VCE History Units 1&2

Global Empires (1400-1775)

Ashley Keith Pratt

Session outline

  • Historical thinking
  • Key questions, knowledge, and skills
  • Assessment
  • Resources

Go to ashleypratt.net/history-education/ for a link to this presentation and all resources.

Walt Disney Pictures. (1995). Pocahontas

Historical Thinking

Historical Thinking

  • Ask historical questions
  • Establish historical significance
  • Use sources as evidence
  • Identify continuity and change
  • Analyse cause and consequence
  • Explore historical perspectives
  • Examine ethical dimensions of history
  • Construct historical arguments

Whitehouse, J. (2015). Historical Thinking: A Framework for Teaching and Learning History. Educational Practice and Theory, 37(2), 51-58.

Historical thinking means that students will:

Historical Thinking

  • Ask historical questions
  • Establish historical significance
  • Use sources as evidence
  • Identify continuity and change
  • Analyse cause and consequence
  • Explore historical perspectives
  • Examine ethical dimensions of history
  • Construct historical arguments

Whitehouse, J. (2015). Historical Thinking: A Framework for Teaching and Learning History. Educational Practice and Theory, 37(2), 51-58.

Historical thinking means that students will:

Historical Thinking

  • Ask historical questions
  • Establish historical significance
  • Use sources as evidence
  • Identify continuity and change
  • Analyse cause and consequence
  • Explore historical perspectives
  • Examine ethical dimensions of history
  • Construct historical arguments

Whitehouse, J. (2015). Historical Thinking: A Framework for Teaching and Learning History. Educational Practice and Theory, 37(2), 51-58.

Historical thinking means that students will:

Historical Thinking

  • Ask historical questions
  • Establish historical significance
  • Use sources as evidence
  • Identify continuity and change
  • Analyse cause and consequence
  • Explore historical perspectives
  • Examine ethical dimensions of history
  • Construct historical arguments

Whitehouse, J. (2015). Historical Thinking: A Framework for Teaching and Learning History. Educational Practice and Theory, 37(2), 51-58.

Historical thinking means that students will:

Historical Thinking

Journal Article - Whitehouse, J. (2015). Historical Thinking: A Framework for Teaching and Learning History. Educational Practice and Theory, 37(2), 51-58.

Book - Seixas and Morton - The Big Six Historical Thinking Concepts

Book - Wineburg - Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts

Key questions, knowledge, and skills

Units 1&2

How do we view the key questions, knowledge and skills?

Course structure

Course structure

Unit 1: Area of Study One

Exploration and expansion

Key Questions

  • Why did the Age of Exploration occur?
  • How did exploration assist in the spread of empires?
  • What values and motivations underpinned the new global empires?

Unit 1: Area of Study One

Exploration and expansion

Key Knowledge

  • The combined power of the Venetian Empire, Chinese Ming dynasty and Ottoman Empire over fifteenth-century trade, such as control of the Silk Road and key ports, access to spices, tea, silk, jewellery and glassware, and economic power as exercised through tributes and financial systems
  • The extent to which the power of established empires was disrupted by voyages of exploration, including those of Columbus, da Gama and Dias
  • The motivations of key individuals in voyages of exploration, such as Elizabeth I, Sir Walter Raleigh, Isabella I of Castile, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Christopher Columbus, Henry the Navigator, William of Orange (‘The Silent’) and Louis XIII
  • Historical interpretations of voyages of exploration such as the view that they were motivated by ‘God, gold and glory’ and their characterisation as ‘voyages of plunder’
  • The relationship between exploration, religious imperialism and conquest as demonstrated by the Spanish conquistadors
  • The extent of continuity and change as reflected in world maps between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries
  • The cultural impacts of voyages of exploration such as the availability of new goods and ideas
  • Key terms and concepts: empire, imperialism, Early Modern era, hegemony, tribute, exploration, conquest, Catholic Church, conquistador and cultural exchange.

Unit 1: Area of Study One

Exploration and expansion

Key Knowledge

  • The combined power of the Venetian Empire, Chinese Ming dynasty and Ottoman Empire over fifteenth-century trade, such as control of the Silk Road and key ports, access to spices, tea, silk, jewellery and glassware, and economic power as exercised through tributes and financial systems
  • The extent to which the power of established empires was disrupted by voyages of exploration, including those of Columbus, da Gama and Dias
  • The motivations of key individuals in voyages of exploration, such as Elizabeth I, Sir Walter Raleigh, Isabella I of Castile, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Christopher Columbus, Henry the Navigator, William of Orange (‘The Silent’) and Louis XIII
  • Historical interpretations of voyages of exploration such as the view that they were motivated by ‘God, gold and glory’ and their characterisation as ‘voyages of plunder’
  • The relationship between exploration, religious imperialism and conquest as demonstrated by the Spanish conquistadors
  • The extent of continuity and change as reflected in world maps between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries
  • The cultural impacts of voyages of exploration such as the availability of new goods and ideas
  • Key terms and concepts: empire, imperialism, Early Modern era, hegemony, tribute, exploration, conquest, Catholic Church, conquistador and cultural exchange

Unit 1: Area of Study One

Exploration and expansion

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about European exploration and expansion
  • Consider the historical significance of voyages of exploration
  • Explain the causes and consequences of voyages of exploration
  • Analyse changing power relationships between established empires and new empires
  • Analyse the perspectives of people from the period about the motivations for voyages of exploration
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes of key individuals in promoting voyages of exploration
  • Compare historical interpretations of the voyages of exploration
  • Construct arguments about the development of new global empires using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence.

Unit 1: Area of Study One

Exploration and expansion

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about European exploration and expansion
  • Consider the historical significance of voyages of exploration
  • Explain the causes and consequences of voyages of exploration
  • Analyse changing power relationships between established empires and new empires
  • Analyse the perspectives of people from the period about the motivations for voyages of exploration
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes of key individuals in promoting voyages of exploration
  • Compare historical interpretations of the voyages of exploration
  • Construct arguments about the development of new global empires using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence.

Unit 1: Area of Study Two

Disruptive ideas

Key Questions

  • How did new ideas challenge traditional beliefs?
  • How did science and technology change daily life?
  • How did empires harness new theories and discoveries?

Unit 1: Area of Study Two

Disruptive ideas

Key Knowledge

  • How emerging empires used new technologies in their voyages of exploration in the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries, such as the caravel ship (c. 1450), mariner’s astrolabe (1480s), loxodrome (1537) and Mercator map projection (1569)
  • The significance of discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution, such as heliocentrism as elaborated by Copernicus (1543) and Galileo (1600s), Kepler’s laws of planetary motion (1609-19) and Newton’s laws of motion and gravity (1687)
  • Challenges to the Catholic Church posed by the Scientific Revolution and Protestant Reformation and how the Church responded to these challenges
  • How ordinary people's beliefs about the natural world changed during the Scientific Revolution
  • Changes to society and politics following Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of a printing press with metal movable type (c. 1450)
  • The features of mercantilism and the effectiveness of emerging empires, particularly Britain, France and the Netherlands, in pursuing mercantilist policies
  • The historical significance of Enlightenment ideas such as liberalism, empiricism, free will and the social contract as espoused by John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire and others
  • Key terms and concepts: Scientific Revolution, heliocentrism, Catholicism...

Unit 1: Area of Study Two

Disruptive ideas

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about the contribution of new discoveries and ideas to the Age of Exploration
  • Consider the historical significance of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
  • Analyse causes and consequences of challenges to the Catholic Church
  • Analyse continuity and change in social and political life following the invention of the printing press
  • Analyse the perspectives of people from the period about new ideas and inventions
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes of people from the period about religion and the Catholic Church
  • Compare historical interpretations of the relationship between mercantilism and the expansion of European empires
  • Construct arguments about the impact of new ideas and technologies using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence

Opportunities for some great team teaching with science and geography teachers

Unit 1: Area of Study Two

Disruptive ideas

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about the contribution of new discoveries and ideas to the Age of Exploration
  • Consider the historical significance of the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
  • Analyse causes and consequences of challenges to the Catholic Church
  • Analyse continuity and change in social and political life following the invention of the printing press
  • Analyse the perspectives of people from the period about new ideas and inventions
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes of people from the period about religion and the Catholic Church
  • Compare historical interpretations of the relationship between mercantilism and the expansion of European empires
  • Construct arguments about the impact of new ideas and technologies using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Questions:

  • How and why were colonies established? How did they operate?
  • What new systems of exchange emerged and whom did they benefit?
  • How did life change through exchanges between Europe and its colonies?

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Knowledge

  • The motivations of key individuals and groups in creating colonies, such as Hernando Cortes, Isabella I of Castile, Phillip II of Portugal, Jesuit missionaries, James I of England, Louis XIV, Jan van Riebeeck
  • How new territory was brought under colonial control and any frontier conflict that broke out between colonisers and indigenous peoples
  • The physical, social and cultural impacts of invasion and colonisation on indigenous people
  • The experiences of slaves, slave-owners, women, military personnel and merchants
  • The features of the Columbian exchange and its impact on ordinary people’s lives in Europe, the Americas and Africa
  • The significance of mercantilism in the period
  • The machinery and methods of the transatlantic slave trade, such as plantations, the Middle Passage, slave markets, kidnappings and port factories, and the key beneficiaries of the trade
  • Sources of evidence on early slave revolts, such as Gaspar Yanga’s Rebellion (Mexico, 1570) and Tacky’s Rebellion (Jamaica, 1760), and of early opposition to the slave trade, such as the Germantown Quaker Petition (Pennsylvania, 1688)
  • Key terms and concepts: conquest, dispossession, frontier conflict, evangelism, cultural imperialism...

This is where we get to address some of the groups who might otherwise be ignored in this narrative; women, people of colour, indigenous groups, etc.

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about the motivations of key individuals in establishing colonies
  • Analyse the significance of mercantilism to European colonies in the Americas and Africa
  • Consider the causes and consequences of the Columbian exchange
  • Analyse the consequences of the establishment of colonies on indigenous inhabitants
  • Analyse the perspectives of people from the period about aspects of colonialism
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes underlying the transatlantic slave trade
  • Compare historical interpretations of the transatlantic slave trade
  • Construct arguments about Early Modern colonialism using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about the motivations of key individuals in establishing colonies
  • Analyse the significance of mercantilism to European colonies in the Americas and Africa
  • Consider the causes and consequences of the Columbian exchange
  • Analyse the consequences of the establishment of colonies on indigenous inhabitants
  • Analyse the perspectives of people from the period about aspects of colonialism
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes underlying the transatlantic slave trade
  • Compare historical interpretations of the transatlantic slave trade
  • Construct arguments about Early Modern colonialism using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence

Unit 2: Area of Study Two

Challenges of empires

Key Questions

  • How did indigenous peoples resist colonisation?
  • To what extent did settler societies obey the mother country?
  • How did colonial interests clash?
  • How had global power relations changed by the end of the Early Modern era?

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Knowledge

  • Methods of colonial control of indigenous people and direct and indirect resistance by indigenous people and the consequences of such resistance
  • Differing conceptions of identity within settler societies, such as tensions between loyalists and those seeking autonomy or independence, and tensions between indigenous people about ways to respond to colonisation
  • The financial challenges faced by empires in maintaining colonies such as costs of maintaining military defence, resistance to taxation and ‘illegal’ trade
  • The causes and consequences of conflicts over colonial interests, such as the Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604), the Dutch–Portuguese War (1602–63), territorial disputes over New France and New Spain, and tensions between East India companies
  • The effectiveness of global empires in managing colonial societies, resources and conflicts
  • The relative standing of the major European empires before and after the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) and the international significance of the 1763 Treaty of Paris
  • The emergence by c.1775 of ideas that came to characterise the Modern era, such as reason, liberalism, the social contract, challenges to absolutism and capitalism
  • key terms and concepts: indigenous resistance, alliances, settler society, identity, loyalism, independence...

Again we have an opportunity here to ensure we are not just teaching the history of middle-aged white men.

We also see some great opportunities to link the Unit 1&2 course into the American and French Revs studies in Units 3&4. Also some opportunities to link in with Australian History Units 3&4

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about colonial challenges faced by a global empire
  • Explain the historical significance of ideas that emerged by the end of the period
  • Analyse the causes and consequences of hostilities between global empires
  • Analyse the challenges faced by empires and the effectiveness of methods of colonial control
  • Compare the perspectives of a range of people from the period on colonial identity
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes of people in colonial societies and of the European colonisers
  • Compare historical interpretations of the conflicts over colonial interests
  • Construct arguments about Early Modern imperialism using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence

Unit 2: Area of Study One

New colonies, new profits

Key Skills

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about colonial challenges faced by a global empire
  • Explain the historical significance of ideas that emerged by the end of the period
  • Analyse the causes and consequences of hostilities between global empires
  • Analyse the challenges faced by empires and the effectiveness of methods of colonial control
  • Compare the perspectives of a range of people from the period on colonial identity
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes of people in colonial societies and of the European colonisers
  • Compare historical interpretations of the conflicts over colonial interests
  • Construct arguments about Early Modern imperialism using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence

Unit planning examples

See ‘Advice for Teachers’ document

Week 1-2: Pre existing empires, background. Venetian, Ottoman, Ming.

Week 3-4: Catalyst for Expansion

Week 5-6: Exploration - Where did they go?! What did they do?!

Week 7-8: Impact of the discoveries.

Assessment

Assessment

Assessment tasks over Units 1 and 2 should include the following:

  • A historical inquiry
  • An analysis of primary sources
  • An analysis of historical interpretations
  • An essay

Sharing time!

Have session participants use the giant Post-It notes to write up some examples of assessment tasks for each of the required formats. Share what the session participants wrote and then take photographs of them and put them on this presentation so they can be accesses at a later date.

Example assessment (U1, AOS 2)

You are required to analyse a number of disruptive ideas that challenged preconceptions about the world and how these ideas strengthened European empires in the early-modern period.

You are to choose two questions from the list below and provide detailed argument for each in a formal written report of between 800-1000 words:

  • How did new technologies (e.g. The mariner’s astrolabe, the Mercator map, etc.) challenge pre-conceptions about the world and strengthen European empires in the early modern period?
  • How did the Scientific Revolution challenge pre-conceptions about the world and strengthen European empires in the early modern period?
  • How did the Protestant Reformation challenge pre-conceptions about the world and strengthen European empires in the early modern period?
  • How did the concept of Mercantilism challenge pre-conceptions about the world and strengthen European empires in the early modern period?
  • How did the ideas of the Enlightenment challenge pre-conceptions about the world and strengthen European empires in the early modern period?

Resources

Resources

Global Empires Teachers Network - Contact me (ashleykpratt@gmail.com) and I can add you to the Google Group.

Padlet - A place to share resources that you have found

Youtube playlist - Contains videos I find on Youtube related to the course, you can even add videos to this playlist as well!

VCAA ‘Advice for Teachers’ and ‘Resources’ - Official VCAA advice

Explain to teachers that they can add their own resources onto the Padlet or youtube videos onto the shared playlist.

Demonstrate to the session participants how these features work.

Q&A

New to VCE (Global Empires) - Google Slides