Sands - Arenology
Include the names of your team members
identify the location from which the sand was collected
Which of the following are found in your sample?
glassy black (obsidian, basalt, volcanic?)
olive green (olivene, volcanic?)
brick red (iron oxide, volcanic?)
white, gray (quartz, granite)
purple (garnet, metamorphic?)
Describe the most common shape of the sand in your specimen
Which of the following best describes the most common type of grain in your specimen?
Reaction with Acid - Origin
Which of the following best describes the reaction with a mild acid
no reaction (silica based) - terrigenous
small bubbles (carbonate based) - biogenous
What size grains are represented in your sample?
0.25 mm - sand
0.5 mm - sand
1.0 mm - sand
2.0 mm - sand
3.0 mm - gravel
5.0 mm - gravel
7.0 mm - gravel
10 mm - cobbles
Which of the following biotic elements are in your sample?
shells or shell-fragments
sticks, plant material
Measure the distribution of sand types using sieves. What is the most abundant (by mass)
pebble, cobble, boulder
very coarse sand
very find sand
Angular Grains - (young, resistant rock, and/or local) Grans that are angular may indicate the sand is from a source (parent rock) near by. Sands that haven't traveled very far usually aren’t as worn by water, wind, or waves. Smooth Grains - (old, softer rock, and/or transported far. Grains that are smooth. may indicate the sand is from a source far away. As sand grains are carried long distances from their source, they dissolve or are worn down, becoming smoother. What do you infer regarding your sample.
young, resistant rock, and/or of local origin
old, softer rock, and/or of remote origin
Motion of Water / Wind
Which best describes the probable environment of the sample you have? Fast Current / Strong Waves - Where rivers run swiftly or waves are strong, they can carry larger or heavier grains and build beaches of boulders or gravel. The finer materials keep on moving, you won’t find them here! Slow Current / Weak Waves- Where rivers are slow or waves are weak, they carry only small or light grains. As water movement weakens, even the smallest sands are dropped,contributing to deposits of fine sand.
Fast Current / Stong Waves
Slow Current / Weak Waves
Plutonic (Granite) - Granite rocks include of several different minerals, but quartz – made of silicon dioxide is the most durable to erosion. Quartz is often clear. Depending on the degree of weathering, granite sand may also include light-colored grains of the mineral feldspar or darker grains of hornblende, mica or magnetite. Where you find quartz sands, there must be some continental rocks somewhere. Volcanic Origin – Sands of volcanic origin tend to be black, red, or green. Meamorphic Origin – Sands that are of metamorphic origin often have garnet, a purple rock. If you have purple in your sample, it may indicate a history of metamorphosis. Sand of biogenous origin (from living organisms) tends to bubble in mild acid.
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