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State2009 Statute Number 2009 Statute Language2010 Statute Number 2010 Statute Language

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TexasTexas Business & Commerce Code § 17.41. Short Title.This subchapter may be cited as the Deceptive Trade Practices-Consumer Protection Act.Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.41. Short Title.This subchapter may be cited as the Deceptive Trade Practices-Consumer Protection Act.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.42. Waivers: Public Polivy.(a) Any waiver by a consumer of the provisions of this subchapter is contrary to public policy and is unenforceable and void; provided, however, that a waiver is valid and enforceable if:

(1) the waiver is in writing and is signed by the consumer;

(2) the consumer is not in a significantly disparate bargaining position; and

(3) the consumer is represented by legal counsel in seeking or acquiring the goods or services.

(b) A waiver under Subsection (a) is not effective if the consumer's legal counsel was directly or indirectly identified, suggested, or selected by a defendant or an agent of the defendant.

(c) A waiver under this section must be:

(1) conspicuous and in bold-face type of at least 10 points in size;

(2) identified by the heading "Waiver of Consumer Rights," or words of similar meaning; and

(3) in substantially the following form:
"I waive my rights under the Deceptive Trade Practices-Consumer Protection Act, Section 17.41 et seq., Business & Commerce Code, a law that gives consumers special rights and protections. After consultation with an attorney of my own selection, I voluntarily consent to this waiver."

(d) The waiver required by Subsection (c) may be modified to waive only specified rights under this subchapter.

(e) The fact that a consumer has signed a waiver under this section is not a defense to an action brought by the attorney general under Section 17.47.


Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.42. Waivers: Public Polivy.(a) Any waiver by a consumer of the provisions of this subchapter is contrary to public policy and is unenforceable and void; provided, however, that a waiver is valid and enforceable if:

(1) the waiver is in writing and is signed by the consumer;

(2) the consumer is not in a significantly disparate bargaining position; and

(3) the consumer is represented by legal counsel in seeking or acquiring the goods or services.

(b) A waiver under Subsection (a) is not effective if the consumer's legal counsel was directly or indirectly identified, suggested, or selected by a defendant or an agent of the defendant.

(c) A waiver under this section must be:

(1) conspicuous and in bold-face type of at least 10 points in size;

(2) identified by the heading "Waiver of Consumer Rights," or words of similar meaning; and

(3) in substantially the following form:
"I waive my rights under the Deceptive Trade Practices-Consumer Protection Act, Section 17.41 et seq., Business & Commerce Code, a law that gives consumers special rights and protections. After consultation with an attorney of my own selection, I voluntarily consent to this waiver."

(d) The waiver required by Subsection (c) may be modified to waive only specified rights under this subchapter.

(e) The fact that a consumer has signed a waiver under this section is not a defense to an action brought by the attorney general under Section 17.47.


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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.43. Cumulative Remedies.The provisions of this subchapter are not exclusive. The remedies provided in this subchapter are in addition to any other procedures or remedies provided for in any other law; provided, however, that no recovery shall be permitted under both this subchapter and another law of both damages and penalties for the same act or practice. A violation of a provision of law other than this subchapter is not in and of itself a violation of this subchapter. An act or practice that is a violation of a provision of law other than this subchapter may be made the basis of an action under this subchapter if the act or practice is proscribed by a provision of this subchapter or is declared by such other law to be actionable under this subchapter. The provisions of this subchapter do not in any way preclude other political subdivisions of this state from dealing with deceptive trade practices.Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.43. Cumulative Remedies.The provisions of this subchapter are not exclusive. The remedies provided in this subchapter are in addition to any other procedures or remedies provided for in any other law; provided, however, that no recovery shall be permitted under both this subchapter and another law of both damages and penalties for the same act or practice. A violation of a provision of law other than this subchapter is not in and of itself a violation of this subchapter. An act or practice that is a violation of a provision of law other than this subchapter may be made the basis of an action under this subchapter if the act or practice is proscribed by a provision of this subchapter or is declared by such other law to be actionable under this subchapter. The provisions of this subchapter do not in any way preclude other political subdivisions of this state from dealing with deceptive trade practices.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.44. Consutruction and Application. (a) This subchapter shall be liberally construed and applied to promote its underlying purposes, which are to protect consumers against false, misleading, and deceptive business practices, unconscionable actions, and breaches of warranty and to provide efficient and economical procedures to secure such protection.

(b) Chapter 27, Property Code, prevails over this subchapter to the extent of any conflict.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.44. Consutruction and Application. (a) This subchapter shall be liberally construed and applied to promote its underlying purposes, which are to protect consumers against false, misleading, and deceptive business practices, unconscionable actions, and breaches of warranty and to provide efficient and economical procedures to secure such protection.

(b) Chapter 27, Property Code, prevails over this subchapter to the extent of any conflict.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.45. Definitions.(1) "Goods" means tangible chattels or real property purchased or leased for use.

(2) "Services" means work, labor, or service purchased or leased for use, including services furnished in connection with the sale or repair of goods.

(3) "Person" means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other group, however organized.

(4) "Consumer" means an individual, partnership, corporation, this state, or a subdivision or agency of this state who seeks or acquires by purchase or lease, any goods or services, except that the term does not include a business consumer that has assets of $25 million or more, or that is owned or controlled by a corporation or entity with assets of $25 million or more.

(5) "Unconscionable action or course of action" means an act or practice which, to a consumer's detriment, takes advantage of the lack of knowledge, ability, experience, or capacity of the consumer to a grossly unfair degree.

(6) "Trade" and "commerce" mean the advertising, offering for sale, sale, lease, or distribution of any good or service, of any property, tangible or intangible, real, personal, or mixed, and any other article, commodity, or thing of value, wherever situated, and shall include any trade or commerce directly or indirectly affecting the people of this state.

(7) "Documentary material" includes the original or a copy of any book, record, report, memorandum, paper, communication, tabulation, map, chart, photograph, mechanical transcription, or other tangible document or recording, wherever situated.

(8) "Consumer protection division" means the consumer protection division of the attorney general's office.

(9) "Knowingly" means actual awareness, at the time of the act or practice complained of, of the falsity, deception, or unfairness of the act or practice giving rise to the consumer's claim or, in an action brought under Subdivision (2) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.50, actual awareness of the act, practice, condition, defect, or failure constituting the breach of warranty, but actual awareness may be inferred where objective manifestations indicate that a person acted with actual awareness.

(10) "Business consumer" means an individual, partnership, or corporation who seeks or acquires by purchase or lease, any goods or services for commercial or business use. The term does not include this state or a subdivision or agency of this state.

(11) "Economic damages" means compensatory damages for pecuniary loss, including costs of repair and replacement. The term does not include exemplary damages or damages for physical pain and mental anguish, loss of consortium, disfigurement, physical impairment, or loss of companionship and society.

(12) "Residence" means a building:

(A) that is a single-family house, duplex, triplex, or quadruplex or a unit in a multiunit residential structure in which title to the individual units is transferred to the owners under a condominium or cooperative system; and

(B) that is occupied or to be occupied as the consumer's residence.

(13) "Intentionally" means actual awareness of the falsity, deception, or unfairness of the act or practice, or the condition, defect, or failure constituting a breach of warranty giving rise to the consumer's claim, coupled with the specific intent that the consumer act in detrimental reliance on the falsity or deception or in detrimental ignorance of the unfairness. Intention may be inferred from objective manifestations that indicate that the person acted intentionally or from facts showing that a defendant acted with flagrant disregard of prudent and fair business practices to the extent that the defendant should be treated as having acted intentionally.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.45. Definitions.(1) "Goods" means tangible chattels or real property purchased or leased for use.

(2) "Services" means work, labor, or service purchased or leased for use, including services furnished in connection with the sale or repair of goods.

(3) "Person" means an individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other group, however organized.

(4) "Consumer" means an individual, partnership, corporation, this state, or a subdivision or agency of this state who seeks or acquires by purchase or lease, any goods or services, except that the term does not include a business consumer that has assets of $25 million or more, or that is owned or controlled by a corporation or entity with assets of $25 million or more.

(5) "Unconscionable action or course of action" means an act or practice which, to a consumer's detriment, takes advantage of the lack of knowledge, ability, experience, or capacity of the consumer to a grossly unfair degree.

(6) "Trade" and "commerce" mean the advertising, offering for sale, sale, lease, or distribution of any good or service, of any property, tangible or intangible, real, personal, or mixed, and any other article, commodity, or thing of value, wherever situated, and shall include any trade or commerce directly or indirectly affecting the people of this state.

(7) "Documentary material" includes the original or a copy of any book, record, report, memorandum, paper, communication, tabulation, map, chart, photograph, mechanical transcription, or other tangible document or recording, wherever situated.

(8) "Consumer protection division" means the consumer protection division of the attorney general's office.

(9) "Knowingly" means actual awareness, at the time of the act or practice complained of, of the falsity, deception, or unfairness of the act or practice giving rise to the consumer's claim or, in an action brought under Subdivision (2) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.50, actual awareness of the act, practice, condition, defect, or failure constituting the breach of warranty, but actual awareness may be inferred where objective manifestations indicate that a person acted with actual awareness.

(10) "Business consumer" means an individual, partnership, or corporation who seeks or acquires by purchase or lease, any goods or services for commercial or business use. The term does not include this state or a subdivision or agency of this state.

(11) "Economic damages" means compensatory damages for pecuniary loss, including costs of repair and replacement. The term does not include exemplary damages or damages for physical pain and mental anguish, loss of consortium, disfigurement, physical impairment, or loss of companionship and society.

(12) "Residence" means a building:

(A) that is a single-family house, duplex, triplex, or quadruplex or a unit in a multiunit residential structure in which title to the individual units is transferred to the owners under a condominium or cooperative system; and

(B) that is occupied or to be occupied as the consumer's residence.

(13) "Intentionally" means actual awareness of the falsity, deception, or unfairness of the act or practice, or the condition, defect, or failure constituting a breach of warranty giving rise to the consumer's claim, coupled with the specific intent that the consumer act in detrimental reliance on the falsity or deception or in detrimental ignorance of the unfairness. Intention may be inferred from objective manifestations that indicate that the person acted intentionally or from facts showing that a defendant acted with flagrant disregard of prudent and fair business practices to the extent that the defendant should be treated as having acted intentionally.

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Sec. 17.46. Deceptive Trade Practices Unlawful.(a) False, misleading, or deceptive acts or practices in the conduct of any trade or commerce are hereby declared unlawful and are subject to action by the consumer protection division under Sections 17.47, 17.58, 17.60, and 17.61 of this code.

(b) Except as provided in Subsection (d) of this section, the term "false, misleading, or deceptive acts or practices" includes, but is not limited to, the following acts:

(1) passing off goods or services as those of another;

(2) causing confusion or misunderstanding as to the source, sponsorship, approval, or certification of goods or services;

(3) causing confusion or misunderstanding as to affiliation, connection, or association with, or certification by, another;

(4) using deceptive representations or designations of geographic origin in connection with goods or services;

(5) representing that goods or services have sponsorship, approval, characteristics, ingredients, uses, benefits, or quantities which they do not have or that a person has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection which he does not;

(6) representing that goods are original or new if they are deteriorated, reconditioned, reclaimed, used, or secondhand;

(7) representing that goods or services are of a particular standard, quality, or grade, or that goods are of a particular style or model, if they are of another;

(8) disparaging the goods, services, or business of another by false or misleading representation of facts;

(9) advertising goods or services with intent not to sell them as advertised;

(10) advertising goods or services with intent not to supply a reasonable expectable public demand, unless the advertisements disclosed a limitation of quantity;

(11) making false or misleading statements of fact concerning the reasons for, existence of, or amount of price reductions;

(12) representing that an agreement confers or involves rights, remedies, or obligations which it does not have or involve, or which are prohibited by law;

(13) knowingly making false or misleading statements of fact concerning the need for parts, replacement, or repair service;

(14) misrepresenting the authority of a salesman, representative or agent to negotiate the final terms of a consumer transaction;

(15) basing a charge for the repair of any item in whole or in part on a guaranty or warranty instead of on the value of the actual repairs made or work to be performed on the item without stating separately the charges for the work and the charge for the warranty or guaranty, if any;

(16) disconnecting, turning back, or resetting the odometer of any motor vehicle so as to reduce the number of miles indicated on the odometer gauge;

(17) advertising of any sale by fraudulently representing that a person is going out of business;

(18) advertising, selling, or distributing a card which purports to be a prescription drug identification card issued under Section 4151.152, Insurance Code, in accordance with rules adopted by the commissioner of insurance, which offers a discount on the purchase of health care goods or services from a third party provider, and which is not evidence of insurance coverage, unless:

(A) the discount is authorized under an agreement between the seller of the card and the provider of those goods and services or the discount or card is offered to members of the seller;

(B) the seller does not represent that the card provides insurance coverage of any kind; and

(C) the discount is not false, misleading, or deceptive;

(19) using or employing a chain referral sales plan in connection with the sale or offer to sell of goods, merchandise, or anything of value, which uses the sales technique, plan, arrangement, or agreement in which the buyer or prospective buyer is offered the opportunity to purchase merchandise or goods and in connection with the purchase receives the seller's promise or representation that the buyer shall have the right to receive compensation or consideration in any form for furnishing to the seller the names of other prospective buyers if receipt of the compensation or consideration is contingent upon the occurrence of an event subsequent to the time the buyer purchases the merchandise or goods;

(20) representing that a guarantee or warranty confers or involves rights or remedies which it does not have or involve, provided, however, that nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to expand the implied warranty of merchantability as defined in Sections 2.314 through 2.318 and Sections 2A.212 through 2A.216 to involve obligations in excess of those which are appropriate to the goods;

(21) promoting a pyramid promotional scheme, as defined by Section 17.461;

(22) representing that work or services have been performed on, or parts replaced in, goods when the work or services were not performed or the parts replaced;

(23) filing suit founded upon a written contractual obligation of and signed by the defendant to pay money arising out of or based on a consumer transaction for goods, services, loans, or extensions of credit intended primarily for personal, family, household, or agricultural use in any county other than in the county in which the defendant resides at the time of the commencement of the action or in the county in which the defendant in fact signed the contract; provided, however, that a violation of this subsection shall not occur where it is shown by the person filing such suit he neither knew or had reason to know that the county in which such suit was filed was neither the county in which the defendant resides at the commencement of the suit nor the county in which the defendant in fact signed the contract;

(24) failing to disclose information concerning goods or services which was known at the time of the transaction if such failure to disclose such information was intended to induce the consumer into a transaction into which the consumer would not have entered had the information been disclosed;

(25) using the term "corporation," "incorporated," or an abbreviation of either of those terms in the name of a business entity that is not incorporated under the laws of this state or another jurisdiction;

(26) selling, offering to sell, or illegally promoting an annuity contract under Chapter 22, Acts of the 57th Legislature, 3rd Called Session, 1962 (Article 6228a-5, Vernon's Texas Civil Statutes), with the intent that the annuity contract will be the subject of a salary reduction agreement, as defined by that Act, if the annuity contract is not an eligible qualified investment under that Act or is not registered with the Teacher Retirement System of Texas as required by Section 8A of that Act; or

(27) taking advantage of a disaster declared by the governor under Chapter 418, Government Code, by:

(A) selling or leasing fuel, food, medicine, or another necessity at an exorbitant or excessive price; or

(B) demanding an exorbitant or excessive price in connection with the sale or lease of fuel, food, medicine, or another necessity.

(c)(1) It is the intent of the legislature that in construing Subsection (a) of this section in suits brought under Section 17.47 of this subchapter the courts to the extent possible will be guided by Subsection (b) of this section and the interpretations given by the Federal Trade Commission and federal courts to Section 5(a)(1) of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C.A. Sec. 45(a)(1)].

(2) In construing this subchapter the court shall not be prohibited from considering relevant and pertinent decisions of courts in other jurisdictions.

(d) For the purposes of the relief authorized in Subdivision (1) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.50 of this subchapter, the term "false, misleading, or deceptive acts or practices" is limited to the acts enumerated in specific subdivisions of Subsection (b) of this section.
Sec. 17.46. Deceptive Trade Practices Unlawful.(a) False, misleading, or deceptive acts or practices in the conduct of any trade or commerce are hereby declared unlawful and are subject to action by the consumer protection division under Sections 17.47, 17.58, 17.60, and 17.61 of this code.

(b) Except as provided in Subsection (d) of this section, the term "false, misleading, or deceptive acts or practices" includes, but is not limited to, the following acts:

(1) passing off goods or services as those of another;

(2) causing confusion or misunderstanding as to the source, sponsorship, approval, or certification of goods or services;

(3) causing confusion or misunderstanding as to affiliation, connection, or association with, or certification by, another;

(4) using deceptive representations or designations of geographic origin in connection with goods or services;

(5) representing that goods or services have sponsorship, approval, characteristics, ingredients, uses, benefits, or quantities which they do not have or that a person has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection which he does not;

(6) representing that goods are original or new if they are deteriorated, reconditioned, reclaimed, used, or secondhand;

(7) representing that goods or services are of a particular standard, quality, or grade, or that goods are of a particular style or model, if they are of another;

(8) disparaging the goods, services, or business of another by false or misleading representation of facts;

(9) advertising goods or services with intent not to sell them as advertised;

(10) advertising goods or services with intent not to supply a reasonable expectable public demand, unless the advertisements disclosed a limitation of quantity;

(11) making false or misleading statements of fact concerning the reasons for, existence of, or amount of price reductions;

(12) representing that an agreement confers or involves rights, remedies, or obligations which it does not have or involve, or which are prohibited by law;

(13) knowingly making false or misleading statements of fact concerning the need for parts, replacement, or repair service;

(14) misrepresenting the authority of a salesman, representative or agent to negotiate the final terms of a consumer transaction;

(15) basing a charge for the repair of any item in whole or in part on a guaranty or warranty instead of on the value of the actual repairs made or work to be performed on the item without stating separately the charges for the work and the charge for the warranty or guaranty, if any;

(16) disconnecting, turning back, or resetting the odometer of any motor vehicle so as to reduce the number of miles indicated on the odometer gauge;

(17) advertising of any sale by fraudulently representing that a person is going out of business;

(18) advertising, selling, or distributing a card which purports to be a prescription drug identification card issued under Section 4151.152, Insurance Code, in accordance with rules adopted by the commissioner of insurance, which offers a discount on the purchase of health care goods or services from a third party provider, and which is not evidence of insurance coverage, unless:

(A) the discount is authorized under an agreement between the seller of the card and the provider of those goods and services or the discount or card is offered to members of the seller;

(B) the seller does not represent that the card provides insurance coverage of any kind; and

(C) the discount is not false, misleading, or deceptive;

(19) using or employing a chain referral sales plan in connection with the sale or offer to sell of goods, merchandise, or anything of value, which uses the sales technique, plan, arrangement, or agreement in which the buyer or prospective buyer is offered the opportunity to purchase merchandise or goods and in connection with the purchase receives the seller's promise or representation that the buyer shall have the right to receive compensation or consideration in any form for furnishing to the seller the names of other prospective buyers if receipt of the compensation or consideration is contingent upon the occurrence of an event subsequent to the time the buyer purchases the merchandise or goods;

(20) representing that a guarantee or warranty confers or involves rights or remedies which it does not have or involve, provided, however, that nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to expand the implied warranty of merchantability as defined in Sections 2.314 through 2.318 and Sections 2A.212 through 2A.216 to involve obligations in excess of those which are appropriate to the goods;

(21) promoting a pyramid promotional scheme, as defined by Section 17.461;

(22) representing that work or services have been performed on, or parts replaced in, goods when the work or services were not performed or the parts replaced;

(23) filing suit founded upon a written contractual obligation of and signed by the defendant to pay money arising out of or based on a consumer transaction for goods, services, loans, or extensions of credit intended primarily for personal, family, household, or agricultural use in any county other than in the county in which the defendant resides at the time of the commencement of the action or in the county in which the defendant in fact signed the contract; provided, however, that a violation of this subsection shall not occur where it is shown by the person filing such suit he neither knew or had reason to know that the county in which such suit was filed was neither the county in which the defendant resides at the commencement of the suit nor the county in which the defendant in fact signed the contract;

(24) failing to disclose information concerning goods or services which was known at the time of the transaction if such failure to disclose such information was intended to induce the consumer into a transaction into which the consumer would not have entered had the information been disclosed;

(25) using the term "corporation," "incorporated," or an abbreviation of either of those terms in the name of a business entity that is not incorporated under the laws of this state or another jurisdiction;

(26) selling, offering to sell, or illegally promoting an annuity contract under Chapter 22, Acts of the 57th Legislature, 3rd Called Session, 1962 (Article 6228a-5, Vernon's Texas Civil Statutes), with the intent that the annuity contract will be the subject of a salary reduction agreement, as defined by that Act, if the annuity contract is not an eligible qualified investment under that Act or is not registered with the Teacher Retirement System of Texas as required by Section 8A of that Act; or

(27) taking advantage of a disaster declared by the governor under Chapter 418, Government Code, by:

(A) selling or leasing fuel, food, medicine, or another necessity at an exorbitant or excessive price; or

(B) demanding an exorbitant or excessive price in connection with the sale or lease of fuel, food, medicine, or another necessity.

(c)(1) It is the intent of the legislature that in construing Subsection (a) of this section in suits brought under Section 17.47 of this subchapter the courts to the extent possible will be guided by Subsection (b) of this section and the interpretations given by the Federal Trade Commission and federal courts to Section 5(a)(1) of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C.A. Sec. 45(a)(1)].

(2) In construing this subchapter the court shall not be prohibited from considering relevant and pertinent decisions of courts in other jurisdictions.

(d) For the purposes of the relief authorized in Subdivision (1) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.50 of this subchapter, the term "false, misleading, or deceptive acts or practices" is limited to the acts enumerated in specific subdivisions of Subsection (b) of this section.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.461. Pryamid Promotional Scheme.(a) In this section:

(1) "Compensation" means payment of money, a financial benefit, or another thing of value. The term does not include payment based on sale of a product to a person, including a participant, who purchases the product for actual use or consumption.

(2) "Consideration" means the payment of cash or the purchase of a product. The term does not include:

(A) a purchase of a product furnished at cost to be used in making a sale and not for resale;

(B) a purchase of a product subject to a repurchase agreement that complies with Subsection (b); or

(C) time and effort spent in pursuit of a sale or in a recruiting activity.

(3) "Participate" means to contribute money into a pyramid promotional scheme without promoting, organizing, or operating the scheme.

(4) "Product" means a good, a service, or intangible property of any kind.

(5) "Promoting a pyramid promotional scheme" means:

(A) inducing or attempting to induce one or more other persons to participate in a pyramid promotional scheme; or

(B) assisting another person in inducing or attempting to induce one or more other persons to participate in a pyramid promotional scheme, including by providing references.

(6) "Pyramid promotional scheme" means a plan or operation by which a person gives consideration for the opportunity to receive compensation that is derived primarily from a person's introduction of other persons to participate in the plan or operation rather than from the sale of a product by a person introduced into the plan or operation.

(b) To qualify as a repurchase agreement for the purposes of Subsection (a)(2)(B), an agreement must be an enforceable agreement by the seller to repurchase, on written request of the purchaser and not later than the first anniversary of the purchaser's date of purchase, all unencumbered products that are in an unused, commercially resalable condition at a price not less than 90 percent of the amount actually paid by the purchaser for the products being returned, less any consideration received by the purchaser for purchase of the products being returned. A product that is no longer marketed by the seller is considered resalable if the product is otherwise in an unused, commercially resalable condition and is returned to the seller not later than the first anniversary of the purchaser's date of purchase, except that the product is not considered resalable if before the purchaser purchased the product it was clearly disclosed to the purchaser that the product was sold as a nonreturnable, discontinued, seasonal, or special promotion item.

(c) A person commits an offense if the person contrives, prepares, establishes, operates, advertises, sells, or promotes a pyramid promotional scheme. An offense under this subsection is a state jail felony.

(d) It is not a defense to prosecution for an offense under this section that the pyramid promotional scheme involved both a franchise to sell a product and the authority to sell additional franchises if the emphasis of the scheme is on the sale of additional franchises.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.461. Pryamid Promotional Scheme.(a) In this section:

(1) "Compensation" means payment of money, a financial benefit, or another thing of value. The term does not include payment based on sale of a product to a person, including a participant, who purchases the product for actual use or consumption.

(2) "Consideration" means the payment of cash or the purchase of a product. The term does not include:

(A) a purchase of a product furnished at cost to be used in making a sale and not for resale;

(B) a purchase of a product subject to a repurchase agreement that complies with Subsection (b); or

(C) time and effort spent in pursuit of a sale or in a recruiting activity.

(3) "Participate" means to contribute money into a pyramid promotional scheme without promoting, organizing, or operating the scheme.

(4) "Product" means a good, a service, or intangible property of any kind.

(5) "Promoting a pyramid promotional scheme" means:

(A) inducing or attempting to induce one or more other persons to participate in a pyramid promotional scheme; or

(B) assisting another person in inducing or attempting to induce one or more other persons to participate in a pyramid promotional scheme, including by providing references.

(6) "Pyramid promotional scheme" means a plan or operation by which a person gives consideration for the opportunity to receive compensation that is derived primarily from a person's introduction of other persons to participate in the plan or operation rather than from the sale of a product by a person introduced into the plan or operation.

(b) To qualify as a repurchase agreement for the purposes of Subsection (a)(2)(B), an agreement must be an enforceable agreement by the seller to repurchase, on written request of the purchaser and not later than the first anniversary of the purchaser's date of purchase, all unencumbered products that are in an unused, commercially resalable condition at a price not less than 90 percent of the amount actually paid by the purchaser for the products being returned, less any consideration received by the purchaser for purchase of the products being returned. A product that is no longer marketed by the seller is considered resalable if the product is otherwise in an unused, commercially resalable condition and is returned to the seller not later than the first anniversary of the purchaser's date of purchase, except that the product is not considered resalable if before the purchaser purchased the product it was clearly disclosed to the purchaser that the product was sold as a nonreturnable, discontinued, seasonal, or special promotion item.

(c) A person commits an offense if the person contrives, prepares, establishes, operates, advertises, sells, or promotes a pyramid promotional scheme. An offense under this subsection is a state jail felony.

(d) It is not a defense to prosecution for an offense under this section that the pyramid promotional scheme involved both a franchise to sell a product and the authority to sell additional franchises if the emphasis of the scheme is on the sale of additional franchises.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.462. Listing of Business Location in Directory or Database.(a) A person may not misrepresent the geographical location of a business that derives 50 percent or more of its gross income from the sale or arranging for the sale of flowers or floral arrangements in the listing of the business in a telephone directory or other directory assistance database.

(b) A person is considered to misrepresent the geographical location of a business for purposes of Subsection (a) if the name of the business indicates that the business is located in a geographical area and:

(1) the business is not located within the geographical area indicated;

(2) the listing fails to identify the municipality and state of the business's geographical location; and

(3) a telephone call to the local telephone number listed in the directory or database routinely is forwarded or transferred to a location that is outside the calling area covered by the directory or database in which the number is listed.

(c) A person may place a directory listing for a business described by Subsection (a) the name of which indicates that it is located in a geographical area that is different from the geographical area in which the business is located if a conspicuous notice in the listing states the municipality and state in which the business is located.

(d) This section does not apply to a publisher of a telephone directory or other publication or a provider of a directory assistance service publishing or providing information about another business.

(e) This section creates no duty and imposes no obligation upon anyone other than the business that is the subject of the advertisement or listing.

(f) A violation of this section is a false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice under this subchapter, and any public or private right or remedy prescribed by this subchapter may be used to enforce this section.

Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.462. Listing of Business Location in Directory or Database.(a) A person may not misrepresent the geographical location of a business that derives 50 percent or more of its gross income from the sale or arranging for the sale of flowers or floral arrangements in the listing of the business in a telephone directory or other directory assistance database.

(b) A person is considered to misrepresent the geographical location of a business for purposes of Subsection (a) if the name of the business indicates that the business is located in a geographical area and:

(1) the business is not located within the geographical area indicated;

(2) the listing fails to identify the municipality and state of the business's geographical location; and

(3) a telephone call to the local telephone number listed in the directory or database routinely is forwarded or transferred to a location that is outside the calling area covered by the directory or database in which the number is listed.

(c) A person may place a directory listing for a business described by Subsection (a) the name of which indicates that it is located in a geographical area that is different from the geographical area in which the business is located if a conspicuous notice in the listing states the municipality and state in which the business is located.

(d) This section does not apply to a publisher of a telephone directory or other publication or a provider of a directory assistance service publishing or providing information about another business.

(e) This section creates no duty and imposes no obligation upon anyone other than the business that is the subject of the advertisement or listing.

(f) A violation of this section is a false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice under this subchapter, and any public or private right or remedy prescribed by this subchapter may be used to enforce this section.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.47. Restraining Orders.(a) Whenever the consumer protection division has reason to believe that any person is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in any act or practice declared to be unlawful by this subchapter, and that proceedings would be in the public interest, the division may bring an action in the name of the state against the person to restrain by temporary restraining order, temporary injunction, or permanent injunction the use of such method, act, or practice.
Nothing herein shall require the consumer protection division to notify such person that court action is or may be under consideration. Provided, however, the consumer protection division shall, at least seven days prior to instituting such court action, contact such person to inform him in general of the alleged unlawful conduct. Cessation of unlawful conduct after such prior contact shall not render such court action moot under any circumstances, and such injunctive relief shall lie even if such person has ceased such unlawful conduct after such prior contact. Such prior contact shall not be required if, in the opinion of the consumer protection division, there is good cause to believe that such person would evade service of process if prior contact were made or that such person would destroy relevant records if prior contact were made, or that such an emergency exists that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage would occur as a result of such delay in obtaining a temporary restraining order.

(b) An action brought under Subsection (a) of this section which alleges a claim to relief under this section may be commenced in the district court of the county in which the person against whom it is brought resides, has his principal place of business, has done business, or in the district court of the county where the transaction occurred, or, on the consent of the parties, in a district court of Travis County. The court may issue temporary restraining orders, temporary or permanent injunctions to restrain and prevent violations of this subchapter and such injunctive relief shall be issued without bond.

(c) In addition to the request for a temporary restraining order, or permanent injunction in a proceeding brought under Subsection (a) of this section, the consumer protection division may request, and the trier of fact may award, a civil penalty to be paid to the state in an amount of:

(1) not more than $20,000 per violation; and

(2) if the act or practice that is the subject of the proceeding was calculated to acquire or deprive money or other property from a consumer who was 65 years of age or older when the act or practice occurred, an additional amount of not more than $250,000.

(d) The court may make such additional orders or judgments as are necessary to compensate identifiable persons for actual damages or to restore money or property, real or personal, which may have been acquired by means of any unlawful act or practice. Damages may not include any damages incurred beyond a point two years prior to the institution of the action by the consumer protection division. Orders of the court may also include the appointment of a receiver or a sequestration of assets if a person who has been ordered by a court to make restitution under this section has failed to do so within three months after the order to make restitution has become final and nonappealable.

(e) Any person who violates the terms of an injunction under this section shall forfeit and pay to the state a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 per violation, not to exceed $50,000. In determining whether or not an injunction has been violated the court shall take into consideration the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to insure compliance with the injunction. For the purposes of this section, the district court issuing the injunction shall retain jurisdiction, and the cause shall be continued, and in these cases, the consumer protection division, or the district or county attorney with prior notice to the consumer protection division, acting in the name of the state, may petition for recovery of civil penalties under this section.

(f) An order of the court awarding civil penalties under Subsection (e) of this section applies only to violations of the injunction incurred prior to the awarding of the penalty order. Second or subsequent violations of an injunction issued under this section are subject to the same penalties set out in Subsection (e) of this section.

(g) In determining the amount of penalty imposed under Subsection (c), the trier of fact shall consider:

(1) the seriousness of the violation, including the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of any prohibited act or practice;

(2) the history of previous violations;

(3) the amount necessary to deter future violations;

(4) the economic effect on the person against whom the penalty is to be assessed;

(5) knowledge of the illegality of the act or practice; and

(6) any other matter that justice may require.

(h) In bringing or participating in an action under this subchapter, the consumer protection division acts in the name of the state and does not establish an attorney-client relationship with another person, including a person to whom the consumer protection division requests that the court award relief.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.47. Restraining Orders.(a) Whenever the consumer protection division has reason to believe that any person is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in any act or practice declared to be unlawful by this subchapter, and that proceedings would be in the public interest, the division may bring an action in the name of the state against the person to restrain by temporary restraining order, temporary injunction, or permanent injunction the use of such method, act, or practice.
Nothing herein shall require the consumer protection division to notify such person that court action is or may be under consideration. Provided, however, the consumer protection division shall, at least seven days prior to instituting such court action, contact such person to inform him in general of the alleged unlawful conduct. Cessation of unlawful conduct after such prior contact shall not render such court action moot under any circumstances, and such injunctive relief shall lie even if such person has ceased such unlawful conduct after such prior contact. Such prior contact shall not be required if, in the opinion of the consumer protection division, there is good cause to believe that such person would evade service of process if prior contact were made or that such person would destroy relevant records if prior contact were made, or that such an emergency exists that immediate and irreparable injury, loss, or damage would occur as a result of such delay in obtaining a temporary restraining order.

(b) An action brought under Subsection (a) of this section which alleges a claim to relief under this section may be commenced in the district court of the county in which the person against whom it is brought resides, has his principal place of business, has done business, or in the district court of the county where the transaction occurred, or, on the consent of the parties, in a district court of Travis County. The court may issue temporary restraining orders, temporary or permanent injunctions to restrain and prevent violations of this subchapter and such injunctive relief shall be issued without bond.

(c) In addition to the request for a temporary restraining order, or permanent injunction in a proceeding brought under Subsection (a) of this section, the consumer protection division may request, and the trier of fact may award, a civil penalty to be paid to the state in an amount of:

(1) not more than $20,000 per violation; and

(2) if the act or practice that is the subject of the proceeding was calculated to acquire or deprive money or other property from a consumer who was 65 years of age or older when the act or practice occurred, an additional amount of not more than $250,000.

(d) The court may make such additional orders or judgments as are necessary to compensate identifiable persons for actual damages or to restore money or property, real or personal, which may have been acquired by means of any unlawful act or practice. Damages may not include any damages incurred beyond a point two years prior to the institution of the action by the consumer protection division. Orders of the court may also include the appointment of a receiver or a sequestration of assets if a person who has been ordered by a court to make restitution under this section has failed to do so within three months after the order to make restitution has become final and nonappealable.

(e) Any person who violates the terms of an injunction under this section shall forfeit and pay to the state a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 per violation, not to exceed $50,000. In determining whether or not an injunction has been violated the court shall take into consideration the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to insure compliance with the injunction. For the purposes of this section, the district court issuing the injunction shall retain jurisdiction, and the cause shall be continued, and in these cases, the consumer protection division, or the district or county attorney with prior notice to the consumer protection division, acting in the name of the state, may petition for recovery of civil penalties under this section.

(f) An order of the court awarding civil penalties under Subsection (e) of this section applies only to violations of the injunction incurred prior to the awarding of the penalty order. Second or subsequent violations of an injunction issued under this section are subject to the same penalties set out in Subsection (e) of this section.

(g) In determining the amount of penalty imposed under Subsection (c), the trier of fact shall consider:

(1) the seriousness of the violation, including the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of any prohibited act or practice;

(2) the history of previous violations;

(3) the amount necessary to deter future violations;

(4) the economic effect on the person against whom the penalty is to be assessed;

(5) knowledge of the illegality of the act or practice; and

(6) any other matter that justice may require.

(h) In bringing or participating in an action under this subchapter, the consumer protection division acts in the name of the state and does not establish an attorney-client relationship with another person, including a person to whom the consumer protection division requests that the court award relief.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.48. Duty of District and County Attorney.(a) It is the duty of the district and county attorneys to lend to the consumer protection division any assistance requested in the commencement and prosecutions of action under this subchapter.

(b) A district or county attorney, with prior written notice to the consumer protection division, may institute and prosecute actions seeking injunctive relief under this subchapter, after complying with the prior contact provisions of Subsection (a) of Section 17.47 of this subchapter. On request, the consumer protection division shall assist the district or county attorney in any action taken under this subchapter. If an action is prosecuted by a district or county attorney alone, he shall make a full report to the consumer protection division including the final disposition of the matter. No district or county attorney may bring an action under this section against any licensed insurer or licensed insurance agent transacting business under the authority and jurisdiction of the State Board of Insurance unless first requested in writing to do so by the State Board of Insurance, the commissioner of insurance, or the consumer protection division pursuant to a request by the State Board of Insurance or commissioner of insurance.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.48. Duty of District and County Attorney.(a) It is the duty of the district and county attorneys to lend to the consumer protection division any assistance requested in the commencement and prosecutions of action under this subchapter.

(b) A district or county attorney, with prior written notice to the consumer protection division, may institute and prosecute actions seeking injunctive relief under this subchapter, after complying with the prior contact provisions of Subsection (a) of Section 17.47 of this subchapter. On request, the consumer protection division shall assist the district or county attorney in any action taken under this subchapter. If an action is prosecuted by a district or county attorney alone, he shall make a full report to the consumer protection division including the final disposition of the matter. No district or county attorney may bring an action under this section against any licensed insurer or licensed insurance agent transacting business under the authority and jurisdiction of the State Board of Insurance unless first requested in writing to do so by the State Board of Insurance, the commissioner of insurance, or the consumer protection division pursuant to a request by the State Board of Insurance or commissioner of insurance.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.49. Exemptions.(a) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to the owner or employees of a regularly published newspaper, magazine, or telephone directory, or broadcast station, or billboard, wherein any advertisement in violation of this subchapter is published or disseminated, unless it is established that the owner or employees of the advertising medium have knowledge of the false, deceptive, or misleading acts or practices declared to be unlawful by this subchapter, or had a direct or substantial financial interest in the sale or distribution of the unlawfully advertised good or service. Financial interest as used in this section relates to an expectation which would be the direct result of such advertisement.

(b) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to acts or practices authorized under specific rules or regulations promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission under Section 5(a)(1) of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C.A. 45(a)(1)]. The provisions of this subchapter do apply to any act or practice prohibited or not specifically authorized by a rule or regulation of the Federal Trade Commission. An act or practice is not specifically authorized if no rule or regulation has been issued on the act or practice.

(c) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to a claim for damages based on the rendering of a professional service, the essence of which is the providing of advice, judgment, opinion, or similar professional skill. This exemption does not apply to:

(1) an express misrepresentation of a material fact that cannot be characterized as advice, judgment, or opinion;

(2) a failure to disclose information in violation of Section 17.46(b)(24);

(3) an unconscionable action or course of action that cannot be characterized as advice, judgment, or opinion;

(4) breach of an express warranty that cannot be characterized as advice, judgment, or opinion; or

(5) a violation of Section 17.46(b)(26).

(d) Subsection (c) applies to a cause of action brought against the person who provided the professional service and a cause of action brought against any entity that could be found to be vicariously liable for the person's conduct.

(e) Except as specifically provided by Subsections (b) and (h), Section 17.50, nothing in this subchapter shall apply to a cause of action for bodily injury or death or for the infliction of mental anguish.

(f) Nothing in the subchapter shall apply to a claim arising out of a written contract if:

(1) the contract relates to a transaction, a project, or a set of transactions related to the same project involving total consideration by the consumer of more than $100,000;

(2) in negotiating the contract the consumer is represented by legal counsel who is not directly or indirectly identified, suggested, or selected by the defendant or an agent of the defendant; and

(3) the contract does not involve the consumer's residence.

(g) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to a cause of action arising from a transaction, a project, or a set of transactions relating to the same project, involving total consideration by the consumer of more than $500,000, other than a cause of action involving a consumer's residence.

(h) A person who violates Section 17.46(b)(26) is jointly and severally liable under that subdivision for actual damages, court costs, and attorney's fees. Subject to Chapter 41, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, exemplary damages may be awarded in the event of fraud or malice.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.49. Exemptions.(a) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to the owner or employees of a regularly published newspaper, magazine, or telephone directory, or broadcast station, or billboard, wherein any advertisement in violation of this subchapter is published or disseminated, unless it is established that the owner or employees of the advertising medium have knowledge of the false, deceptive, or misleading acts or practices declared to be unlawful by this subchapter, or had a direct or substantial financial interest in the sale or distribution of the unlawfully advertised good or service. Financial interest as used in this section relates to an expectation which would be the direct result of such advertisement.

(b) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to acts or practices authorized under specific rules or regulations promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission under Section 5(a)(1) of the Federal Trade Commission Act [15 U.S.C.A. 45(a)(1)]. The provisions of this subchapter do apply to any act or practice prohibited or not specifically authorized by a rule or regulation of the Federal Trade Commission. An act or practice is not specifically authorized if no rule or regulation has been issued on the act or practice.

(c) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to a claim for damages based on the rendering of a professional service, the essence of which is the providing of advice, judgment, opinion, or similar professional skill. This exemption does not apply to:

(1) an express misrepresentation of a material fact that cannot be characterized as advice, judgment, or opinion;

(2) a failure to disclose information in violation of Section 17.46(b)(24);

(3) an unconscionable action or course of action that cannot be characterized as advice, judgment, or opinion;

(4) breach of an express warranty that cannot be characterized as advice, judgment, or opinion; or

(5) a violation of Section 17.46(b)(26).

(d) Subsection (c) applies to a cause of action brought against the person who provided the professional service and a cause of action brought against any entity that could be found to be vicariously liable for the person's conduct.

(e) Except as specifically provided by Subsections (b) and (h), Section 17.50, nothing in this subchapter shall apply to a cause of action for bodily injury or death or for the infliction of mental anguish.

(f) Nothing in the subchapter shall apply to a claim arising out of a written contract if:

(1) the contract relates to a transaction, a project, or a set of transactions related to the same project involving total consideration by the consumer of more than $100,000;

(2) in negotiating the contract the consumer is represented by legal counsel who is not directly or indirectly identified, suggested, or selected by the defendant or an agent of the defendant; and

(3) the contract does not involve the consumer's residence.

(g) Nothing in this subchapter shall apply to a cause of action arising from a transaction, a project, or a set of transactions relating to the same project, involving total consideration by the consumer of more than $500,000, other than a cause of action involving a consumer's residence.

(h) A person who violates Section 17.46(b)(26) is jointly and severally liable under that subdivision for actual damages, court costs, and attorney's fees. Subject to Chapter 41, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, exemplary damages may be awarded in the event of fraud or malice.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.5. Relief for Consumers.(a) A consumer may maintain an action where any of the following constitute a producing cause of economic damages or damages for mental anguish:

(1) the use or employment by any person of a false, misleading, or (a) A consumer may maintain an action where any of the following constitute a producing cause of economic damages or damages for mental anguish:

(1) the use or employment by any person of a false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice that is:

(A) specifically enumerated in a subdivision of Subsection (b) of Section 17.46 of this subchapter; and

(B) relied on by a consumer to the consumer's detriment;

(2) breach of an express or implied warranty;

(3) any unconscionable action or course of action by any person; or

(4) the use or employment by any person of an act or practice in violation of Chapter 541, Insurance Code.

(b) In a suit filed under this section, each consumer who prevails may obtain:

(1) the amount of economic damages found by the trier of fact. If the trier of fact finds that the conduct of the defendant was committed knowingly, the consumer may also recover damages for mental anguish, as found by the trier of fact, and the trier of fact may award not more than three times the amount of economic damages; or if the trier of fact finds the conduct was committed intentionally, the consumer may recover damages for mental anguish, as found by the trier of fact, and the trier of fact may award not more than three times the amount of damages for mental anguish and economic damages;

(2) an order enjoining such acts or failure to act;

(3) orders necessary to restore to any party to the suit any money or property, real or personal, which may have been acquired in violation of this subchapter; and

(4) any other relief which the court deems proper, including the appointment of a receiver or the revocation of a license or certificate authorizing a person to engage in business in this state if the judgment has not been satisfied within three months of the date of the final judgment. The court may not revoke or suspend a license to do business in this state or appoint a receiver to take over the affairs of a person who has failed to satisfy a judgment if the person is a licensee of or regulated by a state agency which has statutory authority to revoke or suspend a license or to appoint a receiver or trustee. Costs and fees of such receivership or other relief shall be assessed against the defendant.

(c) On a finding by the court that an action under this section was groundless in fact or law or brought in bad faith, or brought for the purpose of harassment, the court shall award to the defendant reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees and court costs.

(d) Each consumer who prevails shall be awarded court costs and reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees.

(e) In computing additional damages under Subsection (b), attorneys' fees, costs, and prejudgment interest may not be considered.

(f) A court may not award prejudgment interest applicable to:

(1) damages for future loss under this subchapter; or

(2) additional damages under Subsection (b).

(g) Chapter 41, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, does not apply to a cause of action brought under this subchapter.

(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, if a claimant is granted the right to bring a cause of action under this subchapter by another law, the claimant is not limited to recovery of economic damages only, but may recover any actual damages incurred by the claimant, without regard to whether the conduct of the defendant was committed intentionally. For the purpose of the recovery of damages for a cause of action described by this subsection only, a reference in this subchapter to economic damages means actual damages. In applying Subsection (b)(1) to an award of damages under this subsection, the trier of fact is authorized to award a total of not more than three times actual damages, in accordance with that subsection.

Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.5. Relief for Consumers.(a) A consumer may maintain an action where any of the following constitute a producing cause of economic damages or damages for mental anguish:

(1) the use or employment by any person of a false, misleading, or (a) A consumer may maintain an action where any of the following constitute a producing cause of economic damages or damages for mental anguish:

(1) the use or employment by any person of a false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice that is:

(A) specifically enumerated in a subdivision of Subsection (b) of Section 17.46 of this subchapter; and

(B) relied on by a consumer to the consumer's detriment;

(2) breach of an express or implied warranty;

(3) any unconscionable action or course of action by any person; or

(4) the use or employment by any person of an act or practice in violation of Chapter 541, Insurance Code.

(b) In a suit filed under this section, each consumer who prevails may obtain:

(1) the amount of economic damages found by the trier of fact. If the trier of fact finds that the conduct of the defendant was committed knowingly, the consumer may also recover damages for mental anguish, as found by the trier of fact, and the trier of fact may award not more than three times the amount of economic damages; or if the trier of fact finds the conduct was committed intentionally, the consumer may recover damages for mental anguish, as found by the trier of fact, and the trier of fact may award not more than three times the amount of damages for mental anguish and economic damages;

(2) an order enjoining such acts or failure to act;

(3) orders necessary to restore to any party to the suit any money or property, real or personal, which may have been acquired in violation of this subchapter; and

(4) any other relief which the court deems proper, including the appointment of a receiver or the revocation of a license or certificate authorizing a person to engage in business in this state if the judgment has not been satisfied within three months of the date of the final judgment. The court may not revoke or suspend a license to do business in this state or appoint a receiver to take over the affairs of a person who has failed to satisfy a judgment if the person is a licensee of or regulated by a state agency which has statutory authority to revoke or suspend a license or to appoint a receiver or trustee. Costs and fees of such receivership or other relief shall be assessed against the defendant.

(c) On a finding by the court that an action under this section was groundless in fact or law or brought in bad faith, or brought for the purpose of harassment, the court shall award to the defendant reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees and court costs.

(d) Each consumer who prevails shall be awarded court costs and reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees.

(e) In computing additional damages under Subsection (b), attorneys' fees, costs, and prejudgment interest may not be considered.

(f) A court may not award prejudgment interest applicable to:

(1) damages for future loss under this subchapter; or

(2) additional damages under Subsection (b).

(g) Chapter 41, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, does not apply to a cause of action brought under this subchapter.

(h) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, if a claimant is granted the right to bring a cause of action under this subchapter by another law, the claimant is not limited to recovery of economic damages only, but may recover any actual damages incurred by the claimant, without regard to whether the conduct of the defendant was committed intentionally. For the purpose of the recovery of damages for a cause of action described by this subsection only, a reference in this subchapter to economic damages means actual damages. In applying Subsection (b)(1) to an award of damages under this subsection, the trier of fact is authorized to award a total of not more than three times actual damages, in accordance with that subsection.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.501. Consumer Protection Division Participation in Class Action.(a) A consumer filing an action under Section 17.50 that is to be maintained as a class action shall send to the consumer protection division:

(1) a copy of the notice required by Section 17.505(a), by registered or certified mail, at the same time the notice is given to the person complained against; and

(2) a copy of the petition in the action not later than the earlier of:

(A) the 30th day after the date the petition is filed; or

(B) the 10th day before the date of any hearing on class certification or a proposed settlement.

(b) The court shall abate the action for 60 days if the court finds that notice was not provided to the consumer protection division as required by Subsection (a).

(c) The court, on a showing of good cause, may allow the consumer protection division, as representative of the public, to intervene in an action to which this section applies. The consumer protection division shall file its motion for intervention with the court before which the action is pending and serve a copy of the motion on each party to the action.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.501. Consumer Protection Division Participation in Class Action.(a) A consumer filing an action under Section 17.50 that is to be maintained as a class action shall send to the consumer protection division:

(1) a copy of the notice required by Section 17.505(a), by registered or certified mail, at the same time the notice is given to the person complained against; and

(2) a copy of the petition in the action not later than the earlier of:

(A) the 30th day after the date the petition is filed; or

(B) the 10th day before the date of any hearing on class certification or a proposed settlement.

(b) The court shall abate the action for 60 days if the court finds that notice was not provided to the consumer protection division as required by Subsection (a).

(c) The court, on a showing of good cause, may allow the consumer protection division, as representative of the public, to intervene in an action to which this section applies. The consumer protection division shall file its motion for intervention with the court before which the action is pending and serve a copy of the motion on each party to the action.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.5051. Mediation.(a) A party may, not later than the 90th day after the date of service of a pleading in which relief under this subchapter is sought, file a motion to compel mediation of the dispute in the manner provided by this section.

(b) The court shall, not later than the 30th day after the date a motion under this section is filed, sign an order setting the time and place of the mediation.

(c) If the parties do not agree on a mediator, the court shall appoint the mediator.

(d) Mediation shall be held within 30 days after the date the order is signed, unless the parties agree otherwise or the court determines that additional time, not to exceed an additional 30 days, is warranted.

(e) Except as agreed to by all parties who have appeared in the action, each party who has appeared shall participate in the mediation and, except as provided by Subsection (f), shall share the mediation fee.

(f) A party may not compel mediation under this section if the amount of economic damages claimed is less than $15,000, unless the party seeking to compel mediation agrees to pay the costs of the mediation.

(g) Except as provided in this section, Section 154.023, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, and Subchapters C and D, Chapter 154, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, apply to the appointment of a mediator and to the mediation process provided by this section.

(h) This section does not apply to an action brought by the attorney general under Section 17.47.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.5051. Mediation.(a) A party may, not later than the 90th day after the date of service of a pleading in which relief under this subchapter is sought, file a motion to compel mediation of the dispute in the manner provided by this section.

(b) The court shall, not later than the 30th day after the date a motion under this section is filed, sign an order setting the time and place of the mediation.

(c) If the parties do not agree on a mediator, the court shall appoint the mediator.

(d) Mediation shall be held within 30 days after the date the order is signed, unless the parties agree otherwise or the court determines that additional time, not to exceed an additional 30 days, is warranted.

(e) Except as agreed to by all parties who have appeared in the action, each party who has appeared shall participate in the mediation and, except as provided by Subsection (f), shall share the mediation fee.

(f) A party may not compel mediation under this section if the amount of economic damages claimed is less than $15,000, unless the party seeking to compel mediation agrees to pay the costs of the mediation.

(g) Except as provided in this section, Section 154.023, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, and Subchapters C and D, Chapter 154, Civil Practice and Remedies Code, apply to the appointment of a mediator and to the mediation process provided by this section.

(h) This section does not apply to an action brought by the attorney general under Section 17.47.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.502. Offers of Settlement.(a) A person who receives notice under Section 17.505 may tender an offer of settlement at any time during the period beginning on the date the notice is received and ending on the 60th day after that date.

(b) If a mediation under Section 17.5051 is not conducted, the person may tender an offer of settlement at any time during the period beginning on the date an original answer is filed and ending on the 90th day after that date.

(c) If a mediation under Section 17.5051 is conducted, a person against whom a claim under this subchapter is pending may tender an offer of settlement during the period beginning on the day after the date that the mediation ends and ending on the 20th day after that date.

(d) An offer of settlement tendered by a person against whom a claim under this subchapter is pending must include an offer to pay the following amounts of money, separately stated:

(1) an amount of money or other consideration, reduced to its cash value, as settlement of the consumer's claim for damages; and

(2) an amount of money to compensate the consumer for the consumer's reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees incurred as of the date of the offer.

(e) Unless both parts of an offer of settlement required under Subsection (d) are accepted by the consumer not later than the 30th day after the date the offer is made, the offer is rejected.

(f) A settlement offer tendered by a person against whom a claim under this subchapter is pending that complies with this section and that has been rejected by the consumer may be filed with the court with an affidavit certifying its rejection.

(g) If the court finds that the amount tendered in the settlement offer for damages under Subsection (d)(1) is the same as, substantially the same as, or more than the damages found by the trier of fact, the consumer may not recover as damages any amount in excess of the lesser of:

(1) the amount of damages tendered in the settlement offer; or

(2) the amount of damages found by the trier of fact.

(h) If the court makes the finding described by Subsection (g), the court shall determine reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees to compensate the consumer for attorneys' fees incurred before the date and time of the rejected settlement offer. If the court finds that the amount tendered in the settlement offer to compensate the consumer for attorneys' fees under Subsection (d)(2) is the same as, substantially the same as, or more than the amount of reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees incurred by the consumer as of the date of the offer, the consumer may not recover attorneys' fees greater than the amount of fees tendered in the settlement offer.

(i) If the court finds that the offering party could not perform the offer at the time the offer was made or that the offering party substantially misrepresented the cash value of the offer, Subsections (g) and (h) do not apply.

(j) If Subsection (g) does not apply, the court shall award as damages the amount of economic damages and damages for mental anguish found by the trier of fact, subject to Sections 17.50 and 17.501. If Subsection (h) does not apply, the court shall award attorneys' fees as provided by Section 17.50(d).

(k) An offer of settlement is not an admission of engaging in an unlawful act or practice or liability under this subchapter. Except as otherwise provided by this section, an offer or a rejection of an offer may not be offered in evidence at trial for any purpose.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.502. Offers of Settlement.(a) A person who receives notice under Section 17.505 may tender an offer of settlement at any time during the period beginning on the date the notice is received and ending on the 60th day after that date.

(b) If a mediation under Section 17.5051 is not conducted, the person may tender an offer of settlement at any time during the period beginning on the date an original answer is filed and ending on the 90th day after that date.

(c) If a mediation under Section 17.5051 is conducted, a person against whom a claim under this subchapter is pending may tender an offer of settlement during the period beginning on the day after the date that the mediation ends and ending on the 20th day after that date.

(d) An offer of settlement tendered by a person against whom a claim under this subchapter is pending must include an offer to pay the following amounts of money, separately stated:

(1) an amount of money or other consideration, reduced to its cash value, as settlement of the consumer's claim for damages; and

(2) an amount of money to compensate the consumer for the consumer's reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees incurred as of the date of the offer.

(e) Unless both parts of an offer of settlement required under Subsection (d) are accepted by the consumer not later than the 30th day after the date the offer is made, the offer is rejected.

(f) A settlement offer tendered by a person against whom a claim under this subchapter is pending that complies with this section and that has been rejected by the consumer may be filed with the court with an affidavit certifying its rejection.

(g) If the court finds that the amount tendered in the settlement offer for damages under Subsection (d)(1) is the same as, substantially the same as, or more than the damages found by the trier of fact, the consumer may not recover as damages any amount in excess of the lesser of:

(1) the amount of damages tendered in the settlement offer; or

(2) the amount of damages found by the trier of fact.

(h) If the court makes the finding described by Subsection (g), the court shall determine reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees to compensate the consumer for attorneys' fees incurred before the date and time of the rejected settlement offer. If the court finds that the amount tendered in the settlement offer to compensate the consumer for attorneys' fees under Subsection (d)(2) is the same as, substantially the same as, or more than the amount of reasonable and necessary attorneys' fees incurred by the consumer as of the date of the offer, the consumer may not recover attorneys' fees greater than the amount of fees tendered in the settlement offer.

(i) If the court finds that the offering party could not perform the offer at the time the offer was made or that the offering party substantially misrepresented the cash value of the offer, Subsections (g) and (h) do not apply.

(j) If Subsection (g) does not apply, the court shall award as damages the amount of economic damages and damages for mental anguish found by the trier of fact, subject to Sections 17.50 and 17.501. If Subsection (h) does not apply, the court shall award attorneys' fees as provided by Section 17.50(d).

(k) An offer of settlement is not an admission of engaging in an unlawful act or practice or liability under this subchapter. Except as otherwise provided by this section, an offer or a rejection of an offer may not be offered in evidence at trial for any purpose.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.506. Damages: Defenses.(a) In an action brought under Section 17.50 of this subchapter, it is a defense to the award of any damages or attorneys' fees if the defendant proves that before consummation of the transaction he gave reasonable and timely written notice to the plaintiff of the defendant's reliance on:

(1) written information relating to the particular goods or service in question obtained from official government records if the written information was false or inaccurate and the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known of the falsity or inaccuracy of the information;

(2) written information relating to the particular goods or service in question obtained from another source if the information was false or inaccurate and the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known of the falsity or inaccuracy of the information; or

(3) written information concerning a test required or prescribed by a government agency if the information from the test was false or inaccurate and the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known of the falsity or inaccuracy of the information.

(b) In asserting a defense under Subdivision (1), (2), or (3) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.506 above, the defendant shall prove the written information was a producing cause of the alleged damage. A finding of one producing cause does not bar recovery if other conduct of the defendant not the subject of a defensive finding under Subdivision (1), (2), or (3) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.506 above was a producing cause of damages of the plaintiff.

(c) In a suit where a defense is asserted under Subdivision (2) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.506 above, suit may be asserted against the third party supplying the written information without regard to privity where the third party knew or should have reasonably foreseen that the information would be provided to a consumer; provided no double recovery may result.

(d) In an action brought under Section 17.50 of this subchapter, it is a defense to a cause of action if the defendant proves that he received notice from the consumer advising the defendant of the nature of the consumer's specific complaint and of the amount of economic damages, damages for mental anguish, and expenses, including attorneys' fees, if any, reasonably incurred by the consumer in asserting the claim against the defendant, and that within 30 days after the day on which the defendant received the notice the defendant tendered to the consumer:

(1) the amount of economic damages and damages for mental anguish claimed; and

(2) the expenses, including attorneys' fees, if any, reasonably incurred by the consumer in asserting the claim against the defendant.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.506. Damages: Defenses.(a) In an action brought under Section 17.50 of this subchapter, it is a defense to the award of any damages or attorneys' fees if the defendant proves that before consummation of the transaction he gave reasonable and timely written notice to the plaintiff of the defendant's reliance on:

(1) written information relating to the particular goods or service in question obtained from official government records if the written information was false or inaccurate and the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known of the falsity or inaccuracy of the information;

(2) written information relating to the particular goods or service in question obtained from another source if the information was false or inaccurate and the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known of the falsity or inaccuracy of the information; or

(3) written information concerning a test required or prescribed by a government agency if the information from the test was false or inaccurate and the defendant did not know and could not reasonably have known of the falsity or inaccuracy of the information.

(b) In asserting a defense under Subdivision (1), (2), or (3) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.506 above, the defendant shall prove the written information was a producing cause of the alleged damage. A finding of one producing cause does not bar recovery if other conduct of the defendant not the subject of a defensive finding under Subdivision (1), (2), or (3) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.506 above was a producing cause of damages of the plaintiff.

(c) In a suit where a defense is asserted under Subdivision (2) of Subsection (a) of Section 17.506 above, suit may be asserted against the third party supplying the written information without regard to privity where the third party knew or should have reasonably foreseen that the information would be provided to a consumer; provided no double recovery may result.

(d) In an action brought under Section 17.50 of this subchapter, it is a defense to a cause of action if the defendant proves that he received notice from the consumer advising the defendant of the nature of the consumer's specific complaint and of the amount of economic damages, damages for mental anguish, and expenses, including attorneys' fees, if any, reasonably incurred by the consumer in asserting the claim against the defendant, and that within 30 days after the day on which the defendant received the notice the defendant tendered to the consumer:

(1) the amount of economic damages and damages for mental anguish claimed; and

(2) the expenses, including attorneys' fees, if any, reasonably incurred by the consumer in asserting the claim against the defendant.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.55. Promotional Material.If damages or civil penalties are assessed against the seller of goods or services for advertisements or promotional material in a suit filed under Section 17.47, 17.48, 17.50, or 17.51 of this subchapter, the seller of the goods or services has a cause of action against a third party for the amount of damages or civil penalties assessed against the seller plus attorneys' fees on a showing that:

(1) the seller received the advertisements or promotional material from the third party;

(2) the seller's only action with regard to the advertisements or promotional material was to disseminate the material; and

(3) the seller has ceased disseminating the material.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.55. Promotional Material.If damages or civil penalties are assessed against the seller of goods or services for advertisements or promotional material in a suit filed under Section 17.47, 17.48, 17.50, or 17.51 of this subchapter, the seller of the goods or services has a cause of action against a third party for the amount of damages or civil penalties assessed against the seller plus attorneys' fees on a showing that:

(1) the seller received the advertisements or promotional material from the third party;

(2) the seller's only action with regard to the advertisements or promotional material was to disseminate the material; and

(3) the seller has ceased disseminating the material.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.55. Indemnity.A person against whom an action has been brought under this subchapter may seek contribution or indemnity from one who, under the statute law or at common law, may have liability for the damaging event of which the consumer complains. A person seeking indemnity as provided by this section may recover all sums that he is required to pay as a result of the action, his attorney's fees reasonable in relation to the amount of work performed in maintaining his action for indemnity, and his costs.Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.55. Indemnity.A person against whom an action has been brought under this subchapter may seek contribution or indemnity from one who, under the statute law or at common law, may have liability for the damaging event of which the consumer complains. A person seeking indemnity as provided by this section may recover all sums that he is required to pay as a result of the action, his attorney's fees reasonable in relation to the amount of work performed in maintaining his action for indemnity, and his costs.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.56. Venue.An action brought under this subchapter may be brought:

(1) in any county in which venue is proper under Chapter 15, Civil Practice and Remedies Code; or

(2) in a county in which the defendant or an authorized agent of the defendant solicited the transaction made the subject of the action at bar.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.56. Venue.An action brought under this subchapter may be brought:

(1) in any county in which venue is proper under Chapter 15, Civil Practice and Remedies Code; or

(2) in a county in which the defendant or an authorized agent of the defendant solicited the transaction made the subject of the action at bar.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.56. Limitation. All actions brought under this subchapter must be commenced within two years after the date on which the false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice occurred or within two years after the consumer discovered or in the exercise of reasonable diligence should have discovered the occurrence of the false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice. The period of limitation provided in this section may be extended for a period of 180 days if the plaintiff proves that failure timely to commence the action was caused by the defendant's knowingly engaging in conduct solely calculated to induce the plaintiff to refrain from or postpone the commencement of the action.Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.56. Limitation. All actions brought under this subchapter must be commenced within two years after the date on which the false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice occurred or within two years after the consumer discovered or in the exercise of reasonable diligence should have discovered the occurrence of the false, misleading, or deceptive act or practice. The period of limitation provided in this section may be extended for a period of 180 days if the plaintiff proves that failure timely to commence the action was caused by the defendant's knowingly engaging in conduct solely calculated to induce the plaintiff to refrain from or postpone the commencement of the action.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.58. Voluntary Compliance.(a) In the administration of this subchapter the consumer protection division may accept assurance of voluntary compliance with respect to any act or practice which violates this subchapter from any person who is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in the act or practice. The assurance shall be in writing and shall be filed with and subject to the approval of the district court in the county in which the alleged violator resides or does business or in the district court of Travis County.

(b) The acceptance of an assurance of voluntary compliance may be conditioned on the stipulation that the person in violation of this subchapter restore to any person in interest any money or property, real or personal, which may have been acquired by means of acts or practices which violate this subchapter.

(c) An assurance of voluntary compliance shall not be considered an admission of prior violation of this subchapter. However, unless an assurance has been rescinded by agreement of the parties or voided by a court for good cause, subsequent failure to comply with the terms of an assurance is prima facie evidence of a violation of this subchapter.

(d) Matters closed by the filing of an assurance of voluntary compliance may be reopened at any time. Assurances of voluntary compliance shall in no way affect individual rights of action under this subchapter, except that the rights of individuals with regard to money or property received pursuant to a stipulation in the voluntary compliance under Subsection (b) of this section are governed by the terms of the voluntary compliance.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.58. Voluntary Compliance.(a) In the administration of this subchapter the consumer protection division may accept assurance of voluntary compliance with respect to any act or practice which violates this subchapter from any person who is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in the act or practice. The assurance shall be in writing and shall be filed with and subject to the approval of the district court in the county in which the alleged violator resides or does business or in the district court of Travis County.

(b) The acceptance of an assurance of voluntary compliance may be conditioned on the stipulation that the person in violation of this subchapter restore to any person in interest any money or property, real or personal, which may have been acquired by means of acts or practices which violate this subchapter.

(c) An assurance of voluntary compliance shall not be considered an admission of prior violation of this subchapter. However, unless an assurance has been rescinded by agreement of the parties or voided by a court for good cause, subsequent failure to comply with the terms of an assurance is prima facie evidence of a violation of this subchapter.

(d) Matters closed by the filing of an assurance of voluntary compliance may be reopened at any time. Assurances of voluntary compliance shall in no way affect individual rights of action under this subchapter, except that the rights of individuals with regard to money or property received pursuant to a stipulation in the voluntary compliance under Subsection (b) of this section are governed by the terms of the voluntary compliance.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.49 Post Judgment Relief.(a) If a money judgment entered under this subchapter is unsatisfied 30 days after it becomes final and if the prevailing party has made a good faith attempt to obtain satisfaction of the judgment, the following presumptions exist with respect to the party against whom the judgment was entered:

(1) that the defendant is insolvent or in danger of becoming insolvent; and

(2) that the defendant's property is in danger of being lost, removed, or otherwise exempted from collection on the judgment; and

(3) that the prevailing party will be materially injured unless a receiver is appointed over the defendant's business; and

(4) that there is no adequate remedy other than receivership available to the prevailing party.

(b) Subject to the provisions of Subsection (a) of this section, a prevailing party may move that the defendant show cause why a receiver should not be appointed. Upon adequate notice and hearing, the court shall appoint a receiver over the defendant's business unless the defendant proves that all of the presumptions set forth in Subsection (a) of this section are not applicable.

(c) The order appointing a receiver must clearly state whether the receiver will have general power to manage and operate the defendant's business or have power to manage only a defendant's finances. The order shall limit the duration of the receivership to such time as the judgment or judgments awarded under this subchapter are paid in full. Where there are judgments against a defendant which have been awarded to more than one plaintiff, the court shall have discretion to take any action necessary to efficiently operate a receivership in order to accomplish the purpose of collecting the judgments.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.49 Post Judgment Relief.(a) If a money judgment entered under this subchapter is unsatisfied 30 days after it becomes final and if the prevailing party has made a good faith attempt to obtain satisfaction of the judgment, the following presumptions exist with respect to the party against whom the judgment was entered:

(1) that the defendant is insolvent or in danger of becoming insolvent; and

(2) that the defendant's property is in danger of being lost, removed, or otherwise exempted from collection on the judgment; and

(3) that the prevailing party will be materially injured unless a receiver is appointed over the defendant's business; and

(4) that there is no adequate remedy other than receivership available to the prevailing party.

(b) Subject to the provisions of Subsection (a) of this section, a prevailing party may move that the defendant show cause why a receiver should not be appointed. Upon adequate notice and hearing, the court shall appoint a receiver over the defendant's business unless the defendant proves that all of the presumptions set forth in Subsection (a) of this section are not applicable.

(c) The order appointing a receiver must clearly state whether the receiver will have general power to manage and operate the defendant's business or have power to manage only a defendant's finances. The order shall limit the duration of the receivership to such time as the judgment or judgments awarded under this subchapter are paid in full. Where there are judgments against a defendant which have been awarded to more than one plaintiff, the court shall have discretion to take any action necessary to efficiently operate a receivership in order to accomplish the purpose of collecting the judgments.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.60. Reports and Examinations.Whenever the consumer protection division has reason to believe that a person is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in any act or practice declared to be unlawful by this subchapter, or when it reasonably believes it to be in the public interest to conduct an investigation to ascertain whether any person is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in any such act or practice, an authorized member of the division may:

(1) require the person to file on the prescribed forms a statement or report in writing, under oath or otherwise, as to all the facts and circumstances concerning the alleged violation and such other data and information as the consumer protection division deems necessary;

(2) examine under oath any person in connection with this alleged violation;

(3) examine any merchandise or sample of merchandise deemed necessary and proper; and

(4) pursuant to an order of the appropriate court, impound any sample of merchandise that is produced in accordance with this subchapter and retain it in the possession of the division until the completion of all proceedings in connection with which the merchandise is produced.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.60. Reports and Examinations.Whenever the consumer protection division has reason to believe that a person is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in any act or practice declared to be unlawful by this subchapter, or when it reasonably believes it to be in the public interest to conduct an investigation to ascertain whether any person is engaging in, has engaged in, or is about to engage in any such act or practice, an authorized member of the division may:

(1) require the person to file on the prescribed forms a statement or report in writing, under oath or otherwise, as to all the facts and circumstances concerning the alleged violation and such other data and information as the consumer protection division deems necessary;

(2) examine under oath any person in connection with this alleged violation;

(3) examine any merchandise or sample of merchandise deemed necessary and proper; and

(4) pursuant to an order of the appropriate court, impound any sample of merchandise that is produced in accordance with this subchapter and retain it in the possession of the division until the completion of all proceedings in connection with which the merchandise is produced.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.61. Civil Investigative Demand.(a) Whenever the consumer protection division believes that any person may be in possession, custody, or control of the original copy of any documentary material relevant to the subject matter of an investigation of a possible violation of this subchapter, an authorized agent of the division may execute in writing and serve on the person a civil investigative demand requiring the person to produce the documentary material and permit inspection and copying.

(b) Each demand shall:

(1) state the statute and section under which the alleged violation is being investigated, and the general subject matter of the investigation;

(2) describe the class or classes of documentary material to be produced with reasonable specificity so as to fairly indicate the material demanded;

(3) prescribe a return date within which the documentary material is to be produced; and

(4) identify the persons authorized by the consumer protection division to whom the documentary material is to be made available for inspection and copying.

(c) A civil investigative demand may contain a requirement or disclosure of documentary material which would be discoverable under the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure.

(d) Service of any demand may be made by:

(1) delivering a duly executed copy of the demand to the person to be served or to a partner or to any officer or agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process on behalf of that person;

(2) delivering a duly executed copy of the demand to the principal place of business in the state of the person to be served;

(3) mailing by registered mail or certified mail a duly executed copy of the demand addressed to the person to be served at the principal place of business in this state, or if the person has no place of business in this state, to his principal office or place of business.

(e) Documentary material demanded pursuant to this section shall be produced for inspection and copying during normal business hours at the principal office or place of business of the person served, or at other times and places as may be agreed on by the person served and the consumer protection division.

(f) No documentary material produced pursuant to a demand under this section, unless otherwise ordered by a court for good cause shown, shall be produced for inspection or copying by, nor shall its contents be disclosed to any person other than the authorized employee of the office of the attorney general without the consent of the person who produced the material. The office of the attorney general shall prescribe reasonable terms and conditions allowing the documentary material to be available for inspection and copying by the person who produced the material or any duly authorized representative of that person. The office of the attorney general may use the documentary material or copies of it as it determines necessary in the enforcement of this subchapter, including presentation before any court. Any material which contains trade secrets shall not be presented except with the approval of the court in which the action is pending after adequate notice to the person furnishing the material.

(g) At any time before the return date specified in the demand, or within 20 days after the demand has been served, whichever period is shorter, a petition to extend the return date for, or to modify or set aside the demand, stating good cause, may be filed in the district court in the county where the parties reside, or a district court of Travis County.

(h) A person on whom a demand is served under this section shall comply with the terms of the demand unless otherwise provided by a court order.

(i) Personal service of a similar investigative demand under this section may be made on any person outside of this state if the person has engaged in conduct in violation of this subchapter. Such persons shall be deemed to have submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of this state within the meaning of this section.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.61. Civil Investigative Demand.(a) Whenever the consumer protection division believes that any person may be in possession, custody, or control of the original copy of any documentary material relevant to the subject matter of an investigation of a possible violation of this subchapter, an authorized agent of the division may execute in writing and serve on the person a civil investigative demand requiring the person to produce the documentary material and permit inspection and copying.

(b) Each demand shall:

(1) state the statute and section under which the alleged violation is being investigated, and the general subject matter of the investigation;

(2) describe the class or classes of documentary material to be produced with reasonable specificity so as to fairly indicate the material demanded;

(3) prescribe a return date within which the documentary material is to be produced; and

(4) identify the persons authorized by the consumer protection division to whom the documentary material is to be made available for inspection and copying.

(c) A civil investigative demand may contain a requirement or disclosure of documentary material which would be discoverable under the Texas Rules of Civil Procedure.

(d) Service of any demand may be made by:

(1) delivering a duly executed copy of the demand to the person to be served or to a partner or to any officer or agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process on behalf of that person;

(2) delivering a duly executed copy of the demand to the principal place of business in the state of the person to be served;

(3) mailing by registered mail or certified mail a duly executed copy of the demand addressed to the person to be served at the principal place of business in this state, or if the person has no place of business in this state, to his principal office or place of business.

(e) Documentary material demanded pursuant to this section shall be produced for inspection and copying during normal business hours at the principal office or place of business of the person served, or at other times and places as may be agreed on by the person served and the consumer protection division.

(f) No documentary material produced pursuant to a demand under this section, unless otherwise ordered by a court for good cause shown, shall be produced for inspection or copying by, nor shall its contents be disclosed to any person other than the authorized employee of the office of the attorney general without the consent of the person who produced the material. The office of the attorney general shall prescribe reasonable terms and conditions allowing the documentary material to be available for inspection and copying by the person who produced the material or any duly authorized representative of that person. The office of the attorney general may use the documentary material or copies of it as it determines necessary in the enforcement of this subchapter, including presentation before any court. Any material which contains trade secrets shall not be presented except with the approval of the court in which the action is pending after adequate notice to the person furnishing the material.

(g) At any time before the return date specified in the demand, or within 20 days after the demand has been served, whichever period is shorter, a petition to extend the return date for, or to modify or set aside the demand, stating good cause, may be filed in the district court in the county where the parties reside, or a district court of Travis County.

(h) A person on whom a demand is served under this section shall comply with the terms of the demand unless otherwise provided by a court order.

(i) Personal service of a similar investigative demand under this section may be made on any person outside of this state if the person has engaged in conduct in violation of this subchapter. Such persons shall be deemed to have submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of this state within the meaning of this section.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.62 Penalties.(a) Any person who, with intent to avoid, evade, or prevent compliance, in whole or in part, with Section 17.60 or 17.61 of this subchapter, removes from any place, conceals, withholds, or destroys, mutilates, alters, or by any other means falsifies any documentary material or merchandise or sample of merchandise is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is punishable by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by confinement in the county jail for not more than one year, or both.

(b) If a person fails to comply with a directive of the consumer protection division under Section 17.60 of this subchapter or with a civil investigative demand for documentary material served on him under Section 17.61 of this subchapter, or if satisfactory copying or reproduction of the material cannot be done and the person refuses to surrender the material, the consumer protection division may file in the district court in the county in which the person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve on the person, a petition for an order of the court for enforcement of Sections 17.60 and 17.61 of this subchapter. If the person transacts business in more than one county, the petition shall be filed in the county in which the person maintains his principal place of business, or in another county agreed on by the parties to the petition.

(c) When a petition is filed in the district court in any county under this section, the court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter presented and to enter any order required to carry into effect the provisions of Sections 17.60 and 17.61 of this subchapter. Any final order entered is subject to appeal to the Texas Supreme Court. Failure to comply with any final order entered under this section is punishable by contempt.
Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.62 Penalties.(a) Any person who, with intent to avoid, evade, or prevent compliance, in whole or in part, with Section 17.60 or 17.61 of this subchapter, removes from any place, conceals, withholds, or destroys, mutilates, alters, or by any other means falsifies any documentary material or merchandise or sample of merchandise is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is punishable by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by confinement in the county jail for not more than one year, or both.

(b) If a person fails to comply with a directive of the consumer protection division under Section 17.60 of this subchapter or with a civil investigative demand for documentary material served on him under Section 17.61 of this subchapter, or if satisfactory copying or reproduction of the material cannot be done and the person refuses to surrender the material, the consumer protection division may file in the district court in the county in which the person resides, is found, or transacts business, and serve on the person, a petition for an order of the court for enforcement of Sections 17.60 and 17.61 of this subchapter. If the person transacts business in more than one county, the petition shall be filed in the county in which the person maintains his principal place of business, or in another county agreed on by the parties to the petition.

(c) When a petition is filed in the district court in any county under this section, the court shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine the matter presented and to enter any order required to carry into effect the provisions of Sections 17.60 and 17.61 of this subchapter. Any final order entered is subject to appeal to the Texas Supreme Court. Failure to comply with any final order entered under this section is punishable by contempt.

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Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.62. Application.The provisions of this subchapter apply only to acts or practices occurring after the effective date of this subchapter, except a right of action or power granted to the attorney general under Chapter 10, Title 79, Revised Civil Statutes of Texas, 1925, as amended, prior to the effective date of this subchapter.Texas Business & Commerce Code § 17.62. Application.The provisions of this subchapter apply only to acts or practices occurring after the effective date of this subchapter, except a right of action or power granted to the attorney general under Chapter 10, Title 79, Revised Civil Statutes of Texas, 1925, as amended, prior to the effective date of this subchapter.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.051. Misrepesentation regarding Policy or Insurer. It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to:

(1) make, issue, or circulate or cause to be made, issued, or circulated an estimate, illustration, circular, or statement misrepresenting with respect to a policy issued or to be issued:

(A) the terms of the policy;

(B) the benefits or advantages promised by the policy; or

(C) the dividends or share of surplus to be received on the policy;

(2) make a false or misleading statement regarding the dividends or share of surplus previously paid on a similar policy;

(3) make a misleading representation or misrepresentation regarding:

(A) the financial condition of an insurer; or

(B) the legal reserve system on which a life insurer operates;

(4) use a name or title of a policy or class of policies that misrepresents the true nature of the policy or class of policies; or

(5) make a misrepresentation to a policyholder insured by any insurer for the purpose of inducing or that tends to induce the policyholder to allow an existing policy to lapse or to forfeit or surrender the policy.
Texas Insurance Code § 541.051. Misrepesentation regarding Policy or Insurer. It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to:

(1) make, issue, or circulate or cause to be made, issued, or circulated an estimate, illustration, circular, or statement misrepresenting with respect to a policy issued or to be issued:

(A) the terms of the policy;

(B) the benefits or advantages promised by the policy; or

(C) the dividends or share of surplus to be received on the policy;

(2) make a false or misleading statement regarding the dividends or share of surplus previously paid on a similar policy;

(3) make a misleading representation or misrepresentation regarding:

(A) the financial condition of an insurer; or

(B) the legal reserve system on which a life insurer operates;

(4) use a name or title of a policy or class of policies that misrepresents the true nature of the policy or class of policies; or

(5) make a misrepresentation to a policyholder insured by any insurer for the purpose of inducing or that tends to induce the policyholder to allow an existing policy to lapse or to forfeit or surrender the policy.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.052. False Information and Advertising. (a) It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to make, publish, disseminate, circulate, or place before the public or directly or indirectly cause to be made, published, disseminated, circulated, or placed before the public an advertisement, announcement, or statement containing an untrue, deceptive, or misleading assertion, representation, or statement regarding the business of insurance or a person in the conduct of the person's insurance business.

(b) This section applies to an advertisement, announcement, or statement made, published, disseminated, circulated, or placed before the public:

(1) in a newspaper, magazine, or other publication;

(2) in a notice, circular, pamphlet, letter, or poster;

(3) over a radio or television station;

(4) through the Internet; or

(5) in any other manner.
Texas Insurance Code § 541.052. False Information and Advertising. (a) It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to make, publish, disseminate, circulate, or place before the public or directly or indirectly cause to be made, published, disseminated, circulated, or placed before the public an advertisement, announcement, or statement containing an untrue, deceptive, or misleading assertion, representation, or statement regarding the business of insurance or a person in the conduct of the person's insurance business.

(b) This section applies to an advertisement, announcement, or statement made, published, disseminated, circulated, or placed before the public:

(1) in a newspaper, magazine, or other publication;

(2) in a notice, circular, pamphlet, letter, or poster;

(3) over a radio or television station;

(4) through the Internet; or

(5) in any other manner.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.054. Boycott, Coercion, or Intimidation. It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to commit through concerted action or to enter into an agreement to commit an act of boycott, coercion, or intimidation that results in or tends to result in the unreasonable restraint of or a monopoly in the business of insurance.Texas Insurance Code § 541.054. Boycott, Coercion, or Intimidation. It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to commit through concerted action or to enter into an agreement to commit an act of boycott, coercion, or intimidation that results in or tends to result in the unreasonable restraint of or a monopoly in the business of insurance.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.056. Prohibited Rebates and Inducements. (a) Subject to Section 541.058 and except as otherwise expressly provided by law, it is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to knowingly permit the making of, offer to make, or make a life insurance contract, life annuity contract, or accident and health insurance contract or an agreement regarding the contract, other than as plainly expressed in the issued contract, or directly or indirectly pay, give, or allow or offer to pay, give, or allow as inducement to enter into a life insurance contract, life annuity contract, or accident and health insurance contract a rebate of premiums payable on the contract, a special favor or advantage in the dividends or other benefits of the contract, or a valuable consideration or inducement not specified in the contract, or give, sell, or purchase or offer to give, sell, or purchase in connection with a life insurance, life annuity, or accident and health insurance contract or as inducement to enter into the contract stocks, bonds, or other securities of an insurer or other corporation, association, or partnership, dividends or profits accrued from the stocks, bonds, or securities, or anything of value not specified in the contract.

(b) It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to issue or deliver or to permit an agent, officer, or employee to issue or deliver as an inducement to insurance:

(1) company stock or other capital stock;

(2) a benefit certificate or share in a corporation;

(3) securities; or

(4) a special or advisory board contract or any other contract promising returns or profits.

(c) Subsection (b) does not prohibit issuing or delivering a participating insurance policy otherwise authorized by law.
Texas Insurance Code § 541.056. Prohibited Rebates and Inducements. (a) Subject to Section 541.058 and except as otherwise expressly provided by law, it is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to knowingly permit the making of, offer to make, or make a life insurance contract, life annuity contract, or accident and health insurance contract or an agreement regarding the contract, other than as plainly expressed in the issued contract, or directly or indirectly pay, give, or allow or offer to pay, give, or allow as inducement to enter into a life insurance contract, life annuity contract, or accident and health insurance contract a rebate of premiums payable on the contract, a special favor or advantage in the dividends or other benefits of the contract, or a valuable consideration or inducement not specified in the contract, or give, sell, or purchase or offer to give, sell, or purchase in connection with a life insurance, life annuity, or accident and health insurance contract or as inducement to enter into the contract stocks, bonds, or other securities of an insurer or other corporation, association, or partnership, dividends or profits accrued from the stocks, bonds, or securities, or anything of value not specified in the contract.

(b) It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to issue or deliver or to permit an agent, officer, or employee to issue or deliver as an inducement to insurance:

(1) company stock or other capital stock;

(2) a benefit certificate or share in a corporation;

(3) securities; or

(4) a special or advisory board contract or any other contract promising returns or profits.

(c) Subsection (b) does not prohibit issuing or delivering a participating insurance policy otherwise authorized by law.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.057. Unfair Discrimation in Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts. Subject to Section 541.058, it is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to make or permit with respect to a life insurance or life annuity contract an unfair discrimination between individuals of the same class and equal life expectancy regarding:

(1) the rates charged;

(2) the dividends or other benefits payable; or

(3) any of the other terms and conditions of the contract.
Texas Insurance Code § 541.057. Unfair Discrimation in Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts. Subject to Section 541.058, it is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to make or permit with respect to a life insurance or life annuity contract an unfair discrimination between individuals of the same class and equal life expectancy regarding:

(1) the rates charged;

(2) the dividends or other benefits payable; or

(3) any of the other terms and conditions of the contract.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.058. Certain Practices not Considered Discrimation or Inducement.(a) In this section:

(1) "Health-related services" means services that are available in connection with an accident and health insurance policy or certificate or an evidence of coverage and that are directed to an individual's health improvement or maintenance.

(2) "Health-related information" means that information that is directed to an individual's health improvement or maintenance or to costs associated with particular options available in connection with an accident and health insurance policy or certificate or an evidence of coverage.

(b) It is not a rebate or discrimination prohibited by Section 541.056(a) or 541.057:

(1) for a life insurance or life annuity contract, to pay a bonus to a policyholder or otherwise abate the policyholder's premiums in whole or in part out of surplus accumulated from nonparticipating insurance policies if the bonus or abatement:

(A) is fair and equitable to policyholders; and

(B) is in the best interests of the insurer and its policyholders;

(2) for a life insurance policy issued on the industrial debit plan, to make to a policyholder who has continuously for a specified period made premium payments directly to the insurer's office an allowance in an amount that fairly represents the saving in collection expenses;

(3) for a group insurance policy, to readjust the rate of premium based on the loss or expense experience under the policy at the end of a policy year if the adjustment is retroactive for only that policy year;

(4) for a life annuity contract, to waive surrender charges under the contract when the contract holder exchanges that contract for another annuity contract issued by the same insurer if the waiver and the exchange are fully, fairly, and accurately explained to the contract holder in a manner that is not deceptive or misleading;

(5) in connection with an accident and health insurance policy, to provide to policy or certificate holders, in addition to benefits under the terms of the insurance contract, health-related services or health-related information, or to disclose the availability of those additional services and information to prospective policy or certificate holders; or

(6) in connection with a health maintenance organization evidence of coverage, to provide to enrollees, in addition to benefits under the evidence of coverage, health-related services or health-related information, or to disclose the availability of those additional services and information to prospective enrollees or contract holders.
Texas Insurance Code § 541.058. Certain Practices not Considered Discrimation or Inducement.(a) In this section:

(1) "Health-related services" means services that are available in connection with an accident and health insurance policy or certificate or an evidence of coverage and that are directed to an individual's health improvement or maintenance.

(2) "Health-related information" means that information that is directed to an individual's health improvement or maintenance or to costs associated with particular options available in connection with an accident and health insurance policy or certificate or an evidence of coverage.

(b) It is not a rebate or discrimination prohibited by Section 541.056(a) or 541.057:

(1) for a life insurance or life annuity contract, to pay a bonus to a policyholder or otherwise abate the policyholder's premiums in whole or in part out of surplus accumulated from nonparticipating insurance policies if the bonus or abatement:

(A) is fair and equitable to policyholders; and

(B) is in the best interests of the insurer and its policyholders;

(2) for a life insurance policy issued on the industrial debit plan, to make to a policyholder who has continuously for a specified period made premium payments directly to the insurer's office an allowance in an amount that fairly represents the saving in collection expenses;

(3) for a group insurance policy, to readjust the rate of premium based on the loss or expense experience under the policy at the end of a policy year if the adjustment is retroactive for only that policy year;

(4) for a life annuity contract, to waive surrender charges under the contract when the contract holder exchanges that contract for another annuity contract issued by the same insurer if the waiver and the exchange are fully, fairly, and accurately explained to the contract holder in a manner that is not deceptive or misleading;

(5) in connection with an accident and health insurance policy, to provide to policy or certificate holders, in addition to benefits under the terms of the insurance contract, health-related services or health-related information, or to disclose the availability of those additional services and information to prospective policy or certificate holders; or

(6) in connection with a health maintenance organization evidence of coverage, to provide to enrollees, in addition to benefits under the evidence of coverage, health-related services or health-related information, or to disclose the availability of those additional services and information to prospective enrollees or contract holders.

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Texas Insurance Code § 541.059. Deceptive Name, Symbol, Device or Slogan. (a) Except as provided by Subsection (b), it is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to use, display, publish, circulate, distribute, or cause to be used, displayed, published, circulated, or distributed in a letter, pamphlet, circular, contract, policy, evidence of coverage, article, poster, or other document, literature, or public media:

(1) a name as the corporate or business name of a person or entity engaged in the business of insurance or in an insurance-related business in this state that is the same as or deceptively similar to the name adopted and used by an insurance entity, health maintenance organization, third-party administrator, or group hospital service corporation authorized to engage in business under the laws of this state; or

(2) a word, symbol, device, or slogan, either alone or in combination and regardless of whether registered, and including the titles, designations, character names, and distinctive features of broadcast or other advertising, that is the same as or deceptively similar to a word, symbol, device, or slogan adopted and used by an insurance entity, health maintenance organization, third-party administrator, or group hospital service corporation to distinguish the entity or the entity's products or services from another entity.

(b) If more than one person or entity uses names, words, symbols, devices, or slogans, either alone or in combination, that are the same or deceptively similar and are likely to cause confusion or mistake, the person or entity that demonstrates the first continuous actual use of the name, word, symbol, device, slogan, or combination has not engaged in an unfair method of competition or deceptive act or practice under this section.
Texas Insurance Code § 541.059. Deceptive Name, Symbol, Device or Slogan. (a) Except as provided by Subsection (b), it is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of insurance to use, display, publish, circulate, distribute, or cause to be used, displayed, published, circulated, or distributed in a letter, pamphlet, circular, contract, policy, evidence of coverage, article, poster, or other document, literature, or public media:

(1) a name as the corporate or business name of a person or entity engaged in the business of insurance or in an insurance-related business in this state that is the same as or deceptively similar to the name adopted and used by an insurance entity, health maintenance organization, third-party administrator, or group hospital service corporation authorized to engage in business under the laws of this state; or

(2) a word, symbol, device, or slogan, either alone or in combination and regardless of whether registered, and including the titles, designations, character names, and distinctive features of broadcast or other advertising, that is the same as or deceptively similar to a word, symbol, device, or slogan adopted and used by an insurance entity, health maintenance organization, third-party administrator, or group hospital service corporation to distinguish the entity or the entity's products or services from another entity.

(b) If more than one person or entity uses names, words, symbols, devices, or slogans, either alone or in combination, that are the same or deceptively similar and are likely to cause confusion or mistake, the person or entity that demonstrates the first continuous actual use of the name, word, symbol, device, slogan, or combination has not engaged in an unfair method of competition or deceptive act or practice under this section.

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Texas Finance Code § 308.002. False, Misleading, or Deceptive Advertising. (a) A creditor may not, in any manner, advertise or cause to be advertised a false, misleading, or deceptive statement or representation relating to a rate, term, or condition of a credit transaction or advertise credit terms that the person does not intend to offer to consumers who qualify for those terms.

(b) This section does not create a private right of action.

(c) In interpreting this section, an administrative agency or a court shall be guided by the applicable advertising provisions of:

(1) Part C of 15 U.S.C. Chapter 41, Subchapter I (15 U.S.C. Section 1601 et seq.);

(2) 12 C.F.R. Part 226 adopted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and

(3) the Official Staff Commentary and other interpretations of that statute and regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and its staff.

(d) If a requirement of this section and a requirement of a federal law, including a regulation or an interpretation of federal law, are inconsistent or in conflict, federal law controls and the inconsistent or conflicting requirements of this chapter do not apply.

(e) A creditor who complies with the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. Section 1601 et seq.) and Federal Reserve Regulation Z (12 C.F.R. Part 226) in advertising a credit transaction is considered to have fully complied with this section.
Texas Finance Code § 308.002. False, Misleading, or Deceptive Advertising. (a) A creditor may not, in any manner, advertise or cause to be advertised a false, misleading, or deceptive statement or representation relating to a rate, term, or condition of a credit transaction or advertise credit terms that the person does not intend to offer to consumers who qualify for those terms.

(b) This section does not create a private right of action.

(c) In interpreting this section, an administrative agency or a court shall be guided by the applicable advertising provisions of:

(1) Part C of 15 U.S.C. Chapter 41, Subchapter I (15 U.S.C. Section 1601 et seq.);

(2) 12 C.F.R. Part 226 adopted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; and

(3) the Official Staff Commentary and other interpretations of that statute and regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and its staff.

(d) If a requirement of this section and a requirement of a federal law, including a regulation or an interpretation of federal law, are inconsistent or in conflict, federal law controls and the inconsistent or conflicting requirements of this chapter do not apply.

(e) A creditor who complies with the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. Section 1601 et seq.) and Federal Reserve Regulation Z (12 C.F.R. Part 226) in advertising a credit transaction is considered to have fully complied with this section.

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Texas Finance Code § 394.207. Advertising.A provider may not engage in false or deceptive advertising.Texas Finance Code § 394.207. Advertising.A provider may not engage in false or deceptive advertising.

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Texas Insurance Code § 562.053. Failure to Register or Renew Registration; False Registration or Renewal Statement. (a) It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of discount health care programs to:

(1) fail to register or renew registration as required under Chapter 7001; or

(2) with intent to deceive:

(A) file with the department a false statement in connection with an application for registration as a program operator under Chapter 7001; or

(B) file with the department a false statement in connection with an application for renewal of a registration as a program operator under Chapter 7001.

(b) The commissioner may impose on a person operating a discount health care program for the person's failure to register or renew registration as required under Chapter 7001 any remedy that the commissioner is authorized to impose under Chapter 101 for the unauthorized business of insurance.
Texas Insurance Code § 562.053. Failure to Register or Renew Registration; False Registration or Renewal Statement. (a) It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of discount health care programs to:

(1) fail to register or renew registration as required under Chapter 7001; or

(2) with intent to deceive:

(A) file with the department a false statement in connection with an application for registration as a program operator under Chapter 7001; or

(B) file with the department a false statement in connection with an application for renewal of a registration as a program operator under Chapter 7001.

(b) The commissioner may impose on a person operating a discount health care program for the person's failure to register or renew registration as required under Chapter 7001 any remedy that the commissioner is authorized to impose under Chapter 101 for the unauthorized business of insurance.

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Texas Insurance Code § 562.054. Misrepresentaion of Discount Health Care Programs. It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of discount health care programs to misrepresent a discount health care program by:

(1) making an untrue statement of material fact;

(2) failing to state a material fact necessary to make other statements made not misleading, considering the circumstances under which the statements were made;

(3) making a statement in a manner that would mislead a reasonably prudent person to a false conclusion of a material fact;

(4) making a material misstatement of law; or

(5) failing to disclose a matter required by law to be disclosed, including failing to make an applicable disclosure required by this code.
Texas Insurance Code § 562.054. Misrepresentaion of Discount Health Care Programs. It is an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice in the business of discount health care programs to misrepresent a discount health care program by:

(1) making an untrue statement of material fact;

(2) failing to state a material fact necessary to make other statements made not misleading, considering the circumstances under which the statements were made;

(3) making a statement in a manner that would mislead a reasonably prudent person to a false conclusion of a material fact;

(4) making a material misstatement of law; or

(5) failing to disclose a matter required by law to be disclosed, including failing to make an applicable disclosure required by this code.