DT Glossary of terms
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TopicTermDefinition
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1AdjustabilityThe ability of a product to be changed in size, commonly used to increase the range of percentiles that a product is appropriate for.
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1AlertnessThe level of vigilance, readiness or caution of an individual.
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1AnthropometricsThe aspect of ergonomics that deals with body measurements, particularly those of size, strength and physical capacity.
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1BiomechanicsThe research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms.
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1ClearanceThe physical space between two objects.
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1.1Cognitive ergonomicsHow mental processes, (memory, reasoning, motor response and perception), affect the interactions between users and other components of a system. 
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1ComfortA person's sense of physical or psychological ease.
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1Dynamic dataHuman body measurements taken when the subject is in motion related to range and reach of various body movements.
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1Environmental factorsA set of psychological factors that can affect the performance of an individual that come from the environment that the individual is situated.
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1ErgonomicsThe application of scientific information concerning the relationship between human beings and the design of products, systems and environments.
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1FatigueA person's sense of physical or psychological tiredness.
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1Functional data
Functional data includes dynamic data measurements while performing a required task e.g. reaching abilities, manoeuvring and aspects of space and equipment use.
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1Human factorsA scientific discipline concerned with understanding how humans interact with elements of a system.
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1Human information processing systemAn automatic system that a person uses to interpret information and react. It is normally comprised of inputs, processes (which can be sensory, central and motor), and outputs.
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1Interval dataInterval data are based on numeric scales in which we know the order and the exact difference between the values.
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1Ordinal dataA statistical data type that exists on an arbitrary numerical scale where the exact numerical value has no significance other than to rank a set of data points.
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1Percentile rangeThat proportion of a population with a dimension at or less than a given value.
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1PerceptionThe way in which something is regarded, understood or interpreted.
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1Physiological factor dataHuman factor data related to physical characteristics used to optimise the user's safety, health, comfort and performance
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1Primary dataData collected by a user for a specific purpose.
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1Psychological factor dataHuman factor data related to psychological interpretations caused by light, smell, sound, taste, temperature and texture.
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1Qualitative dataTypically descriptive data used to find out in depth the way people think or feel - their perception.
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1Quantitative dataData that can be measured and recorded using numbers.
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1Range of sizesA selection of sizes a product is made in that caters for the majority of a market.
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1ReachA range that a person can stretch to touch or grasp an object from a specified position.
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1Secondary dataData collected by someone other than the user.
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1Static dataHuman body measurements when the subject is still.
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1Structural data
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2.2Circular economyAn economy model in which resources remain in use for as long as possible, from which maximum value is extracted while in use, and the products and materials are recovered and regenerated at the end of the product life cycle.
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2.4Clean technologyProducts, services or processes that reduce waste and require the minimum amount of non-renewable resources.
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2.3Combined Heat and Power (CHP)A system that simultaneously generates heat and electricity from either the combustion of fuel, or a solar heat collector.
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2Converging technologiesThe synergistic merging of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies and cognitive science.
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2Cradle to cradleA design philosophy that aims to eliminate waste from the production, use and disposal of a product. It centres on products which are made t be made again.
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2.3Cradle to graveA design philosophy that considers the environmental effects of a product all of the way from manufacture to disposal.
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2.2DematerializationThe reduction of total material and energy throughput of any product and service.
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2Design for the environment softwareSoftware that allows designers to peform Life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product and assess its environmental impact.
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2Eco-designA design strategy that focusses on three broad environmental categories - materials, energy, and pollution/waste.
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2.3Embodied energyThe total energy required to produce a product.
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2.4End-of-pipe technologiesTechnology that is used to reduce pollutants and waste at the end of a process.
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2.3Energy distributionThe method with which energy is transported from a source to where it is used.
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2.3Energy storageThe method with which energy is stored for later use.
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2.3Energy utilizationThe method with which energy is used.
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2.5Green designDesigning in a way that takes account of the environmental impact of the product throughout its life.
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2.5Green legislationLaws and regulations that are based on conservation and sustainability principles, followed by designers and manufacturers when creating green products.
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2.4Incremental solutionsProducts which are improved and developed over time leading to new versions and generations.
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2.3Individual energy generationThe ability of an individual to use devices to create small amounts of energy to run low-energy products.
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2.5LegislationLaws considered collectively to address a certain topic.
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2.1Life cycle analysis (LCA)The assessment of the effect a product has on the environment through five stages of its life: pre-production; production; distribution (including packaging; utilization; and disposal.
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2.2Linear economyAn economy based on the make, use, dispose model.
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2.3Local combined heat and power (CHP)CHP plants that generate heat and power for a local community - the plant is close enough to the community so that the heat generated can be dispersed through the community efficiently.
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2.3National and international grid systemsAn electrical supply distribution network that can be national or international. International grids allow electricity generated in one country to be used in another.
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2.1Non-renewable resourcesA natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown as it does not naturally re-form at a rate that makes its use sustainable, for example, coal, petroleum and natural gas.
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2.2Product cycleAlso known as the product life cycle, it is a cycle that every product goes through from introdution to withdrawal or discontinuation.
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2.2Product recovery strategiesThe processes of separating the component parts of a product to recover the parts and materials.
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2.3Quantification of carbon emissionsDefining numerically the carbon emissions generated by a particular product
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2.4Radical solutionsWhere a completely new product is devised by going back to the roots of a problem and thinking about a solution in a different way.
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2.2ReconditionRebuilding a product so that it is in an “as new” condition, and is generally used in the context of car engines and tyres.
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2.2Recovery of raw materialsStrategies for the separation of components of a product in order to recover raw materials.
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2.2RecycleRecycling refers to using the materials from obsolete products to create other products.
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2.2Re-engineerTo redesign components or products to improve their characteristics or performance.
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2.1RenewabilityThe level at which a resource is renewable. The rate that a resource can be replenished.
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2.1Renewable resourcesA natural resource that can replenished with the passage of time, or does not abate at all.
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2.2RepairThe reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing structure or device.
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2.1ReservesReserves are natural resources that have been identified in terms of quanitity and quality.
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2.1ResourcesResources are the stock or supply of materials that are available in a given context.
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2.2Re-useReuse of a product in the same context or in a different context.
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2.2System level solutionsSolutions that are implemeted to deal with the whole system, rather than just components.
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2.5The precautionary principleThe anticipation of potential problems in relation to the environmental impact of the production, use and disposal of a product.
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2.5The prevention principleThe avoidance or minimization of producing waste in relation to the production, use and disposal of a product.
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1,1Waste mitigation strategiesStrategies used to reduce the waste produced by a product or in the production and disposal of a product.
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3Aesthetic modelsA model developed to look and feel like the final product.
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3AnimationThe ability to link graphic screens together in such a way as to simulate motion or a process.
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3Assembly drawingsA diagram that shows how components fit together to make a whole. Typically presented in an exploded view.
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3Bottom-up modellingA designer creates part geometry independet of the assembly or any other component. Although there are often some design criteria established before modelling the part, this information is not sharedbetween models. Once all parts are completed, they are brought together for the first time in the assembly.
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3Computer Aided Design (CAD)The use of computers to aid the design process.
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3Conceptual modellingA model that exists in the mind used to help us know and understand ideas.
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3Data ModellingA model that determines the structure of data.
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3Digital humanComputer simulation of a variety of mechanical and biological aspects of the human body.
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3FidelityThe degree to which a prototype is exactly like the final product.
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3Finite element analysis (FEA)The calculation and simulation of unknown factors in products using CAD systems. For example, simulating the stresses within a welded car part.
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3Formal drawing techniquesA type of drawing technique that has fixed rules, the most widely used being isometric projection and perspective drawing.
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3Fused deposition modelling (FDM)A 3D printing technique that places melted layers of material on a bed to build up a 3D model.
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3Graphical modelsA visualization of an idea, often created on paper or through software, in two or three dimensions.
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3Haptic technologyHaptic technology is an emerging technology that interfaces the user via the sense of touch.
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3Instrumented modelsPrototypes that are equipped with the ability to take measurements to provide accurate quantitative feedback for analysis.
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3Laminated object manufacturing (LOM)A system that virtually slices a 3D CAD model into thin layers, then cuts out each layer from a roll of material using a laser or plotter cutter. The layers can then be glued in the correct order to create a 3D model.
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3Mock-upsA scale or full-size representation of a product used to gain feedback from users.
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3Motion captureThe recording of human and animal movement by any means, for example, by video, magnetic or electro-mechanical devices.
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3Part drawingsOrthographic drawings of the components of an assembly containing details just about that component.
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3Perspective drawingsA set of formal drawing techniques that depicts an object as getting smaller and closer together the further away they are. The techniques are one-point perspective, two-point perspective, and three-point perspective.
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3Physical modellingThe creation of a smaller or larger tangible version of an object that can be physcially interacted with.
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3Projection drawingsSystems of drawings that are accurately drawn, the two mai types are isometric projection (formal drawing technique) and orthographic projection (working drawing technique).
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3PrototypesA sample or model built to test a concept or process, or to act as an object to be replicated or learned from. Prototypes can be developed at a range of fidelity and for different contexts.
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3Scale drawingsDrawings that are bigger or smaller than the real product, but exactly in proportion with product.
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3Scale modelsA model that is either a smaller or larger physical copy of an object.
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3Selective laser sintering (SLS)An additive manufacturing technique that uses a laser to fuse small particles of material into a mass that has a desired 3D shape.
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3SketchesRough drawings of ideas used to convey or refine the idea.
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3Solid modellingSolid models are clear representations of the final part. They provide a complete set of data for the product to be realized.
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3Stereo-lithographyA modelling technique that creates 3D models layer-by-layer by hardening molecules of a liquid polymer using a laser beam.
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