|Welcome to the Glossary for The Things We Don’t Say: An Anthology of Chronic Illness Truths|
|For information about the book, please visit chronicillnesstruths.com|
Notes: Scroll to the right to see links to websites. You can easily search the glossary using the search function in your browser.
|Ableism||From Lexico: Discrimination in favor of able-bodied people.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/ableism|
|Accessibility||From Lexico: The quality of being easily reached, entered, or used by people who have a disability.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/accessibility|
|Accommodations||From Nolo: A reasonable accommodation is assistance or changes to a position or workplace that will enable an employee to do his or her job despite having a disability.||https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/free-books/employee-rights-book/chapter7-8.html|
|Activism||From Lexico: The policy or action of using vigorous campaigning to bring about political or social change.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/activism|
|Acupressure||From Collins Dictionary: Acupressure is the treatment of pain by a type of massage in which pressure is put on certain areas of a person's body.||https://www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/acupressure|
|Acupuncture||From MayoClinic: Acupuncture involves the insertion of very thin needles through your skin at strategic points on your body. A key component of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture is most commonly used to treat pain. Increasingly, it is being used for overall wellness, including stress management.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/acupuncture/about/pac-20392763|
|Adenomyosis||From WebMD: Adenomyosis is a condition in which the inner lining of the uterus (the endometrium) breaks through the muscle wall of the uterus (the myometrium). Adenomyosis can cause menstrual cramps, lower abdominal pressure, and bloating before menstrual periods and can result in heavy periods. The condition can be located throughout the entire uterus or localized in one spot.|
Though adenomyosis is considered a benign (not life-threatening) condition, the frequent pain and heavy bleeding associated with it can have a negative impact on a [preson]'s quality of life.
|Adolescence||From Lexico: The period following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child into an adult.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/adolescence|
|Adrenal Disorder||From MedlinePlus: With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol.||https://medlineplus.gov/adrenalglanddisorders.html|
|Ageism||From Lexico: Prejudice or discrimination on the grounds of a person's age.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/ageism|
|Allergy||From Lexico: A damaging immune response by the body to a substance, especially pollen, fur, a particular food, or dust, to which it has become hypersensitive.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/allergy|
|Alternative medicine||From MedicineNet: Alternative medicine is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Alternative medicine is used in place of standard medical care. An example is treating heart disease with chelation therapy (which seeks to remove excess metals from the blood) instead of using a standard approach. Examples of alternative practices include homeopathy, traditional medicine, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Complementary medicine is different from alternative medicine. Whereas complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine. See also complementary medicine, conventional medicine.||https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2211|
|Anorexia||From Mayo Clinic: Anorexia nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. People with anorexia place a high value on controlling their weight and shape, using extreme efforts that tend to significantly interfere with their lives.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anorexia-nervosa/symptoms-causes/syc-20353591|
|Anosmia||From Healthline: Anosmia is the partial or complete loss of the sense of smell. This loss may be temporary or permanent.||https://www.healthline.com/health/anosmia|
|Anxiety||From Mayo Clinic: Experiencing occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. However, people with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and fear or terror that reach a peak within minutes (panic attacks).|
These feelings of anxiety and panic interfere with daily activities, are difficult to control, are out of proportion to the actual danger and can last a long time. You may avoid places or situations to prevent these feelings. Symptoms may start during childhood or the teen years and continue into adulthood.
Examples of anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder (social phobia), specific phobias and separation anxiety disorder. You can have more than one anxiety disorder. Sometimes anxiety results from a medical condition that needs treatment.
|Arthritis||From Healthline: Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints. It can affect one joint or multiple joints. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis, with different causes and treatment methods.||https://www.healthline.com/health/arthritis|
|Asexual||From The Trevor Project: Asexual people – also known as “Ace” or “Aces” – may have little interest in having sex, even though most desire emotionally intimate relationships. Within the ace community there are many ways for people to identify.||https://www.thetrevorproject.org/trvr_support_center/asexual/|
|Asthma||From Mayo Clinic: Asthma is a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/asthma/symptoms-causes/syc-20369653|
|Autism||From Mayo Clinic: Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term "spectrum" in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20352928|
|Autoimmune disease||From Healthline: An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body.|
The immune system normally guards against germs like bacteria and viruses. When it senses these foreign invaders, it sends out an army of fighter cells to attack them.
Normally, the immune system can tell the difference between foreign cells and your own cells.
In an autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakes part of your body, like your joints or skin, as foreign. It releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells.
Some autoimmune diseases target only one organ. Type 1 diabetes damages the pancreas. Other diseases, like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), affect the whole body.
|Autonomic nervous system dysfunction||see autonomic neuropathy|
|Autonomic neuropathy||From Mayo Clinic: Autonomic neuropathy occurs when the nerves that control involuntary bodily functions are damaged. It can affect blood pressure, temperature control, digestion, bladder function and even sexual function.|
The nerve damage interferes with the messages sent between the brain and other organs and areas of the autonomic nervous system, such as the heart, blood vessels and sweat glands.
|Bartholin’s cyst||From Healthline: A Bartholin's cyst is a fluid-filled swelling on one of the Bartholin’s glands. The Bartholin’s glands are on each side of the opening of the vagina, on the lips of the labia. They secrete vaginal lubricating fluid. The fluid helps protect vaginal tissue during sexual intercourse.|
These cysts aren’t common and usually develop in women of reproductive age after puberty and before menopause. About 2 percent of women will develop a Bartholin’s cyst in their lifetime.
|BDSM||From Wikipedia: BDSM is a variety of often erotic practices or roleplaying involving bondage, discipline, dominance and submission, sadomasochism, and other related interpersonal dynamics. Given the wide range of practices, some of which may be engaged in by people who do not consider themselves as practising BDSM, inclusion in the BDSM community or subculture is usually dependent upon self-identification and shared experience.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BDSM|
|Bilateral pulmonary emboli||From Mayo Clinic: Pulmonary embolism is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pulmonary-embolism/symptoms-causes/syc-20354647|
|Bipolar disorder||From Mayo Clinic: Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression).|
When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (less extreme than mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy or unusually irritable. These mood swings can affect sleep, energy, activity, judgment, behavior and the ability to think clearly.
|Bisexual||From Wikipedia: Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior... to more than one sex or gender.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisexuality|
|Brain fog||From Healthline: Brain fog isn't a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom of other medical conditions. It’s a type of cognitive dysfunction involving:|
- memory problems
- lack of mental clarity
- poor concentration
- inability to focus
|Celiac Disease||From Beyond Celiac: Celiac disease is a serious, genetic autoimmune disorder triggered by consuming a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, barley and rye.|
When a person with celiac eats gluten, the protein interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food by damaging a part of the small intestine called villi. Damaged villi make it nearly impossible for the body to absorb nutrients into the bloodstream, leading to malnourishment and a host of other problems including some cancers, thyroid disease, osteoporosis, infertility and the onset of other autoimmune diseases.
|Central sleep apnea||From Mayo Clinic: Central sleep apnea is a disorder in which your breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.|
Central sleep apnea occurs because your brain doesn't send proper signals to the muscles that control your breathing. This condition is different from obstructive sleep apnea, in which you can't breathe normally because of upper airway obstruction. Central sleep apnea is less common than obstructive sleep apnea.
|Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease||From Mayo Clinic: Charcot (shahr-KOH)-Marie-Tooth disease is a group of inherited disorders that cause nerve damage. This damage is mostly in your arms and legs (peripheral nerves). Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is also called hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.|
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease results in smaller, weaker muscles. You may also experience loss of sensation and muscle contractions, and difficulty walking. Foot deformities such as hammertoes and high arches also are common. Symptoms usually begin in your feet and legs, but they may eventually affect your hands and arms.
|Chiropractic adjustment||From Mayo Clinic: Chiropractic adjustment is a procedure in which trained specialists (chiropractors) use their hands or a small instrument to apply a controlled, sudden force to a spinal joint. The goal of this procedure, also known as spinal manipulation, is to improve spinal motion and improve your body's physical function.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/chiropractic-adjustment/about/pac-20393513|
|Chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome||see Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)|
|Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)||see Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)|
|Chronic Illness||From Healthline: A chronic illness is one that lasts for a long period of time and typically cannot be cured. It is, however, sometimes treatable and manageable.||https://www.healthline.com/health/chronically-ill|
|Colitis||From The George Washington University Hospital: Colitis is a chronic digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Infection, loss of blood supply in the colon, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and invasion of the colon wall with collagen or lymphocytic white blood cells are all possible causes of an inflamed colon.||https://www.gwhospital.com/conditions-services/digestive-disorder-center/colitis|
|Congenital||From Dictionary.com: Of or relating to a condition present at birth, whether inherited or caused by the environment, especially the uterine environment.||https://www.dictionary.com/browse/congenital|
|Connective tissue disorder||From Cleveland Clinic: A connective tissue disease is any disease that affects the parts of the body that connect the structures of the body together.|
Connective tissues are made up of two proteins: collagen and elastin. Collagen is a protein found in the tendons, ligaments, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone and blood vessels. Elastin is a stretchy protein that resembles a rubber band and is the major component of ligaments and skin. When a patient has a connective tissue disease, the collagen and elastin are inflamed. The proteins and the body parts they connect are harmed.
|Constipation||From MedlinePlus: Constipation means that a person has three or fewer bowel movements in a week. The stool can be hard and dry. Sometimes it is painful to pass.||https://medlineplus.gov/constipation.html|
|Crohn's disease||From Mayo Clinic: Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes inflammation of your digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition. Inflammation caused by Crohn's disease can involve different areas of the digestive tract in different people.|
The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue. Crohn's disease can be both painful and debilitating, and sometimes may lead to life-threatening complications.
|Cyberchondria||From Wikipedia: Cyberchondria, otherwise known as compucondria, is the unfounded escalation of concerns about common symptomology based on review of search results and literature online.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyberchondria|
|Cyst||From National Cancer Institute: A closed, sac-like pocket of tissue that can form anywhere in the body. It may be filled with fluid, air, pus, or other material. Most cysts are benign (not cancer).||https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/cyst|
|Degenerative disc disease||From Spine-Health: Degenerative disc disease refers to symptoms of back or neck pain caused by wear-and-tear on a spinal disc. In some cases, degenerative disc disease also causes weakness, numbness, and hot, shooting pains in the arms or legs (radicular pain). Degenerative disc disease typically consists of a low-level chronic pain with intermittent episodes of more severe pain.||https://www.spine-health.com/conditions/degenerative-disc-disease/what-degenerative-disc-disease|
|Depression||From Mayo Clinic: Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn't worth living.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/symptoms-causes/syc-20356007|
|Disability||From Merriam-Webster: A physical, mental, cognitive, or developmental condition that impairs, interferes with, or limits a person's ability to engage in certain tasks or actions or participate in typical daily activities and interactions.||https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/disability|
|Disability benefits||Financial, medical, and other services provided by local, state, provincial, and federal government agencies to assist those with disabilities with housing, food, healthcare, and other aspects of daily life.|
|Disembarkment syndrome||From National Organization for Rare Disorders: Mal de debarquement (MDD) is a rare and poorly understood disorder of the vestibular system that results in a phantom perception of self- motion typically described as rocking, bobbing or swaying. The symptoms tend to be exacerbated when a patient is not moving, for example, when sleeping or standing still.||https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/mal-de-debarquement/|
|Dissociation||From Wikipedia: Dissociation is any of a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experiences. The major characteristic of all dissociative phenomena involves a detachment from reality, rather than a loss of reality as in psychosis.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissociation_(psychology)|
|Dizziness||From Lexico: Having or involving a sensation of spinning around and losing one's balance.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/dizzy|
|Dysautonomia||From Dysautonomia International: Dysautonomia is an umbrella term used to describe several different medical conditions that cause a malfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System. The Autonomic Nervous System controls the "automatic" functions of the body that we do not consciously think about, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, dilation and constriction of the pupils of the eye, kidney function, and temperature control. People living with various forms of dysautonomia have trouble regulating these systems, which can result in lightheadedness, fainting, unstable blood pressure, abnormal heart rates, malnutrition, and in severe cases, death.||http://www.dysautonomiainternational.org/page.php?ID=34|
|Dyslexia||From International Dyslexia Association: Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.||https://dyslexiaida.org/definition-of-dyslexia/|
|Ehlers-Danlos syndrome||From the Ehlers-Danlos Society: The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are a group of connective tissue disorders that can be inherited and are varied both in how they affect the body and in their genetic causes. They are generally characterized by joint hypermobility (joints that stretch further than normal), skin hyperextensibility (skin that can be stretched further than normal), and tissue fragility.|
The Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are currently classified into thirteen subtypes.
|Eli Clare||From EliClare.com: Eli speaks, teaches, and facilitates all over the United States and Canada at conferences, community events, and colleges about disability, queer and trans identities, and social justice.||http://eliclare.com/background/bio|
|Endometriosis||From Healthline: Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue grows on your ovaries, bowel, and tissues lining your pelvis. It’s unusual for endometrial tissue to spread beyond your pelvic region, but it’s not impossible. Endometrial tissue growing outside of your uterus is known as an endometrial implant.||https://www.healthline.com/health/endometriosis|
|Eugenics||From Lexico: The study of how to arrange reproduction within a human population to increase the occurrence of heritable characteristics regarded as desirable. Developed largely by Sir Francis Galton as a method of improving the human race, eugenics was increasingly discredited as unscientific and racially biased during the 20th century, especially after the adoption of its doctrines by the Nazis in order to justify their treatment of Jews, disabled people, and other minority groups.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/eugenics|
|Faint||From Lexico: A sudden loss of consciousness.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/faint|
|Fatigue||From Healthline: Fatigue is a term used to describe an overall feeling of tiredness or lack of energy. It isn’t the same as simply feeling drowsy or sleepy. When you’re fatigued, you have no motivation and no energy. Being sleepy may be a symptom of fatigue, but it’s not the same thing.||https://www.healthline.com/health/fatigue|
|Fibromyalga||From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain all over the body (also referred to as widespread pain), sleep problems, fatigue, and often emotional and mental distress. People with fibromyalgia may be more sensitive to pain than people without fibromyalgia.... The cause of fibromyalgia is not known...||https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/fibromyalgia.htm|
|Five stages of grief cycle||From Psycom: Grief can be caused by situations, relationships, or even substance abuse. Children may grieve a divorce, a wife may grieve the death of her husband, a teenager might grieve the ending of a relationship, or you might have received terminal medical news and are grieving your pending death. In 1969, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross described five popular stages of grief, popularly referred to as DABDA. They include:|
...Kübler-Ross now notes that these stages are not linear and some people may not experience any of them.
|Gallstones||From National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Gallstones are hard, pebble-like pieces of material, usually made of cholesterol or bilirubin, that develop in your gallbladder. When gallstones block your bile ducts, they can cause sudden pain, which means you need medical attention right away. If left untreated, they can cause complications.||https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/gallstones|
|Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)||From WebMD: In normal digestion, the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) opens to allow food to pass into the stomach and closes to prevent food and acidic stomach juices from flowing back into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when the LES is weak or relaxes inappropriately, allowing the stomach's contents to flow up into the esophagus. The severity of GERD depends on LES dysfunction as well as the type and amount of fluid brought up from the stomach and the neutralizing effect of saliva.||https://www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd/guide/reflux-disease-gerd-1#1|
|Gastroparesis||From Mayo Clinic: Gastroparesis is a condition that affects the normal spontaneous movement of the muscles (motility) in your stomach. Ordinarily, strong muscular contractions propel food through your digestive tract. But if you have gastroparesis, your stomach's motility is slowed down or doesn't work at all, preventing your stomach from emptying properly.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gastroparesis/symptoms-causes/syc-20355787|
|Generalized anxiety disorder||From Anxiety and Depression Association of America: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by persistent and excessive worry about a number of different things. People with GAD may anticipate disaster and may be overly concerned about money, health, family, work, or other issues. Individuals with GAD find it difficult to control their worry. They may worry more than seems warranted about actual events or may expect the worst even when there is no apparent reason for concern. |
GAD is diagnosed when a person finds it difficult to control worry on more days than not for at least six months and has three or more symptoms.... This differentiates GAD from worry that may be specific to a set stressor or for more limited period of time.
|Glandular fever||From Health Direct: Glandular fever (also called infectious mononucleosis) is an infectious disease which is common in teenagers and young adults.|
Glandular fever is caused by an infection with Epstein-Barr virus.
The virus is transmitted through saliva, and can be passed from person to person...
Symptoms can come on gradually, and at first there may be just tiredness and lack of energy. A sore throat, swollen glands (particularly in the neck) and a rash may occur. Upper abdominal pain can occur from a swollen liver or spleen. Glandular fever symptoms can last weeks to months, especially fatigue and lack of energy.
|Glycogen storage disease type XI||From Wikipedia: Glycogen storage disease type XI is a form of glycogen storage disease....|
It is associated with GLUT2, a glucose transport protein which, when functioning normally, allows glucose to exit several tissues, including the liver, nephrons, and enterocytes of the intestines, and enter the blood. The syndrome results in hepatomegaly secondary to glycogen accumulation, glucose and galactose intolerance, fasting hypoglycaemia, a characteristic proximal tubular nephropathy and severe short stature.
|Hashimoto's disease||From Cleveland Clinic: Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disease, which means the body’s immune system is attacking its own cells and organs. Normally, the immune system protects the body against infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and other harmful substances. In Hashimoto’s disease, the immune system makes antibodies that attack and damage the thyroid. As a result, the thyroid gland becomes inflamed and hypothyroidism can develop....|
Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, which is how the body turns food into energy. Without an adequate amount of energy, the body cannot operate normally and the body’s functions begin to slow down.
Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States.
|Hiatal hernia||From WebMD: A hiatal hernia is when your stomach bulges up into your chest through an opening in your diaphragm, the muscle that separates the two areas. The opening is called the hiatus, so this condition is also called a hiatus hernia.|
There are two main types of hiatal hernias: sliding and paraesophageal.
|Hidradenitis suppurativa||From Mayo Clinic: Hidradenitis suppurativa (hi-drad-uh-NIE-tis sup-yoo-ruh-TIE-vuh) is a skin condition that causes small, painful lumps to form under the skin. The lumps can break open, or tunnels can form under the skin. The condition mostly affects areas where the skin rubs together, such as the armpits, groin, buttocks and breasts.||https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hidradenitis-suppurativa/symptoms-causes/syc-20352306|
|Hydrotherapy||From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Hydrotherapy involves the use of water for soothing pains and treating certain medical conditions. Hydrotherapy equipment includes pools, whirlpools, whirlpool spas, hot tubs, and physiotherapy tanks. Patients with medical conditions, such as burns, septic ulcers, lesions, amputations, and arthritis, can benefit from the effects of sitting in warm water.||https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/other/medical/hydrotherapy.html|
|Hypermobility||From Healthline: If you have hypermobile joints, you’re able to extend them easily and painlessly beyond the normal range of motion. Hypermobility of the joints occurs when the tissues holding a joint together, mainly ligaments and the joint capsule, are too loose. Often, weak muscles around the joint also contribute to hypermobility.||https://www.healthline.com/health/hypermobile-joints|
|Hyperventilating||From Healthline: Hyperventilation is a condition in which you start to breathe very fast.|
Healthy breathing occurs with a healthy balance between breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. You upset this balance when you hyperventilate by exhaling more than you inhale. This causes a rapid reduction in carbon dioxide in the body.
Low carbon dioxide levels lead to narrowing of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This reduction in blood supply to the brain leads to symptoms like lightheadedness and tingling in the fingers. Severe hyperventilation can lead to loss of consciousness.
|Hypervigilance||From Healthline: Hypervigilance is a state of increased alertness. If you’re in a state of hypervigilance, you’re extremely sensitive to your surroundings. It can make you feel like you’re alert to any hidden dangers, whether from other people or the environment. Often, though, these dangers are not real.|
Hypervigilance can be a symptom of mental health conditions, including:
- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- anxiety disorders
These can all cause your brain and your body to constantly be on high alert. Hypervigilance can have a negative effect on your life. It can affect how you interact with and view others, or it may encourage paranoia.
|Hypothyroid||From WebMD: With hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.|
The thyroid gland is located in the front lower part of your neck. Hormones released by the gland travel through your bloodstream and affect nearly every part of your body, from your heart and brain, to your muscles and skin.
The thyroid controls how your body's cells use energy from food, a process called metabolism. Among other things, your metabolism affects your body’s temperature, your heartbeat, and how well you burn calories. If you don't have enough thyroid hormone, your body processes slow down. That means your body makes less energy, and your metabolism becomes sluggish.
|Infertility||From Lexico: Inability to conceive children or young.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/infertility|
|Inflammatory bowel disease||From Mayo Clinic: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term used to describe disorders that involve chronic inflammation of your digestive tract. Types of IBD include:|
- Ulcerative colitis. This condition causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.
- Crohn's disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which often spreads deep into affected tissues.
Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease usually involve severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue and weight loss.
IBD can be debilitating and sometimes leads to life-threatening complications.
|Insomnia||From WebMD: Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which you have trouble falling and/or staying asleep.|
The condition can be short-term (acute) or can last a long time (chronic). It may also come and go.
Acute insomnia lasts from 1 night to a few weeks. Insomnia is chronic when it happens at least 3 nights a week for 3 months or more.
There are two types of insomnia: primary and secondary.
- Primary insomnia: This means your sleep problems aren’t linked to any other health condition or problem.
- Secondary insomnia: This means you have trouble sleeping because of a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn); pain; medication; or substance use (like alcohol).
|Insurance||From Lexico: A practice or arrangement by which a company or government agency provides a guarantee of compensation for specified loss, damage, illness, or death in return for payment of a premium.||https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/insurance|
|Interstitial cystitis||From Urology Care Foundation: Interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic bladder health issue. It is a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder area. Along with this pain are lower urinary tract symptoms which have lasted for more than 6 weeks, without having an infection or other clear causes.|
Symptoms range from mild to severe. For some patients the symptoms may come and go, and for others they don't go away. IC/BPS is not an infection, but it may feel like a bladder infection. Women with IC/BPS may feel pain when having sex. The more severe cases of IC/BPS can affect your life and your loved ones. Some people with IC/BPS have other health issues such as irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and other pain syndromes.
|Invalidation||From Dictionary.com: To render invalid; discredit.||https://www.dictionary.com/browse/invalidation|
|Irritable bowel syndrome||From Healthline: IBS is also known as spastic colon, irritable colon, mucous colitis, and spastic colitis. It is a separate condition from inflammatory bowel disease and isn’t related to other bowel conditions. IBS is a group of intestinal symptoms that typically occur together. The symptoms vary in severity and duration from person to person. However, they last at least three months for at least three days per month.||https://www.healthline.com/health/irritable-bowel-syndrome|
|Joint dislocation||From Cleveland Clinic: The place where two or more bones in the body come together is called a joint. A dislocation occurs when the bones in a joint become separated or knocked out of their usual positions. Any joint in the body can become dislocated. If the joint is partially dislocated, it is called a subluxation.|
Dislocations can be very painful and cause the affected joint area to be unsteady or immobile (unable to move). They can also strain or tear the surrounding muscles, nerves, and tendons (tissue that connects the bones at a joint).
|Joint hypermobility syndrome||From NHS Inform: Joint hypermobility syndrome|
Many people with hypermobile joints don't have any problems, and some people – such as ballet dancers, gymnasts and musicians – may actually benefit from the increased flexibility.
However, some people with joint hypermobility can have a number of unpleasant symptoms as well, such as:
- pain and stiffness in the joints and muscles
- clicking joints
- joints that dislocate (come out of the correct position) easily
- fatigue (extreme tiredness)
- recurrent injuries – such as sprains
- digestive problems – such as constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
- dizziness and fainting
- thin or stretchy skin
If hypermobility occurs alongside symptoms such as these, it is known as joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS).
|Keratoconus||From Mayo Clinic: Keratoconus occurs when your cornea — the clear, dome-shaped front surface of your eye — thins and gradually bulges outward into a cone shape.|
A cone-shaped cornea causes blurred vision and may cause sensitivity to light and glare. Keratoconus usually affects both eyes and generally begins to first affect people ages 10 to 25. The condition may progress slowly for 10 years or longer.
|LGBTQIA+||Acronym which stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, Asexual, plus more identities within this community.|
|Lichen sclerosus||From National Organization for Rare Disorders: Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that most commonly affects women before puberty or after menopause. Although rare, it can also be seen in men. When found in males, the disease is known as balanitis xerotica obliterans.|
Lichen sclerosus is characterized by skin changes of the external genitalia. The most common distribution is a figure of 8 involving the vulva and perianal area. The head of the penis and other parts of the body may also be affected. In fact, this skin condition can affect any skin surface. Some patients with lichen sclerosus do not have any symptoms, whereas others experience intense itching, discomfort and/or erosions/ulcers. Lichen sclerosus typically has a remitting relapsing course that is complicated by permanent scarring of the affected areas. This produces functional problems such as difficulty in urination, defecation, and intercourse for affected women and difficulty in urination or with erections in men. The disorder is not contagious nor is it a sexually transmitted disease.
|Lupus (See also: Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE))||From MedlinePlus: Lupus is an autoimmune disease. This means that your immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues by mistake. This can damage many parts of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain.|
There are several kinds of lupus
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most common type. It can be mild or severe and can affect many parts of the body.
- Discoid lupus causes a red rash that doesn't go away
Subacute cutaneous lupus causes sores after being out in the sun
- Drug-induced lupus is caused by certain medicines. It usually goes away when you stop taking the medicine.
- Neonatal lupus, which is rare, affects newborns. It is probably caused by certain antibodies from the mother.
|Malaria||From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.||https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/malaria/index.html|
|Malnutrition||From Healthline: Malnutrition is a condition that results from nutrient deficiency or overconsumption.|
Types of malnutrition include:
- Undernutrition: This type of malnutrition results from not getting enough protein, calories or micronutrients. It leads to low weight-for-height (wasting), height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-age (underweight).
- Overnutrition: Overconsumption of certain nutrients, such as protein, calories or fat, can also lead to malnutrition. This usually results in overweight or obesity.
People who are undernourished often have deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, especially iron, zinc, vitamin A and iodine.
However, micronutrient deficiencies can also occur with overnutrition.
It’s possible to be overweight or obese from excessive calorie consumption but not get enough vitamins and minerals at the same time.
That’s because foods that contribute to overnutrition, such as fried and sugary foods, tend to be high in calories and fat but low in other nutrients.
|Massage||From Mayo Clinic: Massage therapy is a type of treatment in which a trained and certified medical professional manipulates the soft tissues of your body — muscle, connective tissue, tendons, ligaments and skin — using varying degrees of pressure and movement....|
Studies of the benefits of massage demonstrate that it is an effective treatment for reducing stress, pain and muscle tension.
|Medicaid||From Medicare Interactive: Medicaid is a federal and state program that provides health coverage for certain people with limited income and assets. Each state runs different Medicaid-funded programs for different groups of people, including:|
- Older adults
- People with disabilities
- Pregnant people
- Parents and/or caretakers of children
All states also have Medicaid programs for people with limited incomes and assets who need nursing home care, long-term care services, and home health care services. Some states also have programs for individual adults who don’t fit any of these categories.
Each state uses financial eligibility guidelines to determine whether you are eligible for Medicaid coverage. Generally, your income and assets must be below a certain amount to qualify, but this amount varies from state to state and from program to program. You are eligible for Medicaid if you fall into an eligible group and meet that group’s financial eligibility requirements.
|Migraine||From Mayo Clinic: A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on one side of the head. It's often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine attacks can last for hours to days, and the pain can be so severe that it interferes with your daily activities.|
For some people, a warning symptom known as an aura occurs before or with the headache. An aura can include visual disturbances, such as flashes of light or blind spots, or other disturbances, such as tingling on one side of the face or in an arm or leg and difficulty speaking.
|Mitochondrial disease||From Cleveland Clinic: Mitochondrial diseases are chronic (long-term), genetic, often inherited disorders that occur when mitochondria fail to produce enough energy for the body to function properly....|
Mitochondrial diseases can affect almost any part of the body, including the cells of the brain, nerves, muscles, kidneys, heart, liver, eyes, ears or pancreas.
|Multiple sclerosis||From MedlinePlus: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down or blocks messages between your brain and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include|
- Visual disturbances
- Muscle weakness
- Trouble with coordination and balance
- Sensations such as numbness, prickling, or "pins and needles"
- Thinking and memory problems
|Muscle atrophy||From MedlinePlus: Muscle atrophy is the wasting or loss of muscle tissue.|
There are three types of muscle atrophy: physiologic, pathologic, and neurogenic.
Physiologic atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough. This type of atrophy can often be reversed with exercise and better nutrition....
Pathologic atrophy is seen with aging, starvation, and diseases such as Cushing disease (because of taking too much medicines called corticosteroids).
Neurogenic atrophy is the most severe type of muscle atrophy. It can be from an injury to, or disease of a nerve that connects to the muscle. This type of muscle atrophy tends to occur more suddenly than physiologic atrophy.
|Muscular dystrophy||From Wikipedia: Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time. The disorders differ in which muscles are primarily affected, the degree of weakness, how fast they worsen, and when symptoms begin. Many people will eventually become unable to walk. Some types are also associated with problems in other organs.||https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscular_dystrophy|