Day 2 Power Point

Focus Activity

Causes of the First World War

  • Imperialism
    • Spheres of Influence
    • Berlin Conference and the “Scramble for Africa”

The Rhodes Colossus

Berlin Conference – 1884, European leaders met to decide what do with Africa. With no regard for boundaries already in place, based on location of ethnic groups, they carved up Africa to suit themselves.

Causes of the First World War

  • Nationalism
    • Unifications (Italy, Germany)
    • Self-determination and Ethnic Struggles (e.g. Serbia and Austria-Hungary)

Ethnic groups tired to gain more political unity, especially in the balkins

Causes of the First World War

  • Militarism
    • Massive military buildup in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
    • Impact of industrialization
    • Nervous, tense environment (Invasion Novels The Riddle of the Sands by Erskine Childers)

If one country mobilized, others would do so as well.

New technology inspired others to make more as well. “Keeping up with the jones”

Causes of the First World War

  • Alliances
    • Germany wanted to prevent an alliance b/w France and Russia
    • Three Emperors’ League - 1881 Germany forms a alliance with Russa and Austria-Hungary
      • Falls apart over rivalry in Balkans
    • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy

Germany wanted to prevent an alliance b/w France and Russia

In 1881 forms a alliance with Russa and Austria-Hungary – Three Emperors’ League

Said each is to stay neutral if any get in a war

1882 – triple Allaiance with Italy, and AH. Keeps Germany’s eastern and southern boarders secure

Causes of the First World War

    • Alliances
      • France and Russia form alliance in 1890
      • France and Britain become allies in 1907
    • Triple Entente: France, Russia and Great Britain
    • Triple Entente and Alliance means if war breaks out, six of the world powers would be involved

France and Russia gain an alliance after France helps Russia with a financial crisis

Balkans – “powder keg of Europe”

  • Serbia gains independence in the Congress of Berlin in 1878
  • Serbia wants Bosnia and Herzegovina but they are protectorates of A-H
  • Russia supported Serbia, angered Britain

Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea, Britain wanted to stop that from happening, could have been a problem

Germany instead calls Ottoman Empire, big time rival with Russia, into the Triple Alliance

Balkans – “powder keg of Europe”

  • Germany wanted to expand into Balkans and formed alliance with Ottoman Empire
  • Russia and Britain both opposed this and it strengthened their partnership

Immediate Cause

  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and wife Sophie
    • Heir to the Austrian Imperial throne
    • Murdered by Gavrilo Princip
      • 19-year-old member of Black Hand
      • Serbian
  • Austria blames Serbia; sends ultimatum

Immediate Cause

  • A-H declares war on Serbia
  • Russia mobilizes troops to Serbia and Germany
  • Germany declares war on Russia and France
  • Britain declares war on Germany
  • Japan and Italy joins the Allies
  • Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria join Central Powers
causes - Google Slides