|1. Create a Sense of Urgency||Describe a Big Opportunity that will appeal to individuals' minds and hearts, and use it to create urgency.||What is your Big Opportunity?|
- Do you see a Big Opportunity that could ignite hearts and minds?
- Do you know how to identify, articulate and communicate it?
- What are the stakes if you succeed? What are the consequences if you fail?
|- Underestimating the difficulty of driving people from their comfort zones|
- Becoming paralyzed by risks.
|2. Build a Guiding Coalition||The Coalition must be cross-functional, cross-hierarchical, receive and synthesize information at all levels of the organisation.||What makes a great Guiding Coalition? |
- Diversity of the team in terms of level, function, geographic location, tenure, and ideas
- An ability and willingness to work across the hierarchy while also working with people across all levels and functions, with respect and energy
- A commitment to the change initiative at hand.
|- No prior experience in teamwork at the top|
- Relegating team leadership to an HR, quality, or strategic-planning executive rather than a senior line manager.
|3. Form a Strategic Vision and Initiatives||Strategic initiatives are targeted and coordinated activities that, if designed and executed fast enough and well enough, will make your vision a reality.||What makes a Strategic Vision? |
- Motivates people to take action, coordinates and aligns their actions
- Without it, strategic initiatives can struggle to get activity behind them
- Clarifies how the future will be different from the past, and how that future will become a reality
- Ties directly to the Big Opportunity.
|- Presenting a vision that's too complicated or vague to be communicated in five minutes.|
|4. Enlist a Volunteer Army||Large-scale change can only occur when very significant numbers of employees amass under a common opportunity and drive in the same direction.||How do you build a Voluntary Army?|
- Give people a reason and motivation to join the movement. A strong vision goes a long way
- Don't boil the ocean - while you reach "stickiness" once you surpass 50%, about 15% of your organization is enough to build material momentum toward change
- Recognize the effort of existing volunteers to keep them engaged and to recruit more.
|- You fail to develop the feeling of "wants to" vs "has to" contribute within the team|
- The Volunteer Army doesn't have true permission to step up and act.
|5. Enable Actions by Removing Barriers||By removing barriers such as inefficient processes and archaic norms, leaders provide the freedom necessary for employees to work across boundaries and create real impact.||How to spot Barriers:|
- In order to remove barriers, you must identify them. Think about why past initiatives have failed. At what stage? Did they get off the ground at all? Stall mid-way? Get completed but then abandoned?
- Barriers can be commonly accepted statements that, while appearing helpful, can deter attempts to get past legacy obstacles. These are statements like "It's just not done that way", or "We tried that before - it didn't work."
- Common barriers include: silos, parochialism, pressure to hit numbers, complacency, legacy rules or procedures, and limited access to key stakeholders and leaders.
|- Failing to remove powerful individuals who resist the change effort.|
|6. Generate Short-term Wins||Wins must be collected, categorized and communicated - early and often - to track progress and energize your volunteers to drive change.||Characteristics of an effective Win:|
- Relevant in light of the opportunity before you
- Meaningful to others. People beyond the winner or winners care about the win, be it members of your team, another team, customers, stakeholders, etc.
- Unambiguous, visible, and tangible such that people can replicate or adapt it. Wins have the most impact when they scale across organizations.
|- Leaving short-term successes up to chance|
- Failing to score successes early enough (12-24 months into the change effort)
|7. Sustain Acceleration||Press harder after the first successes. Your increasing credibility can improve systems, structures and policies. Be relentless with initiating change after change until the vision is a reality.||Tips to sustain Acceleration:|
- Revisit urgency after generating some significant wins. It is so easy to lose sight of the ultimate goal, which is to move the initiatives into the culture and sustain them. It may be necessary to revisit some of the urgency-raising activities incorporated at the start
- Get more and more people involved, always looking for ways to expand the volunteer army
- With new volunteers and fresh eyes, you'll find more barriers in need of knowking down. Remove them, too!
|- Declaring victory too soon - with the first performance improvement|
- Allowing resistors to convince "troops" that the war has been won.
|8. Institute Change||Define and communicate the connections between those behaviours and the organization's success.||Making it stick:|
- New practices must be deeply rooted and anchored to replace the old ways
- There must be clear communication and synchronization between the traditional hierarchical structure and the innovative network of volunteers
- A key challenge is grafting the new practices onto old but still effective roots while killing off the inconsistent pieces.
|- Not creating new social norms and shared values consistent with changes|
- Promoting people into leadership positions who don't personify the new approach.
Adapted from 8 STEPS TO ACCELERATE CHANGE EBOOK, on https://www.kotterinc.com/research-and-perspectives/8-steps-accelerating-change-ebook/
HBR's 10 Must Reads on Change Management (including featured article "Leading Change," by John P. Kotter)