Wild Ruminants, Historical and Current Numbers, North America
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AnimalHistorical NumbersCurrent NumbersSourceCitation
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Pronghorn35 mil, early 1800's1 milhttps://www.iucnredlist.org/species/1677/115056938#conservation-actionsIUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2016. Antilocapra americana (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T1677A115056938. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T1677A50181848.en. Downloaded on 15 February 2019.
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100 mil, pre-colonizationhttps://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/pronghorn
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1 milWild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Byers, J. A. 2003. Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana). Pages 998-1008 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.emailed John Byers 5-3-19
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Plains Bison30-60mil, 1500's250,000-275,000https://www.fws.gov/bisonrange/timeline.htm
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30-60mil, prior to 1600381,064https://bisoncentral.com/bison-by-the-numbers/
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30-100mil, prior to 1800530,000https://nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/american-bison
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30-75mil, pre colonization500,000Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United StatesJ. Anim. Sci. 2012. 90:1371–1375
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30-75mil, pre colonization600,000-720,000Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Reynolds, H. W., C. C. Gates, and R. D. Glaholt. 2003. Bison (Bison bison). Pages 1009-1060 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
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Wood Bison168,00010,000Recovery Strategy for the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae) in CanadaEnvironment and Climate Change Canada. 2016. Recovery Strategy for the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Canada [Proposed]. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment and Climate Change Canada. Ottawa. viii + 52 pp.
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Elk>10mil, pre colonization1milhttps://elknetwork.com/elkfacts/
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1milhttps://www.iucnredlist.org/species/55997823/134229019#populationBrook, S.M., Pluháček, J., Lorenzini, R., Lovari, S., Masseti, M., Pereladova, O. & Mattioli, S. 2018. Cervus canadensis (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T55997823A134229019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T55997823A134229019.en. Downloaded on 15 February 2019.
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10mil, precolonization1milHistoric, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United StatesJ. Anim. Sci. 2012. 90:1371–1375
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782,000Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Peek, J. M. 2003. Wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Pages 877–888 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.emailed James Peek 5-3-19
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Whitetail Deer40mil, pre colonizationhttps://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/north-american-deer-zmaz85ndzgoePress, Baltimore, MD.
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30milhttp://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/the-private-life-of-deer-infographic-learn-about-the-whitetailed-deer/8314/
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30mil, pre colonization25milHistoric, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United StatesJ. Anim. Sci. 2012. 90:1371–1375
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23.6-32.8mil, pre colonization
26milWild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Miller, K. V., L. I. Muller, and S. Demarais. 2003. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Pages 906–930 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
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Mule Deer10mil, pre colonizationhttps://www.motherearthnews.com/nature-and-environment/north-american-deer-zmaz85ndzgoe
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13mil, pre colonization4milHistoric, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United StatesJ. Anim. Sci. 2012. 90:1371–1375
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5-13mil, pre colonizationWild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Mackie, R. J., J. G. Kie, D. F. Pac, and K. L. Hamlin. 2003. Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Pages 889–905 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
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Mountain Sheep
500,000-4mil, pre colonization
166,770Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Krausman, P. R., and R. T. Bowyer. 2003. Mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis and O. dalli). Pages 1095-1115 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
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Moose1milhttps://www.iucnredlist.org/species/56003281/22157381#populationHundertmark, K. 2016. Alces alces. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T56003281A22157381. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T56003281A22157381.en. Downloaded on 15 February 2019.
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can't find historical # for moose973,000Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation 2nd ed. Bowyer, R. T., V. V. Ballenberghe, and J. G. Kie. 2003. Moose (Alces alces). Pages 931-964 in Wild Mammals of North America. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
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Caribou?can't find historical #
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Mountain Goat?can't find historical #
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Muskox?can't find historical #
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