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8/17/18HS Earth Science
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HS-ESS1-1 (Earth's Place in the Universe)
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Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun's core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation.
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Clarification Statement
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Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun's core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun's radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Developing and using models:
Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

• Develop and/or use multiple types of models to provide mechanistic accounts and/or predict phenomena, and move flexibly between model types based on merits and limitations.
THE UNIVERSE AND ITS STARS
All stars, such as our sun, are evolving. The star called Sol, our sun, will burn out over a lifespan of approximately 10 billion years. (HS.ESS1A.a)

The Big Bang theory is supported by observations of distant galaxies receding from our own, of the measured composition of stars and non-stellar gases, and of the maps of spectra of the primordial radiation (cosmic microwave background) that still fills the universe. (HS.ESS1A.c)

ENERGY IN CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND EVERYDAY LIFE
Nuclear fusion processes in the center of the sun release the energy that ultimately reaches Earth as radiation. (HS.PS3D.c)
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Crosscutting Concepts
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SCALE, PROPORTION, AND QUANTITY
The significance of a phenomenon is dependent on the scale, proportion, and quantity at which it occurs.
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HS-ESS1-2 (Earth's Place in the Universe)
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Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements.
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Clarification Statement
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Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the redshift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by Big Bang theory.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Constructing explanations and designing solutions:
Constructing explanations (science) and designing solutions (engineering) in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

• Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students' own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future..
THE UNIVERSE AND ITS STARS
The study of stars' light spectra and brightness is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. (HS.ESS1A.b)

The Big Bang theory is supported by observations of distant galaxies receding from our own, of the measured composition of stars and non-stellar gases, and of the maps of spectra of the primordial radiation (cosmic microwave background) that still fills the universe. (HS.ESS1A.c)

Other than the hydrogen and helium formed at the time of the Big Bang, nuclear fusion within stars produces all atomic nuclei lighter than and including iron, and the process releases electromagnetic energy. Heavier elements are produced when certain massive stars achieve a supernova stage and explode. (HS.ESS1A.d)

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
Atoms of each element emit and absorb characteristic frequencies of light. These characteristics allow identification of the presence of an element, even in microscopic quantities. (HS.PS4B.d)
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Crosscutting Concepts
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ENERGY AND MATTER
Energy cannot be created or destroyed—only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems.
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HS-ESS1-3 (Earth's Place in the Universe)
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Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements.
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Clarification Statement
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Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, depends on the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.
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Science and Engineering PracticeDisciplinary Core Idea
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Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information:
Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information in 9-12 builds on K-8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

• Communicate scientific and/or technical information or ideas (e.g. about phenomena and/or the process of development and the design and performance of a proposed process or system) in multiple formats (i.e., orally, graphically, textually, mathematically).
THE UNIVERSE AND ITS STARS
The study of stars' light spectra and brightness is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. (HS.ESS1A.b)

Other than the hydrogen and helium formed at the time of the Big Bang, nuclear fusion within stars produces all atomic nuclei lighter than and including iron, and the process releases electromagnetic energy. Heavier elements are produced when certain massive stars achieve a supernova stage and explode. (HS.ESS1A.d)

ENERGY IN CHEMICAL PROCESSES AND EVERYDAY LIFE
Nuclear fusion processes in the center of the sun release the energy that ultimately reaches Earth as radiation. (HS.PS3D.c)
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