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15,000 Before Common Era10,000 BCE9000 BCE8000 BCE7000 BCE6000 BCE5000 BCE4000 BCE3500 BCE3000 BCE2500 BCE2000 BCE1750 BCE1500 BCE1250 BCE1000 BCE750 BCE650 BCE600 BCE550 BCE500 BCE450 BCE400 BCE350 BCE300 BCE250 BCE200 BCE150 BCE100 BCE50 BCE1 Common Era50 CE100 CE( ... )

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legend PleistoceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHoloceneHolocene to present

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PreborealPreboreal / BorealBorealAtlantic Atlantic Atlantic SubborealSubborealSubborealSubborealSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticSubatlanticto present

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ClimateMyths, ReligionsArchitectural wondersWriting, LawLake Agassiz drainage - Worldwide Flood (sea level up to +1.5 meters in 1 year)Storegga Slide (Norway)Mount Tai earthquake (China)Minoan Eruption(Santorini)Maliakos Gulf tsunami (Greece) (c.426 BCE)Helike destroyed by Tsunami (Greece) Possible inspiration for Plato's Atlantide (c.373 BCE)Rhodes Earthquake, Colossus Destroyed (226 BCE)Vesuvius Eruption, Pompeii destruction (79 CE)

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MigrationsDiscoveriesWars, Conquests & Related EventsDisastersEarthen barrier breached between Mediterranean & Black seas, extensive flooding of shoreline25m high Tsunami avancing up to 80 (Eighty) km inland in ScotlandWorldwide Climate Cooling Event from Volcanic PlumesWest: «Bronze Age Collapse» / Sea People InvasionsWest: «Bronze Age Collapse» / Sea People InvasionsSparta Earthquake Precipitates Peloponesian War (464 BCE)

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MetallurgySports & GamesAnimal Husbandry, Agricultural productsArtsFeng-Shui (Asterism)Sumerian Flood MythEridu Genesis TabletZoroastrianismGoliath the Phillistine (Sea People Invasion)Old Testament WritingOld Testament WritingOld Testament WritingOld Testament WritingOld Testament WritingEarly Buddhism MahabharataSpread of BuddhismNew Testament WritingNew Testament Writing

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LEADERSSumerian Gilgamesh EpicAkkadian Atra-HasisEnd of Abrahamic MonolatrismAbrahamic MonotheismTaoism

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Brahmanism, Early HinduismSama VedaRig VedaYajur VedaJainism Iliad and Odyssey

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terminologynotesChris Turney's Agassiz Agricultural Trigger Theory:

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"migration" = outboundIndo-European migration model ⇨Kurgan hypothesisestimated 145,000 neolithic Black Sea shoreline farmers displacing inland hunter-gatherers and quickstarting agricultural revolution.YELLOW EMPEROR (c. 2696–2598)YU THE GREAT (c. 2205)Xia Dynasty Possibly Ended because of Climate CoolingSpring and Autumn PeriodWarring States PeriodQIN SHI HUANG (259 - 210 BCE)

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"migrant" = inboundCHINA →Zhenpiyan culturePengtoushan & Peiligang cultureCishan cultureBaijia cultureThree Sovereigns PeriodXia Dynasty Shang Dynasty Zhou DynastyZhou DynastyQin DinastyHan Dynasty

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Published in Quaternary Science ReviewsCereal Grinding ToolsJiahu script Kui (Beer-like Substance)Banpo scriptSericulture (Silk Production)Chinese ScriptEarly Compass (not navigational)PewterEarly Naval Fleet Building"Go", Board GameFirst parts of the "Great Wall"Quench-hardened steel"Cuju", Ball GameTerracotta Army (c. 210) Lou Chuan, Floating Fortress with trebuchet

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Bones, Rocks and Stars: The Science of When Things HappenedPig, Chicken, Oxen, Sheep, Rice, Millet Stern mounted ruddersRamming Ships, Naval Warfare TheoryCompassLarge Naval Fleet

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Travels of Xu FuNegative Numbers

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Alexander invasion leaves power vacuum filled by Maurya Empire

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Indus Valley Pre-Aryan Cultural Legacy :CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA (c. 340 - 298)ASHOKA THE GREAT (c.274 - 232)

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Ahimsa (non-agression) // Karma and Reincarnation // YogaBENGAL →

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Great Goddess // Cults of trees, waters, animalsJARASANDHA (c. 1700 BCE)WEST BENGAL →Magadha Kingdom

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Phallus worship // Village deities // Third EyeEAST INDIA →Magadha KingdomMagadha KingdomMagadha KingdomNanda DynastyNanda DynastyNanda DynastyMaurya Empire

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Dravidian SpeakersNORTH INDIA →MahajanapadasNORTH INDIA →

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SOUTH INDIA →Neolithic Tamil NaduTamil NaduTamil NaduTamil NaduSOUTH INDIA →

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AFGHANISTAN, PAKISTAN, NORTHWEST INDIA →Rock Shelters of BhimbetkaRock Shelters of BhimbetkaMehrgarh I (Farming Village)Mehrgarh IIMehrgarh II / IIIMehrgarh IIIIndus Valley CivilizationFrequent and disastrous floodings broke the unity of the Indus valley Civ.Swāt culture / Vedic PeriodNORTHWEST INDIA, AFGHANISTAN, PAKISTAN →

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Dentistry (drilling)Copper SmeltingIndo-European migrantsApplied MathematicsHarappan ScriptTadoori oven Indo-Aryan (Iranian) MigrantsVedic SanskritLarge Numbers (10^12)Invention of ZeroSquare Root1st verbalization of Pythagorean-type theoremsDarius?Alexandria Eschate founded 329, Beginnings of Silk RoadEdicts of AshokaNegative NumbersChaitya-Hall at KarleMassive Maritime Trade with Rome (up to 300.000 tons moved / yr)

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Wheat, Barley, Cattle, Sheep, GoatEgalitarian Architecture Angles, Obtuse Triangles, Lengths, Areas, VolumesMohenjo-daro Complex (c. 2600 BCE)First RepublicsIndian SeafaringPillars of Ashoka

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No Monuments, Fortifications, Palaces or TemplesUniform weigths and measuresUrban Planning, Municipal Government Ayurvedic medicineCrucible steel (Wootz steel) 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi

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Anatomically detailed figurinesSophisticated irrigation and storage systemsHydraulic EngineeringPalm Leaves ManuscriptsLarge Buddhist Construction Program

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Dice gamesMulti-stringed instruments Sewage, Flush toilets

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Migrations, Horse DiffusionMigrations, Chariot Diffusion

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Neolithic RevolutionKING ATEAS (429-339 BCE)

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Dog Domestication (dating unclear)First Fishing ShipsHuman SedentarizationPit Grave CulturePit Grave CultureNORTH OF BLACK SEA →ScythiaDisintegration of Scythia

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Cat Self-DomesticationNORTH OF BLACK SEA →Indo-European migrationsIndo-European migrationsIndo-European migrationsDarius unsuccessfully campaigns in Scythia (512 BCE)Philip II Of Macedon Defeats and kills Ateas (339 BCE)

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Horse DomesticationChariot

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Conquest of Ionia, Ionian revoltGreco-Persian Wars (c. 500 - 450 BCE)

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KHAZAKSTAN →Botai CultureBotai CultureMigrations, Chariot DiffusionMigrations, Chariot DiffusionCYRUS THE GREAT (c. 600 - 530 BCE)DARIUS THE GREAT (c. 550 - 486)XERXES THE FIRST (c. 519 - 465 BCE)Alexander the Great Invasion (330 BCE)

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Zarzian CultureHorse DomesticationIRAN →Median EmpireAchaemenid EmpireFall of Achaemenid EmpireParthian Empire (247 BCE - 224 CE)

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Indo-European migrationsMigrationsCyrus Cylinder (Akkadian Cuneiform)Aramaic alphabet adopted from PhoeniciaPersepolisFirst Modern Taxation SystemMausoleum at Halicarnassus

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Prossible Akkadian Incursions (c.2240)Aryan Migration to IndiaFirst Courrier Post

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IRAN →Zayandeh River CultureProto-ElamiteOld Elamite periodMiddle Elamite periodNeo-Elamite periodNeo-Elamite periodFirst Staple (Fastener)

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IrrigationInvention of WineFirst Banking System (Natural Disasters Related Loans)Code of Ur-Nammu, oldest surviving Code of LawLinear ElamiteGame of BackgammonUnder Assyrian InfluenceUnder Median InfluenceGame of Polo

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First Modern BricksInvention of Tar (Precursor to Guitar)Origin of the Legal "Check"PeachesTepe SialkSpinach

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Introduction of Chicken to Europe

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Oldest Known Written Music (Hurrian Hymns)Longitude and LatitudeSea People Invasions theory

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Bronze ArtifactsSARGON OF AKKAD (c. 2270 – 2215 BCE)Circle divided in 360°Siege ExcavationsASHURNASIRPAL II (883 - 859)

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Semitic Migrants (Akkadians, c. 3600)GILGAMESH King of Uruk (circa 2700)Akkadian EmpireAssyrian Empire Assyrian resurgenceAssyrian Dark AgesAssyrian ResurgenceFall of Assyrian Empire

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UrukUruk (pop: 14,000)Uruk (pop: 40,000)Uruk (pop: 80,000)Babylonian Domination PeriodNimrud Palace (ca. 860)Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (825 BCE)

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IRAQ →Sumerian CitiesEridu, "the first Babylon"Eridu (pop: 6,000 - 10,000)Ziggurats at Eridu conform with legend of BabelEriduEridu

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Ur (pop: 65,000)Babylonian DominationAssyrian Domination

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Copper Pendant, estimated c. 8700IrrigationPictographsFirst Monumental Public ArchitectureCuneiform script"House at Ur" also known as "House of Abraham"

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Fermentation, YeastZigguratsArithmeticHAMMURABI (c. 1800-1750 BCE)First Sun Dials (save for Egyptian Obelisks)Assyrian Domination PeriodNEBUCHAD- NEZZAR IIAchaemenid Conquest of Babylon (540 BCE)Conquered by Alexander The Great

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Invention of Beer, BreadShekel (Monetary Unit in Grain)IRAQ →1st Babylonian DynastyBabylon ResugenceBabylon

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AlmondsBabylon founded near Akkad in homage to ancient city Babylon-EriduCode of HammurabiBabylon sacked by Hittites c. 1600 BCEConscience of Pythagorean-type theoremsHanging GardensEtemenanki (600 BCE)Israelites LiberationDestruction Of Etemenanki

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Arithmetic, AlgebraIshtar Gate

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Bronze ArtifactsQUEEN HATSHEPSUT (1479–1458 BCE)RAMESSES II (1303 - 1213 BCE)Imago Mundi (First Known Map)Conquered by Alexander The Great

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Hyeroglyphs (Sumerian Origin Probable)AKHENATEN (1353-1336 BCE)At war with: Sea People, Syria, Hittite EmpirePewterPTOLEMY I (367 - 283)Julius Caesar Egyptian campaign

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EGYPT →Nabta PlayaFayum ANaqada INaqada IINaqada IIIOld Kingdom1st Intermediate Period / Middle KingdomMiddle Kingdom / 2nd Intermediate Period2nd Intermediate Period / New KingdomNew KingdomThird Intermediate Period Late PeriodFirst Persian PeriodLate Dynastic PeriodSecond Persian PeriodPtolemaic PeriodRoman/Byzantine Period

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IrrigationEarliest linen industry"Senet", Board GameHieratic writingGizah Pyramids and Great SphinxMortuary Temple of Queen HatshepsutAbu SimbelMerneptah SteleCircumnavigation of AfricaAlexandria Founded 331 Menphis Decree Stele ("Rosetta Stone")Temple of Kalabsha

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Beer, BreadObelisksEarly Taxation SystemMegalithic geometryKarnak Temple ComplexRamesseumLighthouse of Alexandria

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Lettuce, Celery, Cucumber, Melon, Onions, Garlic1st paper-like material (papyrus)MedicineGreat Library of Alexandria

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Sounding ReedKhufu shipTROJAN WAR (1260-1250)

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First Hull ShipsMycenaeans conquer anatolian coast ...

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Probable Akkadian Incursions (c.2240)Destructed by KussaraIron Metallurgy spreads into Middle East (Hittites, Egypt...)... from Hittite Empire

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Hattusa SettlementHattusa made Capital of Hittite EmpireBurnt to the ground after combined wars (1180 BC)

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Ain Ghazal (pop: 3000)Ain GhazalHattiansHattiansHittite EmpireAssyria inherits Amorite

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TURKEY →Göbekli TepeÇatalhöyük (pop: 5,000 - 8,000)Çatalhöyük (pop: 5,000 - 8,000)Indo-European migrantsAssyrian Cuneiform AdaptedHATTUSILI I (ca. 1586–1556 BC)SUPPILULIUMA I (1344-1322 BCE)Battle of Kadesh against Ramesses II (1274 BCE)

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Wall PaintingsHittite Expansion

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Obsidian TradeProbable Akkadian Incursions (c.2240)Assyrian Invasion

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LEVANT →Jericho (pop: 400 - 2,000)Jericho Jericho Jericho Jericho

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1st Known Portraitures in Art HistorySemitic Language PeopleCanaanitesCanaanitesNabatean CulturePetraNabatean CultureNabatean CultureNabatean Culture

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World's First Alphabet (proto-Canaanite)12 Tribes Of IsraelUnified Kingdom of Israel (1020 - 930 BCE)Kingdom of Israel

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KING DAVID / KING SOLOMONKingdom Of Judah (930 - 586 BCE)HEROD I (73 - 4 BCE)

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"City of David" proto-settlementRoshlamem (Jerusalem) Solomon's TempleJerusalemBabylonian Exile, Sack of Jerusalem, Temple DestructionIsraelite Liberation & Repatriation under CyrusJerusalemSecond Temple in JerusalemJerusalem under Ptomelaic RuleJerusalem under Seulecid Hellenistic RuleHerod's Temple, Wailing WallJerusalem as Roman Client State

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Tyre, founded 2750 BCETyreTyreConquered by Alexander The Great (332 BCE)Seulecid Hellenistic TyreTyre regains Independence from SeulecidsTyre becomes Roman Province

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Early GalleysSemitic Language PeoplePhoeniciaPhoeniciaSeulecid Hellenistic Empire (312-63BCE) First Jewish–Roman War

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BiremePhoenician alphabetAramaic alphabetTriremes, Ram, Naval Warfare

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LIBYA →Leptis Magna founded by PhoeniciaLeptis MagnaLeptis MagnaEssentially independent, Roman InfluenceLeptis MagnaLeptis becomes major Roman trading post

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BALKANS →Danubian Vinča cultureTUNISIA →Carthage Founded by Phoenicia (Possibly Earlier)Carthagenian RepublicCarthagenian RepublicCarthage Conquered by Rome

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Copper SmeltingSounding LineTravels of Hanno the NavigatorHAMILCAR BARCA (275 - 228)HANNIBAL (247 - 183)

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Phoenician Religious Influence ↓ Greco-Persian Wars (c. 500 - 450)Sparta Earthquake Precipitates Peloponesian War (464 BCE)Helike destroyed by TsunamiLeague of Corinth (created 338)First Punic War (264 - 241 BCE)Second Punic War (218 - 201 BCE)Third Punic War (149BC-146BC)

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Indo-European migrantsTROJAN WAR (1260-1250) Lefkandi HeroönTemple of AphaeaMaliakos Gulf tsunami (c.426 BCE)PHILIP II OF MACEDON (382 - 336)ALEXANDER THE GREAT (356 - 324)

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Mycenaean Greece (1600 - 1100 BCE)MacedoniaMacedoniaMacedonia

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Proto-SpartaSpartan ExpansionSpartaSpartaSparta

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GREECE →Proto-AthensAthenian Recorded HistoryAthenian PolisAthenian DemocracyAthenian Democracy

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Linear ALinear BDorian Wars Displacing Greek CulturesGreek Alphabet (from Phoenician alphabet, not from Greek linears)Sundial Refinement SOLON (638 – 558)Direct DemocracyPERICLES (c. 495 – 429)Peloponnesian War (431 to 404)Atomism (Molecular Theory)Travels of Pytheas of MassaliaColossus of RhodesRhodes Earthquake, Colossus Destroyed (226 BCE)Antikythera mechanism

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CRETE →Prehistoric CreteMinoan Civilization / KnossosMinoan Civilization / KnossosGreeks forget writing (own alphabets lost to them)Solonian ConstitutionSpherical Earth TheoryAthena Promachos Statue (Phydias)Statue of Zeus at Olympia (Phydias)Xenocratic catalogue"Episkyros", Rugby-type Ball Game

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Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs Celestial Navigation1st Knossos Palace New Knossos PalaceNautical Charts, Anaximander MapTemple of Arthemis at EphesusAthenian AcropolisHippocratic Medicine

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Cereals, LegumesInfluenceInfluenceEgyptian InfluenceEarthquake (c. 1700)Athenian Treasure at DelphiThe ParthenonPOMPEY (106 - 48 BCE)

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Minoan Eruption (c. 1600)ITALY →Etruscan CivilizationFirst Punic War (264 - 241 BCE)Second Punic War (218 - 201 BCE)Third Punic War (149BC-146BC)JULIUS CAESAR (100 - 44 BCE)AUGUSTUS (63 BCE - 14 CE)PAX ROMANA PERIOD

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Cycladic civilizationSantorini Tsunami (35 to 150 meters high)Old Italic from Greek and PhoenicianRoman KingdomRoman RepublicRoman RepublicRoman EmpireRoman Empire

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Keros Marble FigurinesRoman ForumTemple of Jupiter Optimus MaximusTwelve TablesHouse of the Faun at PompeiiExploration of the Indian monsoon wind system via egyptian routeMassive Maritime Trade with India - 300 Greek Ships moving up to 300.000 tons / yrMausoleum of AugustusCircus Maximus, Marble Reconstruction

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CENTRAL EUROPE →Hallstatt CultureTheneThene

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Battle of Alesia

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Tsunami avancing up to 80 (Eighty) km inland in ScotlandEuropean Megalithic Cultures

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WESTERN EUROPE →Orkney Megalithic Complexes (Scotland)Almendres Cromlech (Portugal)Carnac Stones (France)Stonehenge (England)Avebury (England)

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Züschen megalithic tomb (Germany)

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«Noah»IMHOTEP (2655-2600 BCE)ZOROASTER [ZARATHUSHTRA] (c. 17th/10th Century BCE)MOSES [MOCHE] / MOCHUS (12/13th BCE)THALES (624 - 546)ANAXIMANDER (610 - 546 BCE)PYTHAGORAS (570-495)ARISTOTLE (484-422)THUCYDIDES (460 - 395)DEMOCRITUS (460-370)PLATO (428-348)EUCLID (325 - 265)ARCHIMEDES (287-212)VIRGIL (70 - 19 BCE)LIVY (59 BCE - 17 CE)JESUS (circa 5-36)PLUTARCH (c. 46 - 120 CE)CHRIST (Evangelic Jesus and birth of Christianity)

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PolymathMonotheism, DualismNatural Philosophy (proto-Atomism)Deductive reasoning GeometryNatural Philosophy Natural philosophy (Elements)HistorianNatural Philosophy (Atomism)Spiritual PhilosophyEuclidian GeometryPhysics, MathematicsPoetHistorianSpiritual PhilosophyHistorian

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Architect, Engineer, PhysicianEarly Spiritual PhilosophyProphetGeometryAstronomyZoologyAtheistic MaterialismEpisteme1st century miracle worker

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Influcence on Judaism and Platonism Proto plaque-tectonicGeographyKnowledge of necessary causesHIPPOCRATES (460-370)

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ProphetPARSHVA (877 - 777)"Logos" over "Mythos"LAO TZU (c. 600 to 400 BCE)SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA (c. 563 - 483)PoliticsPhysicianARCHYTAS (428 - 347 BCE)PYTHEAS OF MASSALIA (4th C. BCE)XU FU (c. 255 BCE)

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Spiritual PhilosophySpiritual PhilosophySpiritual PhilosophyMathematical mechanicsExplorerExplorer

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Jainist LeaderPHIDIAS (480-430)Cartographer

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CONFUCIUS (551 - 479 BCE)SculptorHERODOTUS (c. 440)

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EthicsPainterHistorian

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Architect

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HANNO THE NAVIGATOR (c. 500 BCE)

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Explorer