References Related to ICTs, Activism, and Politics
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Benkler, Yochai. 2006. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven: Yale University Press.Y
Bennett, Daniel, and Pam Fielding. 1999. The Net Effect: How Cyberadvocacy Is Changing the Political Landscape. Merrifield, VA: e-advocates Press.Y
Beyer, Jessica Lucia. 2011. "Youth and the Generation of Political Consciousness Online." Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Political Science, University of Washington.Y
Bimber, Bruce, Andrew J. Flanagin, and Cynthia Stohl. 2005. "Reconceptualizing Collective Action in the Contemporary Media Environment." Communication Theory 15 (4):365-388.Y
Earl, Jennifer, and Alan Schussman. 2001. "From Barricades to Firewalls: The Strategic Voting Movement and the Changing Face of Contention on the Internet." Annual Meetings at The American Sociological Association, Anaheim, CA.Y
Earl, Jennifer, and Alan Schussman. 2003. "The New Site of Activism: On-Line Organizations, Movement Entrepreneurs, and the Changing Location of Social Movement Decision-Making." Research in Social Movements, Conflicts, and Change 24:155-187.Y
Earl, Jennifer, and Alan Schussman. 2004. "Cease and Desist: Repression, Strategic Voting and the 2000 Presidential Election." Mobilization 9 (2):181-202.Y
Earl, Jennifer, and Katrina Kimport. 2011. Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Y
Earl, Jennifer, Heather McKee Hurwitz, Analicia Mejia Mesinas, Margaret Tolan, and Ashley Arlotti. 2013. "This Protest Will Be Tweeted: Twitter and Protest Policing during the Pittsburgh G20." Information, Communication & Society 16 (4):459-478.Y
Earl, Jennifer, Katrina Kimport, Greg Prieto, Carly Rush, and Kimberly Reynoso. 2010. "Changing the World One Webpage at a Time: Conceptualizing and Explaining 'Internet Activism." Mobilization 15 (4):425-446.Y
Earl, Jennifer. 2007. "Leading Tasks in a Leaderless Movement: The Case of Strategic Voting." American Behavioral Scientist 50 (10):1327-1349.Y
Eschenfelder, Kristen R., Robert Glenn Howard, and Anuj C. Desai. 2005. "Who Posts DeCSS and Why? A Content Analysis of Web Sites Posting DVD Circumvention Software." Journal for the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56 (13):1405-1418.Y
Eschenfelder, Kristin R., and Anuj C. Desai. 2004. "Software as Protest: The Unexpected Resiliency of U.S.-Based DeCSS Posting and Linking." The Information Society 20 (2):101-116.Y
Gurak, Laura J. 1997. Persuasion and Privacy in Cyberspace: The Online Protests over Lotus MarketPlace and the Clipper Chip. New Haven: Yale University Press.Y
Gurak, Laura J. 1999. "The Promise and the Peril of Social Action in Cyberspace." In Communities in Cyberspace, edited by Mark A. Smith and Peter Kollock, 243-263. London: Routledge.Y
Gurak, Laura J., and John Logie. 2003. "Internet Protests, from Text to Web." In Cyberactivism: Online Activism and Theory and Practice, edited by Martha McCaughey and Michael D. Ayers, 25-46. New York: Routledge.Y
Rainie, Lee, and Barry Wellman. 2012. Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Y
Schussman, Alan, and Jennifer Earl. 2004. "From Barricades to Firewalls? Strategic Voting and Social Movement Leadership in the Internet Age." Sociological Inquiry 74 (4):439-463. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-682X.2004.00100.x.Y
Shirky, Clay. 2008. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: Penguin Press.Y
Aday, Sean, Henry Farrell, Marc Lynch, John Sides, and Deen Freelon. 2012. Blogs and Bullets II: New Media and Conflict After the Arab Spring. In Peaceworks. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute on Peace.
Aday, Sean, Henry Farrell, Marc Lynch, John Sides, John Kelly, and Ethan Zuckerman. 2010. Blogs And Bullets: New Media In Contentious Politics. In Peaceworks. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.
Alexanyan, Karina, Vladimir Barash, Bruce Etling, Robert Faris, Urs Gasser, John Kelly, John Palfrey, and Hal Roberts. 2012. Exploring Russian Cyberspace: Digitally-Mediated Collective Action and the Networked Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA: Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University.
Almeida, Paul D., and Mark Irving Lichbach. 2003. "To the Internet, from the Internet: Comparative Media Coverage of Transnational Protests." Mobilization 8 (3):249-272.
Arquilla, John, and David Ronfeldt. 2001. Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy: RAND.
Ayers, Michael D. 2003. "Comparing Collective Identity in Online and Offline Feminist Activists." In Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and Practice, edited by Martha McCaughey and Michael D. Ayers, 145-164. New York: Routledge.
Ayres, Jeffrey M. 1999. "From the Streets to the Internet: The Cyber-Diffusion of Contention." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 566 (1):132-143.
Ayres, Jeffrey M. 2005. "Transnational Activism in the Americas: The Internet and Innovations in the Repertoire of Contention." Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 26:35-61.
Bakardjieva, Maria. 2009. "Subactivism: Lifeworld and Politics in the Age of the Internet." The Information Society 25 (2):91-104.
Balkin, Jack M. 2004. "Digital Speech and Democratic Culture: a Theory of Freedom of Expression for the Information Society." NYU Law Review 79 (1).
Bennet, W. Lance. 2003. "New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism." In Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World, edited by Nick Couldry and James Curran, 17-37. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
Bennett, W. Lance, Christian Breunig, and Terri Givens. 2008. "Communication and Political Mobilization: Digital Media and the Organization of Anti-Iraq War Demonstrations in the U.S." Political Communication 25 (3):269-289.
Bennett, W. Lance. 2003. "Communicating Global Activism: Strengths and Vulnerabilities of Networked Politics." Information, Communication and Society 6 (2):143-168.
Bennett, W. Lance. 2003. "New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism." In Contesting Media Power, edited by Nick Couldry and James Curran, 17-37. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
Bennett, W. Lance. 2004. "Social Movements Beyond Borders: Understanding Two Eras of Transnational Activism." In Transnational Protest and Global Activism, edited by Donatella della Porta and Sidney Tarrow, 203-227. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Bennett, W.Lance. 2004a. "Communicating Global Activism: Strengths and Vulnerabilities of Networked Politics " In Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements, edited by Wim van de Donk, Brian D. Loader, Paul G. Nixon and Deiter Rucht, 123-146. New York Routledge.
Bimber, Bruce, Andrew J. Flanagin, and Cynthia Stohl. 2012. Collective Action in Organizations: Interaction and Engagement in an Era of Technological Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bimber, Bruce, Cynthia Stohl, and Andrew J. Flanagin. 2008. "Technological Change and the Shifting Nature of Political Organization." In Handbook of Internet Politics, edited by Andrew Chadwick, 72-85. New York: Routledge.
Bob, Clifford. "Institutionalization or Contestation? Transnational Battles over Expression and Privacy in Internet Governance." Global Internet Governance Academic Network 2nd Annual Symposium, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 11 November 2007.
Brunsting, Suzanne, and Tom Postmes. 2002. "Social Movement Participation in the Digital Age: Predicting Offline and Online Collective Action." Small Group Research 33 (5):525-554.
Burns, Alex, and Ben Eltham. 2009. "Twitter Free Iran: an Evaluation of Twitter's Role in Public Diplomacy and Information Operations in Iran's 2009 Election Crisis." Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009, University of Technology, Sydney, November 19-20, 2009.
Cardoso, Gustavo, and Pedro Pereira Neto. 2004. "Mass Media Driven Mobilization and Online Protest: ICTs and the pro-East Timor movement in Portugal." In Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements, edited by W.V.D. Donk, B.D. Loader, et al. New York: Routledge.
Carty, Victoria. 2002. "Technology and Counter-hegemonic Movements: The Case of Nike Corporation." Social Movement Studies 1 (2):129-146.
Carty, Victoria. 2011. Wired and Mobilizing: Social Movements, New Technology, and Electoral Politics. New York: Routledge.
Castells, Manuel. 1997. The Power of Identity. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.
Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Chadwick, Andrew. 2007. "Digital Network Repertoires and Organizational Hybridity." Political Communication 24:283-301.
Clark, J. D., and N. S. Themudo. 2003. "The age of protest: internet based "dot causes" and the "anti-globalization" movement." In Globalizing Civic Engagement. Civil Society and Transnational Action, edited by J.D. Clark. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
Cloward, Richard A., and Frances Fox Piven. 2001. "Disrupting Cyberspace: A New Frontier for Labor Activism?" New Labour Forum Spring/Summer 2001:91-94.
Cohen, Cathy J., Joseph Kahne, Benjamin Bowyer, Ellen Middaugh, and Jon Rogowski. 2012. Participatory Politics: New Media and Youth Political Action. Chicago: MacArthur.
Dahlgren, Peter, and Tobias Olsson. 2007. "Young activists, Political Horizons and the Internet: Adapting the Net to One’s Purposes." In Young Citizens in the Digital Age: Political Engagement, Young People and New Media, edited by Brian Loader, 68-81. New York: Routledge.
Dahlgren, Peter. 2000. "The Internet and the Democratization of Civic Culture." Political Communication 17 (4):335-340.
Dahlgren, Peter. 2005. "The Internet, Public Spheres, and Political Communication: Dispersion and Deliberation." Political Communication 22 (2):147-162.
Damphousse, Kelly R., and Brent L. Smith. 1998. "The Internet: A Terrorist Medium for the 21st Century." In The Future of Terrorism: Violence in the New Millennium, edited by Harvey W. Kushner, 208-224. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Danitz, T., and W.P. Strobel. 1999. "The Internet's Impact on Activism: the Case of Burma." Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 22 (3):257-269.
Dawson, Lorne L., and Jenna Hennebry. 1999. "New Religions and the Internet: Recruiting in a New Public Space." Journal of Contemporary Religion 14 (1):17-39.
Deibert, R.J. 2000. "International Plug 'n' Play? Citizen Activism, the Internet, and Global Public Policy." International Studies Perspectives 1 (3):255-272.
della Porta, Donatella, and Lorenzo Mosca. 2009. "Searching the Net: Web Sites’ Qualities in the Global Justice Movement." Information, Communication & Society 12 (6):771–792.
Denning, D.E. 2001. "Activism, hacktivism, and cyberterrorism: the internet as a tool for influencing foreign policy " In Networks and netwars: the future of terror, crime, and militancy, edited by J. Arquilla and D. Ronfeld. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.
Diani, Mario. 2000. "Social Movement Networks Virtual and Real." Information, Communication and Society 3 (3):386-401.
Donk, Wim Van De, Brian D. Loader, Paul G. Nixon, and Dieter Rucht, eds. 2004. Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. New York: Routledge.
Downing, John D.H. 1989. "Computers for Political Change: PeaceNet and Public Data Access." Journal of Communication 39 (3):154-162.
Downing, John, Rob Fasano, Patricia A. Friedland, Michael F. McCullough, Terry Mizrahi, and Jeremy J. Shapiro. 1991. "Computers for Social Change: Introduction." In Computers for Social Change and Community Organizing, edited by John Downing, Rob Fasano, Patricia A. Friedland, Michael F. McCullough, Terry Mizrahi and Jeremy J. Shapiro, 1-8. New York: Haworth Press.
Eagleton-Pierce, Mathew. 2001. "The Internet and the Seattle WTO Protests." Peace Review 13 (3):331-337.
Earl, Jennifer , and Katrina Kimport. 2008. "The Targets of Online Protest: State and Private Targets of Four Online Protest Tactics." Information, Communication and Society 11 (4):449-472.
Earl, Jennifer, and Alan Schussman. 2008. "Contesting Cultural Control: Youth Culture and Online Petitioning." In Digital Media and Civic Engagement, edited by W. Lance Bennett, 71-95. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Earl, Jennifer, and Katrina Kimport. 2009. "Movement Societies and Digital Protest: Fan Activism and Other Non-Political Protest Online." Sociological Theory 23 (3):220-243.
Earl, Jennifer, and Katrina Kimport. 2010. "The Diffusion of Different Types of Internet Activism: Suggestive Patterns in Website Adoption of Innovations." In Dynamics of Diffusion in Social Movements, edited by Becky Givans, Kenneth Roberts and Sarah A. Soule, 125-139. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Earl, Jennifer. 2006. "Pursuing Social Change Online: The Use of Four Protest Tactics on the Internet." Social Science Computer Review 24 (3):362-377. doi: 10.1177/0894439305284627.
Earl, Jennifer. 2010. "Dynamics of Protest-Related Diffusion on the Web." Information, Communication and Society 13 (2):209-225.
Earl, Jennifer. 2011. "Protest Online: Theorizing the Consequences of Online Engagement." Outcomes of Social Movements and Protest Conference, Wissenschaftszentrum, Berlin, Germany, June 24, 2011.
Earl, Jennifer. 2012. "Private Protest? Public and Private Engagement Online." Information, Communication & Society 15 (4):591-608.
Earl, Jennifer. 2012. "The Internet, Occupy Wall Street, and the Tea Party." Annual Meetings of the International Communication Association, Phoenix, Arizona, May 2012.
Elkins, David J. 1997. "Globalization, Telecommunication, and Virtual Ethnic Communities." International Political Science Review 18 (2):139-152.
Ems, Lindsay. 2009. "Twitter Use in Iranian, Moldovan and G-20 Summit Protests Presents New Challenges for Governments." CHI 2009, Boston, Massachusetts.
Etling, Bruce, Robert Faris, and John Palfrey. 2010. "Political Change in the Digital Age: The Fragility and Promise of Online Organizing." SAIS Review Summer-Fall 37-49.
Fandy, Mamoun. 1999. "CyberResistance: Saudi Opposition Between Globalization and Localization." Comparative Study of Society and History 41 (1):124-147.
Fisher, Dana R. 1998. "Rumoring Theory and the Internet: A Framework for Analyzing the Grass Roots." Social Science Computer Review 16 (2):158-168.
Fisher, Dana R., and Marije Boekkooi. 2010. "Mobilizing Friends and Strangers: Understanding the Role of the Internet in the Step It Up Day of Action." Information, Communication & Society 13 (2):193-208.
Fisher, Dana, Kevin Stanley, David Berman, and Gina Neff. 2005. "How Do Organizations Matter? Mobilization and Support for Participants at Five Globalization Protests." Social Problems 52:102-121.
Flanagin, Andrew J., Cynthia Stohl, and Bruce Bimber. 2006. "Modeling the Structure of Collective Action." Communication Monographs 73:29-54.
Froehling, O. 1997. "The Cyberspace "War of Ink and Internet"." Geographical Review 87 (2):291-307.
Galusky, Wyatt. 2003. "Identifying with Information: Citizen Empowerment, the Internet, and the Environmental Anti-Toxins Movement." In Cyberactivism: Online Activism in Theory and Practice, edited by Martha McCaughey and Michael D. Ayers. New York: Routledge.
Ganesh, Shiv, and Cynthia Stohl. 2010. "Qualifying Engagement: A Study of Information and Communication Technology and the Global Social Justice Movement in Aotearoa New Zealand." Communication Monographs 77 (1):51-74. doi: 10.1080/03637750903514284.
Garrett, R. Kelly, and Paul N. Edwards. 2007. "Revoluntionary Secrets: Technology's Role in the South African Anti-Apartheid Movement." Social Science Computer Review 25 (1):13-26.
Garrett, R. Kelly. 2006. "Protest in an Information Society: A Review of the Literature on Social Movement and New ICTs." Information, Communication, and Society 9 (2):202-224.
Garrido, Maria, and Alexander Halavais. 2003. "Mapping Networks of Support for the Zapatista Movement: Applying Social-Networks Analysis to Study Contemporary Social Movements." In Cyberactivism: Online activism in theory and practice, edited by Martha McCaughey and Michael D. Ayers, 165-184. New York: Routledge.
Gerhards, Jurgen, and Dieter Rucht. 1992. "Mesomobilization: Organizing and Framing in Two Protest Campaigns in West Germany." American Journal of Sociology 98 (3):555-95.
Gillan, Kevin. 2009. "The UK Anti-war Movement Online: Uses and Limitations of Internet Technologies for Contemporary Activism." Information, Communication & Society 12 (1):25–43.
Gladwell, Malcolm. 2010. "Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted." New Yorker, October 4, 2010.
Grignou, Brigitte le, and Charles Patou. 2004. "ATTAC(k)ing Expertise: Does the Internet Really Democratize Knowledge?" In Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements, edited by W.V.D. Donk, B.D. Loader, et al. New York: Routledge.
Grossman, Lev. 2009. "Iran Protests: Twitter, the Medium of the Movement." Time.
Hackenberg, Robert A. 2000. "Joe Hill in Cyberspace: Steps Toward Creating "One Big Union"." Human Organization 59 (3):365-369.
Hasian, Marouf Jr. 2001. "The Internet and the Human Genome." Peace Review 13 (3):375-380.
Hill, K., and J. Hughes. 1998. Cyberpolitics: Citizen Activism in the Age of the Internet. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Hindman, Matthew, Kostas Tsioutsiouliklis, and Judy A. Johnson. 2004. How and Why the Web Matters for Politics: An Emperical Examination of Link Structure Within Online Political Communities.
Hooghe, Marc, Sara Vissers, Dietlind Stolle, and Valérie-Anne Mahéo. 2010. "The Potential of Internet Mobilization: An Experimental Study on the Effect of Internet and Face-to-Face Mobilization Efforts." Political Communication 27 (4):406-431. doi: 10.1080/10584609.2010.516799.
Horton, Dave. 2004. "Local Environmentalism and the Internet." Environmental Politics 13 (4):734-753.
Howard, Philip N., and Muzammil M. Hussain. 2011. "The Role of Digital Media." Journal of Democracy 22 (3):35-48.
Johnston, Hank, and Shoon Lio. 1998. "Collective Behavior and Social Movements in the Post-Modern Age: Looking Backward to Look Forward." Sociological Perspectives 41 (3):453-472.
ICTs and Activism
ICTs and Politics Generally