Red Flags to OCDS Mapping #public
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IDPhaseAssociated Scheme(s)Red FlagIndicator DescriptionPossible: OCDS?OCDS Field(s)Other Data Needed
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F001PlanningInfo withholding/release of bad infoKey planning documents are not providedKey planning documents unavailable1planning/documents
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F002PlanningCorruption; Unjustified sole source awardsManipulation of procurement thresholdsChange in threshold value0awards/value/amounttender/bidThreshold
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F003TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified biddersShort or inadequate notice to bidders to submit expressions of interest or bids.Bid period is less than expected (usually <=2 days)
1tender/tenderPeriod/startDate; tender/tenderPeriod/endDate
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F004TenderCorruption; Bid rigging; Collusion; Excluding qualified biddersAny complaintAny complaint1award/documents/complaints
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F005TenderCollusionBusiness similarities between bidders: common addresses, personnel, phone numbersBidder 1's information matches bidder 2's information1tender/tenderers/address; tender/tenderers/contactPoint; tender/tenderers/faxnumber; tender/tenderers/streetAddress;
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F006TenderCorruption; Collusion; Excluding qualified bidders; Rigged SpecificationsFewer than the expected or normal number of bidders, based on prior similar contracts, submit bidsNumber of bidders significantly less than average (for similar item or procuring entity) 1tender/numberOfTenderers; tender/items/id; tender/procuringEntity
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F007TenderCorruption; Unbalanced bidding, Bribes & Kick-backsUnreasonably low line itemThe difference between an item value and its expected value is above a threshold1tender/items/unit/value/amount
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F008TenderCorruption; Unbalanced biddingChange orders issued after contract award, reducing or deleting itemChange orders issued after contract award, reducing or deleting item1awards/amendment/changes; awards/items; tender/items
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F009TenderCorruption; Unbalanced biddingCertain line items remain in recurring contracts that have never been called for in the past, and/or which will not be called for in the futureCertain line items remain in recurring contracts that have never been called for in the past, and which will not be called for in the future1tender/documents/technicalSpecifications; awards/items/description
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F010TenderCorruption; Unbalanced bidding, Bribes & Kick-backsUnreasonably high line item bidsThe difference between an item value and its expected value is above a threshold1tender/items/unit/value/amount
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F011TenderCollusion; Unbalanced bidding; Change Order AbuseChange orders issued after contract award, extending the line item requirements-Change orders issued after contract award extending the line item requirements
-Example: Project officials inform preferred bidder that the quantity of a minor item like safety barriers will be increased after award. The bidder then quotes a very high price for the safety barriers, which would not unduly affect its total bid price. Once the quantity is increased, the preferred bidder profits substantially.
1awards/amendment/changes; awards/items; tender/items
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F012TenderCorruptionSupplier charges excessive fees as a percentage of the contract valueAgents charge excessive fees, usually expressed as a percentage of the contract value, or overcharge for the work performed (Billing Abnormalities)1contracts/items/unit/value
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F013TenderCorruptionNon-public bid openingNon-public bid opening1tender/procurementMethod
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F014TenderCorruption; Change Order AbuseChanges to bids after other bid prices are knownChanges to bids after other bid prices are known1tender/amendment/changes/property; tender/value/amount
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F015TenderInfo withholding/release of bad info; Bid manipulation; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersSingle bid receivedTender featured a single bidder only1tender/numberOfTenderers
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F016TenderRigged specifications; Bribes & Kick-backsFailure to adequately advertise the request for bids or proposalsKey tender documents are not available through online platform during tender period1tender/documents; tender/tenderPeriod/startDate; tender/tenderPeriod/endDate
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F017TenderFalse bidding; Fictitious contractor; CollusionPerennial losing bidders give appearance of legitimate competition when they have no intention of actually winningParticipation of a bidder that has bid at least a specified times but whose win-loss ratio is a threshold value below mean1tender/tenderers; awards/suppliers
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F018TenderFavoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersTender value is higher or lower than average for this item categoryTender value is threshold distance from mean for item category1tender/value/amount; tender/items
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F019TenderBid manipulation; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersFailing to read out bid prices and terms at bid openingTender available but missing price, eligibility criteria, key dates, etc.1tender/id; tender/value/amount; tender/awardCriteria; tender/awardperiod/startdate
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F020TenderCorruption; Manipulation of bids; Excluding qualified biddersInappropriate evaluation criteria or proceduresUnreasonable evaluation requirements0tender/awardCriteria; tender/awardCriteriaDetailstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/awardCriteria/evaluationRequirements/valid
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F021TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified bidders; Rigged specificationsUnreasonable prequalification requirementsUnreasonable prequalification requirements0tender/numberOfTendererstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/awardCriteria/prequalificationRequirements/valid
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F022TenderCorruption; Unbalanced biddingVague, ambiguous, or incomplete specificationsUnreasonable technical specifications (broad)0tender/tenderers; tender/documents/technicalSpecificationstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/documents/technicalSpecifications/valid
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F023TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified bidders; Rigged specifications; Bribes & Kick-backsUnreasonably strict or narrow contract specificationsUnreasonable technical specifications (narrow)0tender/tenderers; tender/documents/technicalSpecificationstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/documents/technicalSpecifications/valid
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F024TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified biddersFailure to make bidding documents available to all biddersBidding documents are not available on the eProcurement website or have restrictions
0tender/procurementMethodtender/procurementMethodDetails
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F025TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified biddersStaggered announcement of noticeThere are multiple notice dates0tender/tenderPeriod/startDatetender/contractadvertising/startDate
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F026TenderCollusionAbnormal joint bid patternsAbnormal likelihood score of joint venture based on pattern of joint vs. autonomous bids
0tender/tendererstender/tenderers/jointTenderers; tender/tenderers/subcontractors
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F027TenderCollusionTemporal similarities of bid securitiesSeveral bidders submit sequential bid securities, or securities purchased at the same bank on the same day0tender/tenderers/documents/bidSecurity/datePublished
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F028TenderCollusionPhysical similarities in documents by different biddersSame type face, format, calculation or spelling errors appear in two or more bid packages0tender/tenderers/address; tender/tenderers/contactPoint
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F029TenderCollusionPersistently high or increasing bid prices compared to cost estimates, price lists, previous prices similar jobs or industry averagesBid price is threshold percent above cost estimate or market price0tender/value/amount; tender/items; tender/procurementEntitytender/bidPrice
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F030TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified biddersBuyer increases the cost of the bidding documents
The price of purchasing the bid package increases during the tender period0tender/procurementMethodtender/procurementMethodDetails/bidPackagePrice
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F031TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified bidders
Buyer falsely claims that documents are available
Buyer indicates that documents are available, but these documents are untraceable0tender/procurementMethodtender/procurementMethodDetails; tender/docments/biddingDocuments/public
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F032TenderCorruption; CollusionSupplier wins bids for item or service types it is unlikely to have, or higher quantitities of items or services it is unlikely to be able to provideThe items won do not match the description or quantity historically provided by supplier0awards/suppliers; awards/suppliers/identifierawards/suppliers/inventorySpecifications
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F033TenderCorruption; Collusion; Excluding qualified bidders; Rigged SpecificationsFewer than normal companies that purchased bid packages actually submitted bids
The ratio of companies that submitted bids to those that purchased bid packages falls under a threshold0tender/tendererstender/bidPackageBuyers
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F034TenderCorruption; Collusion; Excluding qualified biddersPotential bidders make agreements not to bid because of Collusion arrangementsAgreements not to bid because of Collusion arrangements (Qualified Companies Fail to Bid)
0tender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F035TenderCollusionLine item bid prices by different bidders are identical, very close or an exact percentage apartLine item bid prices by different bidders are identical, very close or an exact percentage apart (Price similarities)0tender/value/amount; tender/items; tender/procurementEntitytender/bidPrice/item/price
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F036TenderCorruption; Unbalanced biddingWide disparity in bid prices (because bidders are uncertain of the actual requirements)Disparity in bid prices greater than a threshold value0tender/bidPrice
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F037TenderCorruption; Unbalanced biddingPreferred bidder communicated with project officials during the bidding processPreferred bidder communicated with project officials during the bidding process0tender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F038TenderCorruptionDelivery failure: agents fail to deliver any work product, or deliver low quality products
Delivery failure: Agents fail to deliver any work product, or deliver low quality products
0contracts/implementation/milestones/dueDatecontracts/implementation/milestones/deliveryDate
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F039TenderCorruption
Close relationships exists between bidder and buyer
Network analysis score is above a threshold value0awards/supplierstender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F040TenderCorruptionAgents have been named in the press, or been the subject prior investigations or sanctions proceedings, for corruption or fraud, have a poor reputation for integrity, or are known to operate in highly corrupt environments.There exists external proof of notoriety0tender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F041TenderCorruptionStaggered bid openingStaggered bid opening0tender/tenderPeriod/startDatetender/contractadvertising/startDate
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F042TenderCorruptionPrices and required components are not read out or confirmed at bid opening
Prices and required components are not read out or confirmed at bid opening
0tender/tenderPeriod/startDatetender/value/amount/timestamp
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F043TenderCorruptionImproper acceptance of a late bid or late discounts
Improper acceptance of a late bid or late discounts
0tender/tenderPeriod/endDatetender/documents/biddingDocuments/timestamp
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F044TenderCorruptionIntimidation of bidders to prevent the submission of bidsIntimidation of bidders to prevent the submission of bids0tender/tenderPeriod/startDatetender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F045TenderCorruption; Manipulation of bids; Excluding qualified bidders
-project officials remove required supporting documents from a winning bid

-Project officials remove required supporting documents from a winning bid (Award to Other Than Lowest Qualified Bidder)
0tender/tendererstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/bidPrice
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F046TenderCorruption; Manipulation of bids; Excluding qualified bidders-legitimate qualified lowest bidder disqualified for contrived or trivial reasons
-project officials make deliberate errors in the bid scoring
-Legitimate qualified lowest bidder disqualified for contrived or trivial reasons
-Project officials make deliberate errors in the bid scoring
(Award to Other Than Lowest Qualified Bidder)
0tender/tendererstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/bidPrice
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F047TenderCorruption; Excluding qualified biddersPoorly supported disqualificationsPoorly Supported Disqualifications0tender/tenderers/disqualified/rationale
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F048TenderCorruptionPressure to select a certain contractor, subcontractor or agent-Expensive gifts, paid travel and lavish entertainment
-“Loans,” whether or not repaid
-Leasing vehicles for project officials
-Employment of the children or spouses of project officials
-Payment of educational expenses and scholarships for the children of project officials
-“Study tours” of the contractor’s facilities (in reality just shopping excursion) for project personnel and spouses
-Leases by contractors of office and living accommodations owned by project officials, usually at inflated rates
-Gifts by contractors of their inventory or services, e.g., improving the house of a project official
-Prostitutes provided by contractors to project officials and site inspectors
-“Donations” to social programs” at the direction of project officials
-Overpaying for assets purchased from project officials
-Subsidizing rents or mortgages of project officials
-Direct cash payments to project officials and inspectors, or payments through subcontractors or local agents, recorded on the contractor’s books as legitimate fees and commissions
-Cash for corrupt payments can be generated by raising false invoices for goods, works or services that were not performed, and turning the payments into cash
-Bribes also can be funded by collecting payments from subcontractors
-Providing hidden interests in other companies or enterprises to project officials
-Electoral campaign donations and electoral success are closely linked to favouring donating bidders in government contract awards for example in the US or Brazil (OECD, 2014)
-Mayors spending more time in office tend to build clientelistic networks supported by corrupt public procurement contracts for example in Italy (Coviello & Gagliarducci, 2010) or Romania (Klasnja, 2015)
0tender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F049TenderCorruption; Unbalanced Bidding; Leaking of Bid InformationWinning bid is just under the next lowest bidSecond lowest bid is within threshold value of lowest bid0tender/bidPrice
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F050TenderCorruption; Unbalanced Bidding; Leaking of Bid Information; Info withholding/release of bad infoBid is too close to budget, estimate or preferred solutionWinning bid is within threshold value of budget/ estimate price0planning/budget/amount/amounttender/bidPrice
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F051TenderCorruption; Unbalanced Bidding; Leaking of Bid InformationLate bidder is the winning bidder
Late bidder is the winning bidder
0tender/tenders; awards/supplierstender/documents/biddingDocuments/timestamp
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F052TenderCorruption; Unbalanced Bidding; Leaking of Bid InformationA questionable agent, “consultant” or “middleman” is involved in the bidding processA questionable agent, “consultant” or “middleman” is involved in the bidding process0tender/documents/illicitBehaviorProof
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F053TenderCorruption; Collusion; Excluding qualified bidders; Rigged specificationsBundling contracts in unreasonably large amounts to discourage or eliminate certain biddersExistence of clusters/ bundles of bidders at high end of the distribution0tender/procuringentity; tender/value/amount; tender/items; tender/startDatetender/bidPrice
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F054TenderCorruption; Split Purchases; Unjustified Sole Source AwardsUnjustified separation of components for a single contract to come in under thresholdUnjustified separation of components for a single contract to come in under threshold0awards/suppliers/identifier/legalName; contracts/id; tender/procurementMethodDetailstender/bidThreshold
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F055TenderCorruption; Unjustified Sole Source Awards; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersSole source awards in contravention to the provisions of the procurement plan-Sole source awards in contravention to the provisions of the procurement plan0procurementMethodDetailsplanning/procurementMethodDetails
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F056TenderCorruption; Collusion; Excluding qualified bidders; Rigged specificationsBundling contracts in unreasonably small amounts to discourage or eliminate certain biddersExistence of clusters/ bundles of bidders at low end of the distribution0tender/procuringentity; tender/value/amount; tender/items; tender/startDatetender/bidPrice
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F057TenderTender not listed in the official public procurement journalTender Not Listed in the Official Public Procurement Journal0tender/publishingMethod
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F058TenderTender is invitation onlyTender is Invitation Only0tender/publishingMethod
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F059TenderHigh number of bid disqualificationsHigh Number of Bid Disqualifications0tender/tendererstender/tenderers/disqualified
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F060TenderUnanswered bidder questionsUnanswered Bidder Questions0tender/hasEnquiries/enquiriesReceived; tender/hasEnquiries/enquiriesResponded
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F061TenderCorruptionVague description of the supply termsVague Description of the Supply Terms0tender/documents/technicalSpecificationstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/documents/technicalSpecifications/valid
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F062TenderAbnormally high ratio of faulty bidsAbnormally High Ratio of Faulty Bids0tender/tendererstender/tenderers/faulty
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F063TenderBid manipulationShort time between contract advertising and bid openingLength of time between contract advertising and bid opening falls below a threshold value0tender/tenderPeriod/startDatetender/contractadvertising/endDate
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F064TenderInfo withholding/release of bad info; Rigged specifications; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) Bidders ; CollusionThe lowest bidder is considered non-responsiveLowest bidder does not meet award criteria0tender/tendererstender/tenderers/responsive; tender/bidPrice
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F065TenderBid manipulation; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) Bidders ; Bribes & Kick-backsLong time between bid opening and bid evaluationTime between bid opening and bid evaluation falls above threshold value0tender/tenderPeriod/startDatetender/evaluationPeriod/startDate
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F066TenderBid manipulation; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersComplaints from prospective bidders regarding competition irregularitiesComplaints exist regarding irregularities in competition0tender/tendererstender/complaintType
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F067TenderBid manipulationComplaints of changes to bids after they are receivedComplaints exist regarding changes to bids0tender/complaintType
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F068TenderCollusionWide variation in line item bid prices between bidders, without apparent justificationThe variation between item bid prices and the mean for bid prices on similar items falls above a threshold value0tender/itemstender/bidPrice/items/value
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F069TenderCollusionBid prices drop when a new or infrequent competitor entersFor a specific item, and possibly for a specific procuring entity, bid prices are a threshold value below mean for that item0tender/tenderers; tender/items/id; tender/procuringEntitytender/bidPrice
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F070TenderCollusionBids are an exact percentage apartDifference between bid prices is an exact percentage (whole number)0tender/bidPrice
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F071TenderFalse bidding; Fictitious contractor; CollusionLosing bids are round numbersClustering different types of last-three-number strings (e.g. "000," "999," "100," etc.) reveals what strings are outliers0tender/bidPrice
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F072TenderCollusionBidders submit bids in subsequent re-bidding rounds in same order as in original bidSequence of bid submissions shows patterns between sequences (flag occurs if similar sequence has been seen before)0tender/tendererstender/bidPrice; tender/bidPrice/timeStamp
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F073TenderCollusionQualified contractors fail to bid and become sub-contractors, or one bidder withdraws and becomes a subcontractorMore qualified bidders submit as subcontractors than compete as bidders0awards/suppliers; tender/tenderers; tender/procuringEntity; awards/datetender/subcontractors; awards/suppliers/subcontractors
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F074TenderFavoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersOnly winning bidder was eligibleOnly the winning bidder was eligible to have received the contract for this tender0tender/tenderers; awards/supplierstender/tenderers/responsive
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F075Tender; ContractCorruption; Split Purchases; Unjustified Sole Source Awards; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) Bidders; Bribes & Kick-backsSplitting purchases to avoid procurement thresholdsSplitting purchases to avoid procurement thresholds0awards/suppliers/identifier/legalName; contracts/id; tender/procurementMethodDetails; tender/procuringEntity; tender/Items; tender/value/amounttender/bidThreshold
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F076Tender; ImplementationFalsified financial condition: inflated sales amountsFalsified financial condition: Inflated sales amounts0contracts/implementation/transactionscontracts/implementation/documents/financialProgressReport/salesAmount
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F077Tender; ImplementationFalsified proposed consulting staffFalsified proposed consulting staff0tender/documents/consultancy/suppliers; contracts/documents/consultancy/suppliers
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F078Tender; ImplementationFalsified progress on a contractFalsified progress on a contract0contracts/implementation/milestones/statuscontracts/implementation/milestones/status/verifiedStatus
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F079Tender; ImplementationFalsified prior experience and qualifications of falsified employees’ educational or professional credentials
Falsified prior experience and qualifications of falsified employees’ educational or professional credentials
0tender/documents/tendererQualifications
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F080AwardCollusion; Ficticious contractor; Hidden interestsSupplier has abnormal address or phone numberSupplier address is PO box with no address or phone number1awards/suppliers/address; awards/suppliers/contactPoint/telephone
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F081AwardCollusion; Ficticious contractor; Hidden interestsSupplier address is same as project official'sSupplier's address or phone number matches Procuring Entity's address or phone number1tender/procuringEntity/contactPoint/telephone; awards/suppliers/contactPoint/telephone; tender/procuringEntity/address; awards/suppliers/address
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F082AwardCorruption; Collusion; Rigged specifications; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersHigh number of contract awards to one bidderSupplier receives more than a threshold value of awards from one Procuring Entity during a given time period1awards/suppliers; awards/suppliers/identifier; tender/procuringEntity
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F083AwardCorruption; Manipulation of Bids; Bribes & Kick-backsLong unexplained delays in contract negotiations or awards (ex: as bribe demands are negotiated)-Time between bid award and actual contract signing date (should be less than 3 months according to WB)
-Project officials might find it difficult to justify the award of a contract to a preferred bidder under the procurement rules and delay the award as they attempt to create a justification
-The preferred winning bidder and project officials might be in extended negotiations on the terms of bribe demands, such as the amounts and payment schedules
-Project officials might deliberately delay the award beyond the bid validity period in order to support the disqualification of all bidders and the need for re-bidding
1awards/date; contracts/dateSigned
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F084AwardDecision period for submitted bids excessively shortDecision Period for Submitted Bids Excessively Short1tender/awardPeriod/startDate; tender/awardPeriod/endDate
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F085AwardDecision period for submitted bids excessively long or involved legal challengeDecision Period for Submitted Bids Excessively Long or Involved Legal Challenge1tender/awardPeriod/startDate; tender/awardPeriod/endDate
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F086AwardContracting/PurchasingSmall initial purchase from supplier followed by much larger purchases (first purchase is to test whether it will be accepted)Supplier receives two contracts in discrete time period, the first in a small amount, the second in a large amount, from same Procuring Entity1tender/procuringEntity; awards/value/amount; awards/suppliers
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F087AwardBid manipulation; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) Bidders ; Bribes & Kick-backsLarge difference between contract award and final contract amountDifference between award and final contract is more than 30%1awards/value/amount; contracts/value/amount
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F088AwardFictitious contractor; Bribes & Kick-backs; Hidden Interests/ Shadow Bidding; CollusionBidder that has never bid previously wins tenderSupplier has never submitted a bid for another contract1awards/suppliers; tender/tenderers
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F089AwardCollusionThe same companies always bid, the same companies always win and the same companies always loseFor same PE, when X supplier wins, same tenderers always lose1awards/suppliers; tender/tenderers; tender/procuringEntity
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F090AwardCollusionBusiness similarities between suppliers: common addresses, personnel, phone numbers, etc.,Supplier 1 info matches supplier 2 info1awards/suppliers/address; awards/suppliers/faxnumber; awards/suppliers/streetAddress; awards/suppliers/contactPoint
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F091AwardFictitious contractorSupplier is not listed in business or telephone directories or business registriesSupplier is not traceable through external business registry0awards/suppliersawards/suppliers/businessRegistry
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F092AwardCollusion; Ficticious contractor; Hidden interestsSupplier is not on the approved supplier listSupplier is not traceable through approved contractor list or appeard on sanction or blacklist by another government agency0awards/suppliersawards/suppliers/approved
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F093AwardCollusion; Ficticious contractor; Hidden interestsSupplier does not have internet presence
Supplier is not traceable through web search0awards/suppliersawards/suppliers/approved
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F094AwardCollusion; Ficticious contractor; Hidden interestsSupplier is not at listed addressSupplier is not traceable at listed address0awards/suppliersawards/suppliers/approved
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F095AwardCorruption; Change Order Abuse; Unjustified Sole Source AwardsAwards below the competitive bid threshold followed by change orders that exceed the threshold-Awards below the competitive bid threshold followed by change orders that exceed the threshold0awards/suppliers/identifier/legalName; contracts/id; tender/procurementMethodDetails; contracts/value/amount; tender/procuringEntity; awards/suppliers; contracts/implementation/transactions/amount/amounttender/bidThreshold
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F096AwardUnjustified sole-source; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) BiddersMultiple sole source awards above or just below the sole source thresholdSupplier receives more than X number of sole source awards (alt: that are within X percent of sole source threshold)0awards/suppliers/identifier/legalName; contracts/id; tender/procurementMethodDetailstender/bidThreshold
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F097AwardBribes & Kick-backs; Hidden Interests/ Shadow BiddingThe winning bid does not meet the award criteriaWinning bid does not meet award criteria0tender/awardCriteria; tender/awardCriteriaDetails; awards/supplierstender/tenderers/responsive
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F098AwardBid manipulation; Favoring/Excluding (Qualified) Bidders; Bribes & Kick-backsLarge difference between contract price and winning bid priceDifference between contract price and winning bid price is more than 30%0awards/value/amounttender/bidPrice
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F099AwardBribes & Kick-backs; Hidden Interests/ Shadow BiddingSupplier listed in asset disclosures of government officialsCrossing contractor list with list of firms mentioned in asset disclosures of gov't officials to reveal political connections0awards/supplierstender/tenderers/assetDisclosure