fields for the specification are intentionally few and broad so that the standard may be applied across jurisdictions more easily. Creators of the standard struggled with compromising between granular level data (good for consumers) and more universal data the could applied over a wider range of jurisdictions. Meant to be adopted by large and small cities across the east and west coastsCompleted1.2.004-2016The cities that have adopted BLDS in draft stage include Alameda, CA, Bernalillo, NM, Omaha, NE, Deschutes, OR, Charlotte, FL, San Diego, CA, Reno, NV, Framingham, MA, Seattle, WA, Boston, MA, Fort Worth, TX, Tampa, FL, Chattanooga, TNNoN/Ahttp://www.civicdata.com/dataset/permit_standard_permits_xml_10306/resource/f51d567c-07f7-41d4-842d-c2b165722b4bCounty of San Diego-PDS BLDS Building PermitsYesStandard consists of CSV files saved as basic, separated .txt files. These are NOT variables in a program language or database engine. However, they still adhere to database normalization assuming data will be fed into RDSM. This multi-file database structure ought to be normalized. CSV file names are as follows: publication_info.csv, permits.csv, permits_history.csv, contractors.csv, permit_contractopr.csv, inspections.csv. Fields for each dataset are either required, recommended, or optionalYesSpecification uses metadata, field identifiers and semanticsNoStandard employs an optional permit status change dataset to track permit data over timeYesStandard requires publication_info.csv file. This acts as a source of information about the data publisher, version of standard, data being published... etcN/Ahttps://github.com/open-data-standards/permitdata.org/wiki/Core-Permits-dataset-Requirements, https://github.com/open-data-standards/permitdata.org/issues/6http://www.govtech.com/data/9-Localities-Commit-to-Open-Data-Standard-for-Construction-Building-Permits.html , http://permitdata.org/08-01-2016YesYesCollaborative effort by tech. companies, government, and stakeholder groupsYesStandard includes an Issue tracker on the GitHub repository. It is also possible to contribute sample datasets, to 'pull requests' on GitHub, to post thoughts and advice in a provided discussion forum, and access their mailing list
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SPOTCrime Open Crime Standard (SOCS)Crime StatisticsColin Drane is the original developer for SPOTCrimeSPOTCrime is an independent publishing companyNo informationSPOTCRIME requires the following fields for their open crime standard: area, date (YYYY/MM/DD in ISO 8601 format), time (UTC and 24 hours in ISO 8601 format), incident type, location, city, narrative, longitude/latitude (GCS), and case number (text and number). Type of incident is classified as assault, shooting, robbery, arson, burglary, theft, vandalism, arrest, and otherYesCatapult is a complimentary, open source software that stores the data in CSV files and makes it easier for smaller police departments with less resources to publish the dataCompletedN/A03-17-2014Cities that have adopted SOCS include Philadelphia, Denver, San Fransisco, Chicago, Albuquerque (all in USA)NoN/Ahttp://www.civicdata.com/dataset/2014-crime-incidents/resource/0d11e47d-083d-4591-81a0-8c3d34978151Salt Lake City Crime IncidentsYesAcceptable formats according to the SPOTCRIME standard are XML, RSS feed, CSV, RDF, JSON, TXT, XLS(X), and KMLYesStandard utilizes identifiers and organizes data by type of crimeYesStandard dictates data be updated on a daily basisUnsureStandard doesn't explicitly require metadata. However, many examples of SOCS implementation include a zip file containing metadataSPOTCrime Crime Maphttps://github.com/spotcrimebrit/SpotCrime-Open-Crime-Data-Standard/blob/master/dataspecification.mdhttp://blog.spotcrime.com/2014/03/the-spotcrime-open-crime-data-standard.html, https://github.com/spotcrimebrit/SpotCrime-Open-Crime-Data-Standard08-01-2016YesYesSpotCrime is oriented around public needs and transparency. 'The true innovation might be SpotCrime’s citizen-facing business model. 'Our primary interaction is with the public,' asserts Drane, 'And, unlike our competitors, we have no financial or other relationship with any police department. There is no agenda behind what we publish. It’s just open data made understandable and user-friendly.' http://www.socrata.com/blog/data-dollars-spotcrimUnsureThere is the opportunity for feedback, but to what extent? More background about the evolution of this standard must be understood before making a judgement about whether it evokes consensus-based governance
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Results Data Spec Version 2Election ResultsOpenElectionsOpenElection's objective is to make a standardized, comprehensive, and linked set of election data in the USA at both the federal and state levels. OpenElection is supported by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation’s Knight News ChallengeNo informationSpecification standardizes US election data at the state levelUnsureStandard is limited to the USA at the state and county levels currentlyCompleted2.005-29-2013Oregon, USANoN/Ahttps://gist.github.com/dwillis/5646908Election Data Spec Version 2 CSV exampleYesStandard supports JSON and CSV formats. Specification's content is broken up into election data and election resultsYesStandard has field identifiersNoOpenElections does not have the infrastructure or funding to handle real time data for election resultsYesOpenElections is working on an Metadata API to compliment the specification.N/Ahttps://github.com/openelections/specs/wiki/Elections-Data-Spec-Version-2http://docs.openelections.net/, http://docs.openelections.net/08-01-2016YesNoOpenElections is the sole authority of the standard's development. Publishers accept source code and official results contributions from volunteers from the publicYesThe specification utilizes Google Groups to discuss the development of the specification. It also hosts an issue tracker on GitHub
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Election Data FormatElection ResultsOpen Data InstituteOpen Data Institute is a private non profit company that is committed to spreading and developing open data technologies and servicesOpen source under the MIT license and content is open under the Creative Commons Attribution licenseSpecification utilized for elections at various levels (local, provincial, federal). It has four main tabular formats: contests, choices, results, and voting data. Contests documents metadataYesSpecification is meant to be general enough to cover broad aspects of elections (so that it can be applied across jurisdictions). Standard focuses on the transparency of electoral process (rather than commitment to the automation of election results)DraftN/A12-4-2014Standard specifies that the standard model should support aggregation of data and have flexibility to compensate for regional differences in election processes. Customization of the data allows for a great scope of the standard's adoptionYesFuture extensions to the standard include geographic information about polling stations, a controlled vocabularies specification, and metadata about political parties and politiciansN/AN/AYesInformation stored in election data tables. Tabular format is meant to link to the graph based format. This format expresses statistical data and reference data (including geographic and vocabulary references). Model utilizes RDF Data Cube schema. Some fields in the files have controlled vocabulariesYesVocabulary for the specification is based on definitions specified from the ACE projectYesThe standard requires that the data is made available on a timely basis, e.g. updated immediately after the election results are announcedNoAccording to the standard's documentation, 'metadata made available and the formats provided are outside the scope of this specification'N/Ahttps://github.com/theodi/election-data-format/blob/gh-pages/README.mdhttps://docs.google.com/document/d/1gyPpfod0eGzzutyZuak_xe5ZcY8hcWzH3onTScBoTPU/edit#, https://docs.google.com/document/d/1gyPpfod0eGzzutyZuak_xe5ZcY8hcWzH3onTScBoTPU/edit#08-2015YesUnsureStandard specifies that election data must come from a primary, authoritative sourceYesThe standard is posted to GitHub. Anyone can contribute feedback to the issue tracker
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Election Markup Language (EML)Election ResultsOASIS Election and Voter Services Technical Committee - with feedback from the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST)OASIS Election and Voter Services Technical Committee is committed to the technical development, refinement and formalization of election standard documents. *Technical Committee was closed in July of 2015 by the OASIS TC AdministratorOASIS Open 2011The standard supports the end to end process of the election system. The intent of the standard is to 'develop a standard for the structured interchange among hardware, software, and service providers who engage in any aspect of providing election or voter services to public or private organizations...' (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Election_Markup_Language). This is a much more comprehensive schema than the other election data standards observed in this list. In addition, this standard engages in high level election processesYesThe standard requires a common terminology and definition of election processes so it can be understood and applied across national boundaries. Standard claims to be multilingual, multinational, flexible, adaptable, and technology agnostic, making it easier to adopt across a wide array of jurisdictionsCompleted7.010-27-2011Ohio, USA, used the standard in their 2014 electionsYesThe standard extends so not to change the election process. Implementers of the standard plan on providing a complementary document for a specific election scenario that clarifies security issues raised in the election processN/AN/AYesEML is a XML based standard. The structure of the schema consists of vocabulary (the EML core) and individual message schemasYesEML uses attribute IDs and standard election vocabularyYesStandard requires data from various stages of the election process life cycleYesStandard allows for optional information to be included in the header. Some XML messages require the managing authority and date of issueN/Ahttp://docs.oasis-open.org/election/eml/v7.0/cs01/eml-v7.0-cs01.htmlhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Election_Markup_Language // http://www.nist.gov/itl/vote/upload/VVSG-EML-v21JMc.pdf // https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/22101/The%20Case%20for%20EML.pdf // https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=election, https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/election/charter.php, http://docs.oasis-open.org/election/eml/v7.0/cs01/eml-v7.0-cs01.html08-01-2016YesYesThe standard is managed by members of the OASIS Technical Committee. In order to contribute to the standards development, there is a public mail list that acts as a forum for developers to contribute and exchange ideas and advice about the standard's implementation. An individual must subscribe to comment list to provide feedback. https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/comments/index.php?wg_abbrev=electionYesAccording to Ron Rivest, EML is a 'consensus-based, publicly available common format that enables the exchange of electronic records between different components in election systems'
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NIST's Common Election Format ProjectElection ResultsNational Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and collaboratorsNIST aims to promote standards, measurement science, and technology in a way that will boost society's quality of life and encourage economic competition and innovationNo informationThe standard establishes a XML schema for the export and import of data from and to election process devices. The standard establishes a comprehensive UML model to map out and define the components of the general election processUnsureN/ACompleted1.002-2016NoN/Ahttp://www.nist.gov/itl/vote/upload/1622_2.xsdXML SchemaYesXML - based import/export format for election devices that handles the data. Schema is organized by elements and their attributes of the election process. Sub-elements refer to elements that are nested within other elements. Schema is in XSD formatYesThe standard uses object identifiers and links elements within the electoral system. Standard also includes a glossary to ensure compliance and uniformity during implementationUnsureN/AUnsureN/AN/Ahttp://www.nist.gov/itl/vote/upload/Schema-Documentation-2015-06-22.pdfhttp://www.nist.gov/itl/vote/election-results.cfm08-2015YesUnsureN/AUnsureThe standard hosts an issue tracker on GitHub
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Voting Information Project (VIP) SpecificationElection ResultsThe Pew Charitable Trusts, Google, and United States' State GovernmentsThe Pew Charitable Trusts is a non-profit, non-governmental organization. Google is a private technology based companyCreative Commons-Attribution license, version 4.0Specification indicates voter precincts. The intent is for information disseminators to utilize the schema to provide all citizens with the information they need to cast a ballotYesEasy to adopt for state and local elections in the USA. Simple formats (CSV and XML) increase adoption across jurisdictionsCompleted5.102-18-2016Only in the USANoTrusttheVote Project is working on making the standard include contest and question data, location data, result for each location and contest combination, performance and participation datahttps://github.com/votinginfoproject/vip-specification/blob/vip5/sample_feed.xmlSample XML file for Voting Information Project (VIP) Spec Version 5.0YesXML and CSV format. Required top level tags include source object and election results object. These top level tags require an id attribute in order to uniquely identify them within the data fileYesAccording to the standard's specification, the VIP feed should be named vipFeed-[FIPS code for state or county]-[election year]-[election month]-[election day].xmlNoNo indication of when standard should be updated following an electionNoHave metadata for political party. Otherwise not for metadata in standard's specificationGoogle Civic Information API, Google Voter Information Tool, 'The VoteStream election results reporting system'http://vip-specification.readthedocs.org/en/vip5/http://www.dubberly.com/articles/votestream.html, https://www.verifiedvoting.org/tag/_election-markup-language/, https://www.votinginfoproject.org/projects/vip-5-specification/08-01-2016YesYesGovernment workers at the state level contribute to the publication of the VIP spec. The diversity of stakeholders encourages an inclusive open standard processYesThe project also has a mailing list for inquiries. Also can contribute to the VIP Community Google Group. Google forum is meant to 'foster a collaborative environment'. https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/vip-community
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Open311 Inquiry APIPublic FacilitiesOpenPlansOpenPlans is a non-profit, technology based organization that aims to open up government data and improve public transportation systemsNo informationOpen 311’s Inquiry API is a standardized protocol for information about public spaces and services. The Open311 Inquiry API consists of a set of content related to the services provided by the city, a city facilities list (concerning meaning not GIS, although there will be geospatial attributes for the facilities), and a RSS feed that contains information about daily status of public services and facilities.NoPotential to expand. At the moment, version 1 is specific to NYC Draft1.02014Standard has only been adopted in NYCYesOpen311 Today is an RSS feed that provides updates on daily schedules for public facilities and serviceshttp://www1.nyc.gov/portal/apps/311_contentapi/facilities/all.xmlSample XML file of NYC facilities for the Open 311: Inquiry APIYesRetrieves the data in XML format (and support JSON structure when indicated by API)YesSchema has resource identifiersYes311 Today consists of a RSS feed that streams data about daily schedules and statuses of government services/facilitiesUnsureN/AN/Ahttp://wiki.open311.org/Inquiry_v1/https://developer.cityofnewyork.us/api/open311-inquiry, http://www.open311.org/contact/08-01-2016YesUnsurePublic can contribute to the standard's 'issue tracker' on GitHubYesMailing List for ideas for development, inquiries, and concerns
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Open511Road ConstructionOpen North, the Transportation Ministry of British Columbia, and the Metropolitan Transportation Commission of the San Francisco Bay AreaOpen North, a Canadian non profit organization, aims to creates online tools that encourage civil society to engage more openly and actively with their government. For the Open511 specification, Open North teamed up with transportation bodies in British Columbia and the San Francisco Bay AreaOpen Government LicenseOpen511 intends to make road event data lightweight and accessible to the public. The specification intends to facilitate communication among transportation agencies and other government bodies. Open511 format provides a level of transparency, interoperability, and simplicity that exceeds current intelligent transportation systems. The API retrieves the data in XML formatYesOpen North is working with Open511 to develop an open source software to ease implementation of the APICompleted1.002-05-2015Level of adoption is low. Demos of the versions have been implemented but are incompleteYesOpen511 uses a map based interface filter for the data.http://demo.open511.org/api/Demo of Open511's data in both XML and JSON formatsYesRetrieves the data in XML (supports JSON when indicated by API)YesEasily readable for usersYesStandard can be conducted over the web feed. Data is updated in the XML feed in real timeYesJurisdiction resource acts as a form of metadata and links to the description of the government entity that is publishing the dataN/Ahttp://www.open511.org/documentation/1.0/guidelines.htmlhttp://www.open511.org/documentation/1.0/08-02-2016YesYesStakeholders can communicate and collaborate with Open NorthYesThe standard provides a mailing list and 'issue tracker' on GitHub to contribute to the development of the API. It also mixes authoritative government data with crowdsourced verification
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Open311 GeoReport APIService RequestsOpenPlansOpenPlans is a non-profit, technology based organization that aims to open up government data and improve public transportation systemsNo informationAPI standardizes service requests, eases coordination, and encourages accountability between the government and the publicYesGeoReport API has been adopted in various jurisdictions across the US. The OPEN311 does not specify the codes, making it possible for the API to be applied to whatever civic services specifically offered in that cityCompleted2.02015Cities:
Toronto, ON,
GieBen, Deutschland,
Bonn, Deutschland,
Helsinki, Suomi,
Lamia, Ellada,
Baltimore, MD,
Bloomington,IN,
Boston, MA,
Brookline, MA,
Chicago, IL,
Columbus, IN,
Grand Rapids, MI,
Peoria, IL,
San Francisco, CA,
Washington D.C..

Development Stage:
Quebec, QC,
Surrey, BC,
Zurich, Schweiz,
Zaragoza, Spain,
Lisbon, Portugal,
Philadelphia, USA
YesMySociety has proposed an extension to better update clients about status changes of requests to better serve citizens with platforms such as fixmystreet (in the UK). The extension allows for more communication from the government body to the client. This extension proposes the methods POST/GET Service Updates. See extension's proposal here: https://www.mysociety.org/2013/02/20/open311-extended/https://secure.toronto.ca/webwizard/ws/services.xml?jurisdiction_id=toronto.caCity of Toronto's Open311: GeoReport v2 APIYesAPI retrieves the data in XML format and supports JSON format when indicated by the API. The content of the API manages two main resources consisting of services and service requests. Requests are handled over HTTP to retrieve data in XML format, and in JSON when denoted by service discovery. Jurisdiction_ID will be globally unique variable in order to clarify the city implementing the API (required only when entire interface serves more than one jurisdiction). The API employs 7 API methods for services and service requests. These methods include: GET service list, GET service definition, POST Service Request, GET request_id from a token, GET service request(s). The GET service method handles what services are available to the client user based on the unique service_code. The POST service request handles requests posted by the client to the government body. Open311 requires a location when requesting a service. GET service request(s) provides records of service requests based on date thresholds, service codes, service request IDs, and statusYesOpen311 follows the REST schema and uses human readable identifiers to label the dataYesThe API Gets and Posts service requests in real timeYesThere is a required resource for specifying metadata. The GET service definition method of the API provide description for the service being requested by adding “metadata=true” to it responseGeoReporter, ConnectedBIts, Mark-a-Spot, SeeClickFix, Love Clean Streets, Fix 311 iPhone Fix 311 Android Websitehttp://wiki.open311.org/GeoReport_v2/https://www.mysociety.org/2013/01/17/open311-explained/, http://www.open311.org/contact/08-01-2016YesYesCollaboration between developers, government, and nonprofit organizationsYesThe public can contribute to the standard's 'issue tracker' on GitHub
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General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS)Real-Time TransitGoogle, Tri Met, municipal transit agenciesPartnership among the private and public sectors. Municipal transit data is combined with Google's technological input to create the specificationCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 LicenseStandard format for handling public transportation and geographic data. Developed by Google and the TriMet public transportation agencyYesZip file containing CSV files with information about routes, stops, and agencies (saved as .txt)CompletedN/A07-26-2016By 2013, the standard format had been applied to hundreds of transit systems’ data around the worldYesGTFS - Real Time: protocol buffers (as an alternative to XML) hosted over HTTP – gtfs realtime.proto produces source code to read and write the structured data and then retrieves it to and from a data stream using a variety of programming languageshttp://webservices.nextbus.com/service/publicXMLFeed?command=routeList&a=stlMontreal bus routes in XML formatYesCSVs saved as text files stored in a zip file. GTFS-realtime provides information about updates to transit schedules as they occur. The data is hosted over HTTP and consists of protocol buffers instead of CSVs. Google’s protocol buffers are used for data serialization and work as an alternative to XML (Patton, 2014). The data structure is stored in a gtfs realtime.proto file. The file produces source code to read and write the structured data and then retrieves it to and from a data stream using a variety of programming languages (“What is GTFS-realtime?”, 2012). GTFS provide data for the long-term while GTFS-RT is able to supply dynamic data for the short-termYesStandard aims to be easily readable and use description, universally understood vocabularyYesGTFS-RT handles real time transit data in a feed over HTTPUnsureN/AThere are many. Please see following list for non-google apps built from the GTFS schema: https://code.google.com/p/googletransitdatafeed/wiki/OtherGTFSToolshttps://developers.google.com/transit/gtfs/referencehttps://developers.google.com/transit/gtfs/08-01-2016YesYesGTFS is a collaboration between private and public sectors. Google and public transit agencies as partners - some government bodies initially hesitant to hand over the data to GoogleNoNo opportunity to be included in decisions made about the standard's evolution. Technical committee not open to the public
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Service Interface for Real-Time Information (SIRI)Real-Time TransitEuropean Committee for Standardization (CEN)CEN is an association that brings together over 30 European national standardization bodies. CEN is recognized by the EU and the European Free Trade AssociationThe SIRI schema is available for use free of charge and without warranty under public Licence. Copyright is retained by the respective national organisations that developed SIRI'SIRI is a data format that enables the server to exchange real-time information about public transit schedules and information about transit operational servicesUnsureFacilitation of adoption across jurisdiction is unclear because the protocol is intended to exchange information at the operator to operator level. However, SIRI's modularisation permits users to pick and choose the services they wish to implementCompleted2.006-2013Siri has been implemented in France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Ireland, UK, Israel, Australia, and the USAYesOfficial documentation cites that SIRI is an extensible standard. Publishers expect additional services will be added to the standard in the futurehttp://user47094.vs.easily.co.uk/siri/schema/1.3/examples/index.htmSIRI Examples 1.3YesSiri uses XML to define messages using real-time public transport vehicle or journey time data. The schema is encoded as a W3C .xsd. Has reusable sub schemas and type packages. Schema uses the SOAP protocol to exchange messages between serversYesStandard utilizes universally understood tags and semantics. Clear documentation of field IDs as a referenceYesThe protocol is able to handle real time transit schedule dataYesThere is a metadata section to the XML schemaTrafikanten applicationhttp://user47094.vs.easily.co.uk/siri/https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/googletransit/jFTM1O0xaYY, http://user47094.vs.easily.co.uk/siri/overview.htm08-2015YesYesPrimary stakeholders of the SIRI protocol are defined as the purchasers and suppliers/product developers of public information transport systems. Contributors to the standard included equipment suppliers, transport authorities, transport operators, transport consultants from countries in the EU, public transit agencies in Germany, France, and the UK, and the EU Trident projectNoCEN Working Group manages the standard's governance. The group decides on changes made to the standard
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MassGIS Datalayer De Facto StandardZoningMassachusetts Office of Geographic InformationMassGIS is an official state agency in charge of collecting, storing and disseminating geographic data. Their work includes establishing a comprehensive, statewide database of geographic informationNo informationStandard specifies zoning (GIS) data for jurisdictions across the state of MassachusettsNoZoning laws are riddled with localized idiosyncrasies. Therefore devising a standard the would span jurisdictions would be very difficultCompleted2.12015This standard is used for every jurisdiction in Massachusetts except Boston (this is the most widespread zoning standard available at the moment)UnsureUnsurehttp://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-massgis/datalayers/l3parcels.htmlMassGIS Data - Level 3 Assessors’ Parcel MappingYesMassGIS stores the data in a statewide ArcSDE layer named ZONING_POLY'YesData can be opened in GIS platforms such as ArcGIS and QGISNoMassGIS does not have a formal method for handling updates for zoningYesMetadata included in the HTML formatApps that better represent zoning data: Zoner (NYC), Second City Zoning (Chicago), Zonability (Cities in TX) - standard enables these applications across jurisdictionshttp://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-massgis/standards/standard-parcels.htmlhttps://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/ospt-ecosystem/1GUkwcTjBBE//http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/pbcote/courses/gsd2201/09/tabulations/zoning.htm, http://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-massgis/datalayers/l3parcels.html08-01-2016YesNoGovernment body has only authority over standardNoNo mailing list or opportunity to pull requests/file issues on a public forum
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Regional Land Information System (RLIS) DiscoveryZoningPublished by Metro Data Resource CenterRLIS is a government body that gathers and publishes geographic data for the Portland metropolitan areaOpen Commons Open Database LIcense and Content LicenseThis standard indicates boundaries for zoningNoZoning laws are riddled with localized idiosyncrasies. As a result, devising a standard that spans jurisdictions has proven to be difficultCompletedN/A2015Greater Portland Region, OregonUnsureUnsurehttp://rlisdiscovery.oregonmetro.gov/?action=viewDetail&layerID=416RLIS Discovery's zoning data in both HTML and XMLYesShapefile with attribute data stored in a data tableYesData can be opened and read in GIS platforms such as ArcGIS and QGISNoZoning is updated only when data is received from local city and county jurisdictions - city data override county data (when they overlap)YesMetadata required in XML and HTML formatsApps that better represent zoning data: Zoner (NYC), Second City Zoning (Chicago), Zonability (Cities in TX)http://www.mass.gov/anf/docs/itd/services/massgis/parstndrd-ver2-1.pdfhttps://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/ospt-ecosystem/1GUkwcTjBBE, http://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-massgis/standards/standard-parcels.html08-01-2016YesNoMetro regional government is the only contributor to the standard's developmentNoStandard has no mailing list or way to offer advice/file issues with publishers
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Land Based Classification Standards (LBCS) - OWL2ZoningAmerican Planner's Association (APA)American Planner's Association is an urban planning organizationNo informationLBCS standard intends to categorize dimension or urban space and provide information about land use. Standard breaks up classification into Activity, Function, Structure Type, Site Development Character, and OwnershipYesCoding of LBCS makes it possible to break down the data so it may be aggregated to larger jurisdictions. In addition, the standard organizes the terminology for classifying land use and typically is implements within a relational database of geo-referenced spatial unitsCompletedN/AReleased in 2000 and updated periodicallyUnsure if any city governments actually apply this standard to their open zoning dataYesFormat is modular so that data can be shared, reused, and extendedhttps://www.planning.org/lbcs/implementation/LBCSMultipleTables.zip and LBCSOneTable.zipYesLBCS suggests storing multidimensional land use data in relational databases. The LBCS allows each concept to be modeled off an OWL class. Can establish a hierarchical structure for through the OWL subclass system. However, these schemas are NOT mandatory for LBCS adoption. Data for the standard is intended to be georeferencedYesStandard utilizes defined vocabularies, semantics, and identifiers to categorize schema. Standard can be used for classifying georeferenced spatial units that are stored in a shapefileUnsureN/AYesThe standard moves towards applying the OWL2 ontology language for the Semantic Web. This structural framework applies extensive literature logic that can be manipulated with OWL2 toolsCity Induction is a project dedicated to building a tool for urban planning and design. In addition, plans are in the works to collaborate with major software vendors in order to create templates for thematic mapping and applicationshttps://www.planning.org/lbcs/https://www.planning.org/lbcs/background/pdf/lbcsissuespaper.pdf // http://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/4/1/65/htm // www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/4/1/65/pdf, https://www.planning.org/lbcs/implementation/08-2015UnsureNoAPA devised the standard along with six other federal agenciesNoStandard has no mailing list or forum to offer advice/file issues with publishers
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Checkbook NYCAnnual BudgetREI Systems and NYC Comptroller's Office with consultation from Civic CommonsREI Systems have contributed to building open source government websites. REI teamed up with state workers at the NYC Comptroller's office to create Checkbook NYCGNU Affero General Public License, version 3.0This application is highly detailed and allows you to customize the data yourself in order to visualize NYC budget, expenditure, revenue, and contract data. The application has information about W/MBE (Women/Minority Business Enterprise). It was based on the USASpending.gov model (for federal budget and expense information). Can export the raw data through API's controllersYesAdapted from the city's central Financial Management System (FMS) software. Hope to develop a web-based application to 'create something that other cities might be willing to share the cost of maintaining and improving'Completed2.02015Limited to NYCYesAPI extended to include a featured dashboard. Dashboard provides highly detailed information about contract/spending datahttp://checkbooknyc.com/spending_landing/yeartype/B/year/116NYC's Total SpendingYesAPI displays the financial data in a web-based dashboardYesDashboard embedded in HTML web page. HTML code includes metadata and resource identifiersYesUp to date by yearly quarterUnsureHTML web page that hosts the API includes metadataCheckbook NYC web application open source software posted to GitHub. The API allows for third parties to pull the raw data for their own usehttps://github.com/NYCComptroller/Checkbookhttp://techpresident.com/news/21754/new-york-city-transparency-project-will-open-source-look-inside-citys-checkbook // http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2013/06/10/the-future-of-civic-software-reuse/, http://www.checkbooknyc.com/ask-a-question08-01-2016YesUnsureNYC Comptroller office leads in the implementation and development of the standardYesApplication source code is posted to GitHub. Have the option to pull requests and post issues. API open source software is posted to GitHub. Anyone can participate by pulling requests and contributing to the issue tracker on GitHub
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Local Government Transparency CodeExpenditureLocal Government AssociationThe LGA is a politically-led, cross party organization that aims to empower local governments in the UKOpen Government License, version 3.0This standard aims to maximize transparency of government expenditure and enable the exchange of spending data among government authorities. The standard specifies content and schema. It also defines key spending terms and what kinds of data ought to be published. In addition, the standards specifies the publishing of procurement dataYesThe standard's code allows authorities to gather and compare data across different government bodies and departments. Official documentation for schema dictates that, 'these schemas will provide voluntary standards against which local
authorities can publish data – enabling easy access, reuse and comparison between different areas'
CompletedN/A06-2015Limited to the UKNoN/AN/AN/AYesSpecification structures its data in tabular format. Data is stored in CSV fIles. CSV files have required, recommended, and optional field that pertain to beneficiary, recipient, date of payment, and amountYesStandard uses clear, universally understood field identifications. It also includes documentation for detailing definitions for key termsYesThe standard requires that the data is published no later than one month after the quarter to which the data and information is applicableYesIndicates that the data should be published with accompanying metadata text fileN/A150227_PUBLICATION_Final_LGTC_2015http://www.local.gov.uk/documents/10180/11655/Transparency+guidance+2014+-+spending+and+procurement++20141201.pdf/b4ef3ce9-7f2a-4e5b-86b2-aa417f803e44 // https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/360711/Local_Government_Transparency_Code_2014.pdf, http://www.local.gov.uk/practitioners-guides-to-publishing-data08-01-2016YesYesThe guidance documentation for the schema has been a collaboration between the LGA, DCLG, the Local eGovernment Standards Body (LeGSB), and local authoritiesYesStandard uses the Knowledge Hub's Local Open Data Community to host a forum to voice concerns and input about the standard's development. Anyone can register to contribute
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Open Contracting Data StandardProcurement ContractsOpen Contracting Parnership, World Wide Web FoundationWorld Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a standards consortium that private organizations pay into so that they have voting rights on standards. W3C responds to the needs of speed and consensus within standardization processCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licenseInternational standard to make data about government contracts more transparent to the publicYesGoal of project is to develop a standard that can be adopted across national bordersCompleted1.02015Pilot version of standard has been implemented in Canada, the UK, Mexico, Romania and UkraineYesThis standard has a sector specific extensionN/AN/AYesOpen Contracting Data Standard is modeled on the Data Package protocol. The Open Contracting ID (OCID) is a globally unique identifier. Data in the standard can be supported using JSON or simplified single/multi-table CSV formats (acts as a flat, tabular schema)YesStandard states an objective of being easily understandable. Provides key terms and background on the procurement contracting processUnsureN/AYesStandard has a .json metadata package. As a globally unique identifier to identify the data packageN/Ahttp://standard.open-contracting.org/https://github.com/open-contracting/standard, http://standard.open-contracting.org/latest/en/support/08-01-2016YesYesPublishers actively engage communities and businesses interested in adopting the standard. Publishers collaborated with stakeholders in order to develop the 'OCDS Demand-side Assessment'. This assessment is meant to address real world needs of publishers and users of public contracting dataYesStandard hosts the Open Contracting Data Standard Helpdesk to file issues for the future version 1.1
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Local Inspector Value-entry Specification (LIVES)Food SafetyYelp, City of San Francisco, and City of New YorkYelp is a multinational company that hosts crowdsourced information about local businesses online. Yelp contributed data and collaborated with municipal bodies in order to develop LIVESNo informationCities use LIVES to publish food inspection information about any restaurant listed on Yelp or any website that has restaurant listingsYesStandards aims to be used widely in cities across America. Can be applied easily across municipalitiesCompleted2.008-10-2015Chicago and Boston have plans to roll out the standard soon. The city of Ottawa also used the LIVES specification for their Public Health Inspection dataNoN/Ahttp://data.ottawa.ca/dataset/public-health-inspection-dataCity of Ottawa's Public Health Inspection DataYesStandard dictates that data should be stored in tabular form. According to this standard, data is stored in CSVs condensed in a zip file. Business and Inspections CSV files are required. Violations, Feed Info, and Legend CSV files are optional. Business CSV contains information about the business while the Inspections CSV file contains information about inspection history for that establishment. Both required field of business id as unique identifiersYesStandard utilizes human readable identifiers for the dataYesStandard requires data of health inspection within the inspections fileYesFeed information' and 'score legend' CSV files act as a form of metadataN/Ahttp://www.yelp.com/healthscoreshttp://www.codeforamerica.org/our-work/data-formats/LIVES/index.html, http://www.yelp.com/healthscores08-01-2016YesYesPartnership between public and private sectorNoDoesn't utilize a mailing list or host an issue tracker so that the public can contribute to the standard's development
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OpenAddress SpecificationAddress PointsOpenAddressOpenAddress is an open data initiative that aims to establish an open, world wide resource for address information. Collection was originally compiled by Ian DeesCreative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal LicenseOpenAdress Specification builds an open resource for geocoding at the global levelUnsureThe specification has been far reaching and is relatively easy to handle and implement. However, there are legal issues involved with building a database such as thisCompletedN/A2016As of August 3, 2015, 149,965,701 addresses had been processedNoN/Ahttps://github.com/openaddresses/openaddresses/blob/ee65dae9e678b5bfe3e1ba53eb8d35f8885a5e6e/sources/au/city_of_canberra.jsonCity of Canberra JSON YesData is stored in JSON/GeoJSON formatYesStandard uses clearly universally understood identifiers to label the dataYesThis metric doesn't really apply to this domain, considering that addresses do not change over timeYesThere is a list of attribute tags (they are optional) that store metadata. These tags include information about the source website, its license, a human readable note, whether the license requires attribution, and email of the data providerThe team of OpenAdresses developed the web application Sorting Office to help normalize contributed addresses for free. Returns the address data in JSON format. REST services provided by MapFish's development framework. In addition, web scrapers can contribute address points to OpenAddresses standard through the Turbot specificationhttps://github.com/openaddresses/openaddresseshttp://data.openaddresses.io/runs/1438582398.553/index.html // https://code.google.com/p/openaddresses/wiki/RESTService // http://odcamp.org.uk/building-an-open-addresses-database-and-opening-its-apis/ // http://www.codeforamerica.org/blog/2015/07/20/openaddresses-130-million-addresses-building-momentum-2/, https://openaddresses.io/08-01-2016YesYesAddress points are crowdsourced. Anyone can contribute to their wiki and on GitHub. Code for America has contributed a continuous integration service. This web service helps build participation and automatically updates the system within daysYesStandard is posted to GitHub. Have the option to pull requests and post to the GitHub issue tracker
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Checkbook NYCExpenditureREI Systems and NYC Comptroller's Office with Consultation from Civic CommonsREI Systems have contributed to building open source government websites. REI teamed up with state workers at the NYC Comptroller's office to create Checkbook NYCGNU Affero General Public License, version 3.0This application is highly detailed and allows you to customize the data yourself in order to visualize NYC budget, expenditure, revenue, and contract data. The application has information about W/MBE (Women/Minority Business Enterprise). It was based on the USASpending.gov model (for federal budget and expense information). Can export the raw data through API's controllersYesAdapted from the city's central Financial Management System (FMS) software. Hope to develop a web-based application to 'create something that other cities might be willing to share the cost of maintaining and improving'Completed2.02015Limited to NYCYesAPI extended to include a featured dashboard. Dashboard provides highly detailed information about contract/spending datahttp://checkbooknyc.com/spending_landing/yeartype/B/year/116NYC's Total SpendingYesAPI displays the financial data in a web-based dashboardYesDashboard embedded in HTML web page. HTML code includes metadata and resource identifiersYesUp to date by yearly quarterUnsureHTML web page that hosts the API includes metadataCheckbook NYC web application open source software posted to GitHub. The API allows for third parties to pull the raw data for their own usehttps://github.com/NYCComptroller/Checkbookhttp://techpresident.com/news/21754/new-york-city-transparency-project-will-open-source-look-inside-citys-checkbook // http://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2013/06/10/the-future-of-civic-software-reuse/, http://www.checkbooknyc.com/ask-a-question08-2015YesUnsureNYC Comptroller office leads in the implementation and development of the standardYesApplication source code is posted to GitHub. Have the option to pull requests and post issues. API open source software is posted to GitHub. Anyone can participate by pulling requests and contributing to the issue tracker on GitHub
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Transit Communications Interface Profiles (TCIP)Real-Time TransitAmerican Public Transportation Association (APTA)APTA is a non-profit organization that supports improvements in public transportation throughout the USA. APTA has published several standards for public transportation over the yearsNo informationCities use TCIP to structure their real-time public transit dataYesNational Transit Institute provides the 'Transit Communications Inteface Profiles (TCIP) Standard Development Program.' This TCIP training provides classes to help ease the adoption of TCIP. APTA also provides the downloadable 'TCIP Implementation, Requirements and Capabilities Editor (TIRCE)' Completed5.0.02016City of Montreal and several cities within the USA have adopted TCIP. There is not formal list of all cities that have adopted this standard. As of 2013, vendors are the main users of TCIPYesCities have the availability to modify parts of the standard to meet their needs. For example, the New York City MTA modified TCIP's specifications (Reed 2013)http://www.aptatcip.com/Pilots.htmPilots for King County Metro, Maryland MTA, and Chicago Transit AuthorityYesData is stored in zipped MS Word document files (.doc), which are not machine readable, but data can be also stored in XMLYesLots of documentation regarding the standard, including definitionsYesAs the specification is primarily for real-time public transit data, it requires the data to be real-timeYesTCIP data is organized into the following building blocks: Dialog Patterns, Dialogs, Messages, Frames, Elements, File Transfers). The Messages block allows for metadata. Also, there is a metadata field for TCIP artifactsIt is hard to detemine what apps have been developed off this standard, but it is known to be difficult for app developers to use data in the TCIP specification http://www.aptatcip.com/Documents.htmhttp://www.gti.gatech.edu/sites/default/files/u51/REED-THESIS-2013.pdf, http://www.aptatcip.com/Index.htm08-16-2016YesYesTechnical working groups composed of transit agency staff and representatives from vendors were the ones to develop TCIP (Reed 2013)YesAPTA allows users of the standard to add comments
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