Beyond the Checklist: A News Literacy Toolkit (Sustainable ideas for schoolwide critical thinking) Joyce Valenza

Rutgers University
joycevalenza@gmail.com

Beyond the Checklist: A News Literacy Toolkit

https://tinyurl.com/newsliteracy2018

My site:

http://about.me/jvalenza

My blog:

http://blog.schoollibraryjournal.com/neverendingsearch/

My tweets:

@joycevalenza

Today: https://tinyurl.com/valenzanewshk

It’s about:

Sustainability, school culture, negotiating nuance

https://tinyurl.com/newsliteracy2018

It’s about skepticism

Developing heuristic habits of interrogation

https://tinyurl.com/newsliteracy2018

PMiCH:

Pivotal Moments

in Credibility History!

1729

. . . a young healthy child well nursed, is, at a year old, a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricasie, or a ragoust.

Swift’s satire

1863

Colbert, S. (2005). The Word--Truthiness. Colbert Report. 17 Oct. Retrieved from http://www.cc.com/video-clips/63ite2/the-colbert-report-the-word---truthiness

2012: Hurricane Sandy

The Filter Bubble:

How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think

“...the idea that personalization tools from companies like Facebook and Google have isolated us from opposing viewpoints, leading conservatives and liberals to feel like they occupy separate realities.”

Eli Pariser 2011

Even the academic literature falls victim to credibility issues

Who is an ?

What is a primary source?

23

Wineburg, Sam, et al. "Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning." (2016).

BLEAK!

Only 25% of high school students were able to identify an accurate news story when also given a fake one. Students could not distinguish between real and fake photographs. authentic and staged videos, or investigate the authority of a tweet.

Students were asked to perform such tasks as: determine the trustworthiness of tweets, distinguish between news articles and opinion columns, identify ads on a news website, compare and evaluate posts from a newspaper’s comment section, identify the blue checkmark that distinguishes a verified Facebook account from a fake one, consider the relative strength of evidence presented by two posters in a Facebook exchange, decide whether or not to trust a photo on a photo-sharing website, determine whether a website can be trusted in an open web search, search to verify a claim about a controversial issue, assess the reliability of a partisan website, identify the strengths and weaknesses of an online video. (p. 6) (Note: Most of these tasks could authentically be taught in our libraries during the natural course of any inquiry project.)

p. 45

p. 46

Wineburg, Sam and McGrew, Sarah, Lateral Reading: Reading Less and Learning More When Evaluating Digital Information (October 6, 2017). Stanford History Education Group Working Paper No. 2017-A1 . Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3048994 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3048994

lateral reading!

Name the Containers!”

LET’S PLAY: NAME THE CONTAINERS!

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A20_questions_1954.JPG

information is decanted

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADecanter_with_Stopper_LACMA_M.78.104.57a-b.jpg

Digital containers - all look the same! Information decanted.

What issues have you seen with students encountering decanted information?

Problems due to ambiguous nature of this information?

container collapse

What issues have you seen with students encountering decanted information?

Problems due to ambiguous nature of this information?

Shift

  • Container collapse
  • Overload
  • Choice
  • 24/7 news cycle: speed vs. accuracy
  • Authenticity crisis
  • Hidden revenue interests

Where do you get your news?

Where do your students/children get their news?

Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017). News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. Pew Res Cent.

16% of U.S. adults say they have shared fake political news inadvertently, discovering later it was entirely made up 14%, say they have shared fake news they knew was made-up – whether because they want to spread misinformation, to “call out” them out as fake, for amusement value, etc.

Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017). News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. Pew Res Cent.

Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017). News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. Pew Res Cent.

Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017). News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. Pew Res Cent.

Shearer, E., & Gottfried, J. (2017). News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017. Pew Res Cent.

40

Fake news

  • pure fake news--designed to mislead
  • hoax sites
  • satirical sites
  • propaganda
  • born digital images & edited images

43

Authority is constructed

and contextual.

Authority of information or its impact is related to the context in which it is used and by whom.

Authority is constructed

and contextual.

Authority of information or its impact is related to the context in which it is used and by whom.

You need to be prepared to work with your learners and clients in developing

solutions?

verified?

Verified site

Notes from danah boyd

Freedom of speech?

Google and Reddit banning

Not everyone has the right to be amplified.

Companies trying different things.

But . . .

What are the problems?

No more prizes for predicting the rain, only prizes for building the arks.

Don Edward Beck

. . . it has always been up to the reader or viewer to make the reliability and credibility decisions. It is up to the reader or viewer to negotiate truth.

Mark Galeotti: senior researcher at the Institute of International Relations Prague and coordinator of its Centre for European Security

What version of media literacy should we be working towards?

There is a perverted version of media literacy underway. Students are asked to distinguish between CNN and Fox.

You should not trust Wikipedia, but Google it.

I don’t see a way out.

Systemic level issues require systemic solutions.

We don’t know people who are not like us.

danah boyd @ SXSWedu

other solutions

(unscaled)

“The Internet is not going to change. They’re not going to only allow credible information. We’re the ones who are going to need to change and we get better by teaching students to do it.”

  • Evaluating Wikipedia: Students evaluate the trustworthiness of an article on Wikipedia, assessing whether they can reason about the specific features that make a Wikipedia article more or less reliable.
  • Claims on YouTube: Students watch a short video and explain why they might not trust a video that makes a contentious claim.
  • Claims on Twitter: Students read a tweet and explain why it might or might not be a useful source of information.
  • Webpage Comparison: Students examine two websites and select the one that they would use to begin research on gun control, assessing their ability to identify the strengths and limitations of websites for learning about political topics
  • YouTube Evaluation: Students evaluate a YouTube video and identify reasons why it may be unreliable.
  • Claims on Social Media: Students consider the sources of a tweet and the information contained in it in order to describe what makes it both a useful and not useful source of information.
  • Social Media Video: Students watch an online video and identify its strengths and weaknesses.
  • Website Reliability: Students determine whether a partisan site is trustworthy.

  • Researching a Claim: Students search online to verify a claim about a controversial topic.
  • Comparing Articles: Students determine whether a news story or a sponsored post is more reliable.
  • Evaluating Evidence: Students decide whether to trust a photograph posted on a photo-sharing website.
  • Facebook Argument: Students consider the relative strength of evidence that two users present in a Facebook exchange.
  • News on Facebook: Students identify the blue checkmark that distinguishes a verified Facebook account from a fake one.
  • Argument Analysis: Students compare and evaluate two posts from a newspaper’s comment section.
  • Homepage Analysis: Students identify advertisements on a news website.
  • News Search: Students distinguish between a news article and an opinion column.
  • Comments Section: Students examine a post from a newspaper comment section and explain whether they would use it in a research report.
  • News on Twitter: Students consider tweets and determine which is the most trustworthy.
  • Article Assessment: In this exploration of “cloaked” websites, students confronted with an article from one such site can determine its sponsorship. For more information
  • Article Analysis: Students read a sponsored post and explain why it might not be reliable.

20 SHEG Assessments

80% of middle schoolers got this wrong even though it is labeled “sponsored content”

40% of high schoolers said it “presented pivotal evidence of the conditions near the power plant.”

Fewer than 20% demonstrated mastery on this one!

Review this tweet and answer the question that follows. You may use any online resources to help you.

https://twitter.com/masondsimpson/status/841758880338128898

Michelle and Jackie based the following prompts on this post.

Michelle Luhtala & Jackie Whiting

conversations

Rules of thumb

  • Look for About and “About Me” pages and wonder about their truth
  • Interrogate urls
  • Suspect the sensational
  • Which version are you reading? Go back to the source again and again
  • Go to the real source
  • Think outside the reliability box
  • Triangulate / Corroborate
  • What exactly are you reading?
  • Check your own search attitude and biases
  • Use a little energy
  • Stop before you forward (or use)
  • Who owns the publication you are reading?
  • Be suspicious of pictures!

introducing a new glossary

confirmation bias

container collapse

content farm or content mill

echo chamber

fact checking

filter bubble

herding phenomenon

native advertising

Satisficing

triangulation or cross verification

virality

astro-turfing

vocabulary

virality: when information or media circulates rapidly from one user to another

click bait: sensational headlines or images designed to draw you in to generate revenue.

echo chamber: a situation in which information, ideas or beliefs are amplified or reinforced by transmission and repetition inside an enclosed system, where different or competing views are not provided.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield.

disintermediated information: the elimination of the intermediary in the supply chain between the producer and the consumer . . . eliminating the value that is added by publishers, editors, librarians, educators, scholars and others.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 160

Gaslighting is “a malicious and hidden form of mental and emotional abuse(link is external), designed to plant seeds of self-doubt and alter your perception of reality. Like all abuse, it's based on the need for power, control, or concealment.”

(Sarkis, S. (2017) “11 Warning Signs of Gaslighting.”Psychology Today.

herding behavior: In information rating systems, such as five-star rating systems, studies have shown that people are easily influenced by the ratings of others, especially when those ratings are positive.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 160

herding phenomenon: In reference to journalism, the number of journalists covering a story increases a herding phenomenon typically occurs consisting of individual reporters becoming likely to imitate the angle and approach previous reporters have developed.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. P. 161

native advertising: paid, sponsored content that is designed to look almost identical to the other content offered by the media outlet.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. P. 162.

reputation heuristic: relying on the name recognition of a source rather than seeking out other evaluative criteria. . . Even a vague familiarity with a source can strongly influence credibility judgments.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. P. 162.

triangulation: The mixing of data or methods so that diverse viewpoints can shed light on a topic.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. P. 166

trolls: People who post comments on social media or other websites that are specifically designed to stir up trouble.

Stebbins, L. F. (2015). Finding Reliable Information Online: Adventures of an Information Sleuth. Rowman & Littlefield. P. 166

curating options

How might learners curate their own information lives?

Current Awareness: Alerts / Feeds

Curating news

Starting in databases

Swiipe News That Knows You: A Tinder approach created by an Irish teen. Chose from 60 sources around the world to develop a personalized feed. Swipe left to delete a story, right to read, save, share.

Easily build newsfeeds in a Tinder approach. Created by a 14-year-old Irish teen to get other teens interested in reading the news, users choose from more than 60 news sources, updated daily, (including CNN, New York Times, and ESPN) and seven topic areas. As new stories appear, simply swipe left to delete the story, swipe right to save it for later reading, or tap on the story to read it now. Easy save articles for later and sharing stories. More sources promised.

-

Try Freedom of Speech, Gun Control, Racism, Abortion, Privilege, Microagression or dig into our entire dictionary below.

Read more about how the AllSides Dictionary got started here, and if you’re a teacher who is interested in helping your students better navigate these nuanced terms, be sure to check out our AllSides Dictionary lesson plan!

And word choice itself is connected to truth. Over the course of the last decade we’ve seen professional news organizations and governments struggle with the politics and potential loadedness of words, notably terrorist and illegal immigrant. (See the AP Stylebook Blogand Reuters Handbook of Journalism.)

a few good tools for instruction across your learning culture

Instilling:

skepticism

dispositions

heuristics

Put the onus of the skepticism on the learner.

Our kids need new types of filters. Beyond larger notions of information literacy, Not as a lesson of good vs. bad. Not as an attempt to pitch traditional media against social media or peer review against popular publication. Not through the examination of hoaky hoax sites. And certainly not as a one-of, checklist type of lesson for a 9th grade social studies teacher in September.

We need to teach the important lessons of everyday civics for new consumption and production landscapes. These lessons involve sustained critical thinking, a practice to engage in regularly as we read and view and inquire with learners of all ages across disciplines.

Just for fun!

This work is complicated and nuanced and important.

Living in an age of great complexity and while we’re talking about fake news here in this conversation, news comes in all sorts of flavors and it is nuanced, and some things are not fake, but they may come from various lenses and our learners need to deal with this complexity. Things are not black and white or good or bad. They are all slightly different. It is really, really hard for us to grapple with the notion that there is no such thing as a neutral text. There is fake news, clearly. But there are also shades of news and I want our learners to understand that.

“You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time.

Abraham Lincoln (attributed)

Believe nothing just because a so-called wise person said it.

Believe nothing just because a belief is generally held.

Believe nothing just because it is said in ancient books.

Believe nothing just because it is said to be of divine origin.

Believe nothing just because someone else believes it.

Believe only what you yourself test and judge to be true.

Buddha [paraphrased]

My site:

http://about.me/jvalenza

My blog:

http://blog.schoollibraryjournal.com/neverendingsearch/

My tweets:

@joycevalenza

Today: https://tinyurl.com/valenzanewshk

...it has always been up to the reader or viewer to make the reliability and credibility decisions. It is up to the reader or viewer to negotiate truth.

We have a role in truth detection,

and truth creation.

But that’s another story.

“Whoever undertakes to set himself up as a judge of Truth and Knowledge is shipwrecked by the laughter of the gods.

Albert Einstein

“Perhaps the “almost true” is potent precisely because the audience has to bridge the gap of truth and in so doing become complicit in its viral spreading. The almost true needs us in a way that the actual truth does not. This is an established principle of theatre, of art, that the audience completes the illusion—makes it more real than real.”

Anthony Wing Kosner, “Mike Daisey, KONY 2012's Jason Russell and the Viral Allure of the Almost True.Forbes . 19 May 2012

checklists and models

(use with caution)

CRAAP TEST

Currency

Relevance

Authority

Accuracy

Purpose

Meriam Library, California State University, Chico, and posted at http://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf

There are a number of variations on what folks call the CRAP or CRAAP test.

Kathy Schrock’s 5W's of Website Evaluation

RADAR

Relevance: How does this source relate to your topic? What does this source add to the general knowledge?

Authority: Qualifications of the author? Is this source cited by other sources writing on the topic?

Date: currency?

Accuracy: Are the author’s claims supported by evidence (eg: references, citations, bibliography)?

Rationale: Is there a bias in relation to your topic?

Mandalios, J. (2013). RADAR: An approach for helping students evaluate Internet sources. Journal of Information Science, 39(4), 470-478.

From David Warlick:

Considering also: What is the researcher trying to accomplish?

“From this standpoint, we would not ask, "Is the author qualified?", but, "What aspects of the author's background help me accomplish my goal?" Under certain circumstances, a web page published by a neo-nazi organization might actually be appropriate for an assignment, while other resources, produced by people with credential would not. It depends on what the student wants to accomplish.

This approach actually serves three interesting purposes.

  • The student is focused on drawing supporting or appropriate information into the project rather than just filtering "bad" information out.
  • The student gathers information about the information.
  • As students approaches information with their goals to accomplish, they are less likely to be influenced by the goals of those who generated and published the information, which has interesting implications for media literacy.”

David Warlick, Evaluating Internet-based Information, A Goals-Based Approach.

Thinking about blogs as research sources

  • Who is the blogger? (This may be challenge with so many blogs offering spotty or nonexistent about pages. That may be a clue in itself. )
  • What sorts of materials is the blogger reading or citing?
  • Does this blogger have influence? Who and how many people link to the blog? Who is commenting? Does this blog appear to be part of a community? The best blogs are likely to be hubs for folks who share interests with the blogger.
  • Is this content covered in any depth, with any authority? How sophisticated is the language, the spelling?
  • Is this blog alive? It there a substantial archive? How current are the posts?
  • At what point in a story’s lifetime did the post appear? Examining a story’s date may offer clues as to the reliability of a blog entry.
  • Is the site upfront about its bias? Does it recognize/discuss other points of view? (For certain information tasks, an essay or debate or student blog, bias may be very useful. You need to recognize it. )
  • If the blogger is not a traditional expert, is this a first-hand view that would be valuable to your research? Is it a unique perspective?
  • Is the blog rated in any way? Has it won any awards? Gotten reviews? Tools like Technorati and Blogpulse can help you assess the influence of a blog.
  • How useful is it to your research?

Thinking about Twitter . . .

Who is tweeting?

How many voices are you comparing?

Have you used hashtags (#) to gather a variety of voices?

Can you use other sources to triangulate the information?

If you are focusing on one voice:

How many followers does he or she have?

Is the tweeter an individual?

Does he or she represent a publication or an organization?

What does the profile reveal?

What type of language or vocabulary does the tweeter use?

How useful is it to your research?

HongKong: Beyond the Checklist - Google Slides