Miners: View of the Ewen Breaker of the Pennsylvania Coal Co. The dust was so dense at times as to obscure the view. This dust penetrated the utmost recesses of the boys' lungs. A kind of slave-driver sometimes stands over the boys, prodding or kicking them into obedience. South Pittston, Pennsylvania.

Let’s Keep the End in Mind!

Our aim is to answer the following question:

Why did the parents of young children, and the big business owners of the early 1900’s, agree to allow children to work in unsafe conditions for long hours, and for little pay?

The Factory: 9 p.m. in an Indiana Glass Works.

The Mill: The overseer said apologetically, "She just happened in." She was working steadily. The mills seem full of youngsters who "just happened in" or "are helping their sister." Newberry, South Carolina.

The Mill: One of the spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mill. She was 51 inches high. Has been in the mill one year. Sometimes works at night. Runs 4 sides - 48 cents a day. When asked how old she was, she hesitated, then said, "I don't remember," then added confidentially, "I'm not old enough to work, but do just the same." Out of 50 employees, there were ten children about her size. Whitnel, North Carolina.

The Factory: Young cigar makers in Engelhardt & Co. Three boys looked under 14. Labor leaders told me in busy times many small boys and girls were employed. Youngsters all smoke. Tampa, Florida.

Which Source is a Primary Source and which one is a Secondary Source?

Taken from the National Archives Lewis Hine Collection.

Photographs by Lewis Hine

A compilation of various textbook readings were used to create this handout.

What conditions did industrial workers face in the early 1900s?

-Long Hours

-Dangerous Working Conditions

-Low Pay

-Child Labor

Did We Keep the End in Mind?

Answer the following question:

Why did the parents of young children, and the big business owners of the early 1900’s, agree to allow children to work in unsafe conditions for long hours, and for little pay?

Case Study The Photos of Lewis Hine - Google Slides