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TERMEXPLANATION
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AggregatesThey are a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction such as sand, gravel, crushed stone. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. The grain size of sand used as aggregate ranges from 0.08 – 80mm diameter. Coarse sand with angular grains are preferred for construction
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AlluvialMade up of or found in the materials that are left by the water of rivers, floods
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Bituminous sandsSee Tar sands
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BorrowA term used for an area that has been dug up for material that will be used elsewhere
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CroreA unit of currency used in India and some neighbouring countries. It is a unit of value equal to ten million rupees or 100 lakhs
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Cubic footA unit of measurement for volume used in the US, and sometimes also in Canada and the UK
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DredgingA method of excavation of bottom sediments from the seas, rivers or lakes
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Fluvial Associated with rivers and streams and sediments or landforms created by them
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FrackingAlso known as Hydraulic Fracturing. It is a technique of energy generation that involves the injection of high-pressure fracking fluid into Shale formations to create cracks in the earth. This facilitates the release of natural gas through these cracks. Sand is often used as a proppant to keep the cracks open
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Heavy mineralsAn economically important set of minerals that have a density greater than 2.8-2.9 g/cm3. Some examples are ilmenite, rutile, magenetite, zircon, monazite etc
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Heavy mineral sands
These are sands bearing heavy mineral ores usually found in beach environments as placer deposits
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Hydraulic FracturingSee Fracking
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Lakhs or LacsA unit of currency used in India and some neighbouring countries. It is equal to one hundred thousand(100,000). In the Indian convention of digit grouping, it is written as 1,00,000.
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Land reclamationAlso known as reclamation. It is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds or lake beds
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Land subsidenceLand subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the Earth's surface owing to subsurface movement of earth materials. It can result in gradual or sudden destruction of built-up areas and result in great losses.
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MafiaAn organised crime syndicate that usually follows a complex and ruthless behavioural code
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Marinean adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean
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Metal castingAn industrial process in which liquid metal is poured into a mold, that contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to cool and solidify
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Metric tonSee Tonne
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Oil sandsSee Tar sands
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Open cut miningSee Open-pit mining
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Open-cast miningSee Open-pit mining
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Open-pit miningAlso known as Open cut mining or Open-cast mining. It is a technique of extracting rocks or minerals found on the earth's surface via large pits or borrows
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OverburdenThe surface material covering an economically valuable deposit
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Placer depositsAlso known as placers. These are the accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation during sedimentary processes. The name is from the Spanish word placer, meaning "alluvial sand". Many placers are found along beaches
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ProppantMaterials (often sand) that are used to keep the fractures in the earth open during hydrauling fracturing operations
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QuartzThe second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. The chemical formula is SiO2 i.e Silicon di-oxide. Also known as silica. Quartz is the most common form of silica
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ReclamationSee Land reclamation. Sometimes, this term can be used to refer to returning disturbed lands to an improved state. However, in the context of the industries associated with sand mining, it usually refers to land reclamation
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Sand castingAn industrial process of metal casting where sand is used as the mold material. Over 70% of all metal castings are done via sand casting
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SandstoneIt is a sedimentary rock usually formed of quartz or feldspar
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SedimentationIt is the collective name for processes that cause mineral and/or organic particles to settle in place
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Sedimentary rocksSedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water
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ShaleA type of fine-grained, sedimentary rock composed of mud that also contains clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz
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SilicaAlso known as silicon di-oxide. Often found in the form of quartz. Sand is often made of silica and other minerals
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SilicosisA deadly lung disease caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust
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Tar sandsAlso known as Bituminous sands or Oil Sands. These are unconventional desposits of petroleum found either as loose sand or as partially consolidated sandstone
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TonneAlso known as the metric ton in the US. It is a unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms
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