CoOPLAaGE
Coupling innovative
tools for sharing
change in
socio-environmental
systems

Nils Ferrand*

& Géraldine Abrami*, Wanda Aquae-Gaudi+

* UMR/JRU G-EAU Managing Water, Stakeholders & Uses
IRSTEA Montpellier, France

Design : Ernst Gumpinger

www.irstea.fr

Pour mieux affirmer
ses missions,
le Cemagref devient Irstea

Socio-Environmental Systems ?

(c) nils.ferrand@cemagref.fr, 2009

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www.irstea.fr

Pour mieux affirmer
ses missions,
le Cemagref devient Irstea

Role of industry / business

(c) nils.ferrand@cemagref.fr, 2009

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Firms

Industry

Services

Regulations

Lobbying

Resources

Labor & Demand

Goods & Services

www.irstea.fr

Pour mieux affirmer
ses missions,
le Cemagref devient Irstea

Change where ?

(c) nils.ferrand@cemagref.fr, 2009

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Firms

Industry

Services

Regulations

Lobbying

Resources

Labor & Demand

Goods / Services

www.irstea.fr

Pour mieux affirmer
ses missions,
le Cemagref devient Irstea

Toward integrated change

(c) nils.ferrand@cemagref.fr, 2009

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Firms

Industry

Services

Regulations

Lobbying

Resources

Labor & Demand

Goods / Services

www.irstea.fr

Pour mieux affirmer
ses missions,
le Cemagref devient Irstea

Socio-Cognitive change « above »

(c) nils.ferrand@cemagref.fr, 2009

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www.irstea.fr

Pour mieux affirmer
ses missions,
le Cemagref devient Irstea

Deciding to Change
Who does what ?

  • Organizing / planning the decision process
  • Planning actions
    • Normative / political framing
    • Assessing situation / modeling
    • Proposing actions → integrated strategies
    • Testing & choosing
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation

SDP design and implementation processes

SDPP manager

Policy-makers

Stakeholders

Experts

SDPP initiation

SDPlgPr learning

SDPlgPr initiation

SDPlgPr select.

SDPlgPr launch

SDPlan start

Situation Assmt

Aims / priorities

Disc. SD tools

Integrate tools

In ≠ SD plans

Assess SD plans

Select 1 SD plan

Situation Assmt

PublicPartic. Lvl3

PMPartic. Lvl3

PublicPartic. Lvl4

PMPartic. Lvl3

PublicPartic. Lvl2

PMPartic. Lvl2

PublicPartic. Lvl4

PublicPartic. Lvl1

PublicPartic. Lvl4

PMPartic. Lvl1

Setting conditions for implementation

Administration

Mng plan exec.

Plan execution – Tools implementation

Monitoring - Eval.

Plan revision

Plan conclusion

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COOPLAAGE

What is CoOPLAaGE ?

CoOPLAaGE is a an integrated set (suite) of participatory methods, tools and protocols designed to support all stakeholders’ groups, from citizens to policy makers, in discussing and engaging really into change strategies in socio-environmental systems, through participatory…

…design of an acceptable decision procedure

…modeling of the joint situation

…framing of shared social justice principles

…simulation (role playing game) of change’ pathways

…planning to build coherent action plans

…evaluation of the process and outcomes

…implementation pathway.

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COOPLAAGE

The scientific challenge of coupling : 1+1 > 2 ?!

➔ Global / Integrative

  • Is coupling an asset ? Added value of the integrated process ?
  • Which sequence is the most efficient ?
  • Which knowledge management ?
  • Roles and engagement of parties ?
  • What does it change?
  • Regression due to integration ?
  • Complexity barrier?

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COOPLAAGE

For whom ? A transfer approach toward all users

CoOPLAaGE is designed to support ALL stakeholders at all levels –from lay people in rural communities to the uppest policy makers- in collaborating around action plans and change together (the « shared room principle »).

It especially targets conditions where resource users must adapt their behaviors while policies are adapted coherently, through a dialogue → two-levels processes.

CoOPLAaGE is fully transferable, robust (no computer), and can be self-animated within groups with limited pre-training. Most tools are simple and accessible to illiterate people.

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COOPLAAGE

Why using CoOPLAaGE ?

  • CoOPLAaGE provides a coherent set of tools which covers together the needs of a usual process
    • Organizing / Mediating / Diagnosis / Design / Integration / Choice / Implementation / Evaluation
  • CoOPLAaGE fully respects all stakeholders’ inclusion
  • CoOPLAaGE is entirely transferred, hence adaptable
  • CoOPLAaGE is innovative and attractive (e.g. game)
  • CoOPLAaGE is research based
  • CoOPLAaGE is public and independent – no consultancy
  • CoOPLAaGE is robust and accessible
  • CoOPLAaGE’ tools have been tested internationally
  • CoOPLAaGE is low cost: training and research partnership

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COOPLAAGE

The CoOPLAaGE history

  • Raconter les origines en complétant
  • 3

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COOPLAAGE

5 key research directions since 2003

(P) Engineering participation

(W) Participatory Modeling & Simulation (& its transfer)

(C) Multi-*** Integration for Strategic Planning

(J) Social & procedural justice

(E) Evaluating the impact of methods, tools & processes

3 transversal principles :

  • Integration / coupling
  • Case study / stakeholders driven
  • Transfer to local process animators

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COOPLAAGE

Main background projects

  • ARCSYM French-Australia collaboration (2003-2007)
  • EFP HarmoniCOP (2003-2006)
  • EFP Aquastress (2004-2007)
  • EFP Newater (2004-2007)
  • EFP HarmoniQUA (2005)
  • EFP HarmoniCA (2006)
  • Upscaling Commod (2008-2010)
  • ANR Intermed (2008-2012)
  • UN OSD (2011-2012)
  • EFP AfroMaison (2011-2014)
  • WAG courses (2009-2015)

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COOPLAAGE

Projects supporting COOPLAAGE design

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COOPLAAGE

The CoOPLAaGE team & contributors

  • NF & GA as co-leaders
  • G-EAU contributors : Farolfi, Morardet, Guerin-Schneider, Ducrot, Bonté, Montginoul, Garin, Loubier, Grelot, Renaudeau, Barreteau, Rollin
    • Post-Doc : M Le Bars, R Raymond, Y Von Korff, N Desquinabo
    • Phd : K Daniell, E Hassenforder
    • Internships
  • External partners
    • LEGTA Théza, LISODE, OXYO WATER, AWARD, IWMI, MMU, INR, INAT, ILRI, ABN, WI, Lannion, etc.

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COOPLAAGE

The CoOPLAaGE components

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COOPLAAGE

The CoOPLAaGE ToolKit

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COOPLAAGE

Step
by
Step

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COOPLAAGE

Example → the Afromaison Operational Framework

© Sylvie Morardet, Irstea-Afromaison, 2012

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COOPLAAGE

INI-WAG: a kit-bag to discover water management, participatory modeling and games

Usage

Build and play your own abstract water game – Discover catchment management and policies

Origin

School sessions + KNOWTS model + WAG-Sand in South-Africa

Content

A bag with cards, tokens, rules

Dissem.

300 built. Creative Commons by-nc-sa. Cost 50€

Science

  • Autonomous participatory modeling (i.e. Lego™)
  • Session evaluation & learning impact
  • A platform for hydrosocial experiments

Pros

Models quantity and quality

Easy access – versatile – robust – transferable - abstract

Awarded « solution » at WWF2012

Cons / missing

Binary production functions (all or nothing) – Abstract - complex rules for pollution

refs / URL

Ferrand, N., Farolfi, S., Abrami, G., 2009, WAT-A-GAME: sharing water and policies in your own basin. ISAGA conference. Singapore : SSAGSG

http://watagame.info

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COOPLAAGE

CREA-WAG: a method to model your management situation and build your own game

Usage

Design and build step by step a model and a game representing your own case study

Origin

Companion Modeling + WAG design generalized

Content

24 steps and 20 sub-tools to follow and use

Dissem.

> 300 px have learnt it in courses. Licensed.

Science

  • How to transfer a modeling method ?
  • Complexity / simplification for coupled models ?
  • Validity with diverse knowledge integrated ?

Pros

Repeatable – Transferable – Easy access – Integrated with INI-WAG (Design by Playing) and COOPLAN

Cons / missing

Tricky calibration – Validation process difficult – Not yet fully documented with all details -

refs / URL

http://watagame.info/wag-courses

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COOPLAAGE

WAG-LIB: a Library of WAG Cases

Usage

Share, test, learn and copy other WAG models

Origin

Accumulated set of WAG implementation

Content

> 70 examples of WAG use, various finalization

Dissem.

Access online for registered WAG users.

Science

  • Comparative analysis of models / games
  • Categorization of models / games
  • Theory of design context

Pros

Large set – diverse - commonalities

Cons / missing

Missing information – various levels of achievement (from draft to published) – not fully normalized

refs / URL

http://goo.gl/KqlORs

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COOPLAAGE

WAG-LIB: a Library of WAG Cases

Choose your case here

Location

Rwenzori region

Rwenzori region, Uganda

Authors:

Year 2012

Nils FERRAND, Géraldine ABRAMI, Clovis KABASEKE, Rudy LEMMENS, Prof SEMANA, Peter KUSEMERERWA, Moses MUHUMUZA, Kahina BAHA, Ernst GUMPINGER, Emeline HASSENFORDER, Sylvie MORARDET, Raphaëlle DUCROT

Number of players

Contact:

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clovis.kabaseke@gmail.com

Issues addressed

Description of the game

Poverty, Ecosystem preservation,  Wetlands management, Tourism, Urban / periurban, Mining, Crop production, Forestry, Fishing / hunting, Sedimentation / erosion / siltation, Water pollution, Demography, Policy implementation / reform, Wildlife & Park management

Game on pollution and deforestation issues in the Rwenzori region, particularly focused on the Mpanga river, 3 zones: up, mid and downstream

Roles

Resources

Small holder Farmer (x2), Town manager, Commercial Farmer, Fisherman, Pastoralist

Dirty water, Fauna / Flora / Biodiversity, Money, People / population (incl. migrants)

Institutions / Regulations

Versions' evolution, modifications during design phase

Usage calendar, use process, phases

Monitoring process, observed variables, round indicators (counting marbles, wealth, etc)

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COOPLAAGE

INFO-WAG: the knowledge infrastructure of WAG

Usage

Capture, structure, store, value knowledge produced in CREA-WAG & COOPLAN

Origin

Initial Excel structure → GGL sheet & form version → mySQL Database

Content

Data model, forms & DB for actions, actors, cases (WAG-LIB), sessions, tests

Dissem.

Access online for registered users.

Science

  • Formal knowledge model for WAG components
  • Joining WAG & COOPLAN through data
  • Eliciting & structuring perspectives

Pros

Simple – online – editable - incentive

Cons / missing

Simple – qualitative – not connected to expert DBs – not fully reusable from case to case

refs / URL

https://sites.google.com/site/mseau2013/outils-du-cours

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COOPLAAGE

INFO-WAG :
the data model

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COOPLAAGE

Data structure and computer support

Excel Data about actions / role

MS Publisher model

Reference process (G. Abrami)

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COOPLAAGE

INTER-WAG: a web service for editing kits & models

Usage

Online edition of WAG kits & models

Origin

INFO-WAG extension + Specs NF + internships

Content

Php-MySQL service with editing and pdf features

Dissem.

Access online for registered users.

Science

  • A meta modeling infrastructure producing a physical game set (printing it)
  • Distant protocol validation

Pros

Online – integrated with WAG

Cons / missing

Not validated yet in operation – No catchment editing – Not connected to the past WAG-LIB

refs / URL

http://games.montpellier.cemagref.fr/interwag/

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COOPLAAGE

SIMU-WAG: simulating WAG models dynamic

Usage

Multi-agent simulation of a WAG model

Origin

Excel simulators → WAG-Logo

Content

A Netlogo simulator of a WAG model usable for exploration and online group experiments. Uses INFO-WAG.

Dissem.

Access online for registered users.

Science

  • Linking a physical and a computer simulation
  • Online experiments vs physical experiments
  • Simulating a WAG player → rationality ?

Pros

Multi-agent – Connects INFO-WAG – simple platform – asynchron group operation

Cons / missing

Over-simplified – Not yet validated in operation – no catchment saving in INFO-WAG

refs / URL

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COOPLAAGE

L’Eau en Jeu™: educating on water
use & management

Usage

Education about water issues, use, management

Origin

INI-WAG design + CASDEN contract

Content

A large box with 2000 elements + 2 games : catchment & city. Rules, videos. From 10 to …

Dissem.

5000 units free in French education. Non commercial.

Science

  • Simplifying complex coupled issues
  • Transferrring animation capacity
  • Assessing sessions and learning

Pros

Wide dissemination – comprehensive – attractive

Cons / missing

Complex – limited support to users network

refs / URL

http://eauenjeu.org

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COOPLAAGE

COOPLAN: integrated strategic participatory planning

Usage

Helping all stakeholders to discuss and build integrated / coherent / feasible strategies

Origin

SAS model + Aquastress

Content

A method + 2 tools : action & integration matrix

Dissem.

Taught to > 300 px. Licensed.

Science

  • Minimal process for participatory planning ?
  • Modeling coherency / feasability / efficiency ?
  • Integration between scales, sectors, actors

Pros

Robust & simple – very integrative – elicit global plans

Cons / missing

Qualitative – plans not directly implementable – should be connected to formal models – limited use of expertise

refs / URL

http://goo.gl/w5fcLA

Daniell, K. A., Ferrand, N., & Tsoukiàs, A. (2006, June). Investigating participatory modelling processes for group decision aiding in water planning and management. In Proceedings of the Group Decision and Negotiation (GDN) 2006 International Conference. Universitätsverlag, Karlsruhe, Germany (pp. 207-210).

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COOPLAAGE

JUST-A-GRID: sharing distributive justice principles

Usage

Helping stakeholders to elicit and discuss their prefered principles for resource sharing = distributive justice

Origin

Allocation games, social justice research, JUST-A-GAME (Ferrand, Nancarrow, Syme)

Content

A method + 1 tool

Dissem.

Transfered to > 150 px. Open access.

Science

  • Grammar for formulating justice principles
  • Protocol, sequence, triggers
  • Analysing distribution & comparing
  • Systematic experiments

Pros

Robust & simple – versatile - accesible

Cons / missing

Still lacking systematic experimental validation – requires expertise for deep analysis

refs / URL

http://resilience2014.sciencesconf.org/25474

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COOPLAAGE

PRE-PAR: PREparing PARticipation

Usage

Supporting stakeholders in deciding and regulating their participation protocol / plan

Origin

Phd NF, analysis of participation, HarmoniCOP POQ, phd K Daniell, negotiation theory

Content

A method + 1 tool + role-playing game & charter

Dissem.

Transfered to ~130px. Licensed.

Science

  • Modeling participatory processes
  • Pre-negotiation as facilitator
  • Warrant & charters for participation

Pros

Robust & simple – versatile – structured – eyes opener

Cons / missing

Initial acceptance / resistance – limited repetition in real processes – non computerized

refs / URL

NB: RE-PAR = specific version for participatory research

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COOPLAAGE

ENCORE-ME: coupled syncretic monitoring & evaluation of the process impacts

Usage

A framework for observing the diverse impacts of a decision or other collective process

Origin

Multi-agent models + HarmoniCA + Post-Doc M Le Bars + Aquastress + Afromaison

Content

An analytic framework + related tools (open) about

External / Normative / Cognitive / Operational / Relational / Equity changes

Dissem.

Extensively used. Various implementations. Open.

Science

  • Coupling diverse disciplinary perspectives
  • Models of change induction
  • Ext metrology vs. self evaluation

Pros

Comprehensive – all dimensions - adaptable

Cons / missing

Open – under-specified – expensive – complex to analyse

refs / URL

http://dce-conference.au.dk/fileadmin/dce-conference.au.dk/Presentation/9.2_E.Hassenforder.pdf

Source: E. Hassenforder

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COOPLAAGE

SCoOL-PLAaGE: the COOPLAAGE training courses

Usage

Learning the CoOPLAaGE methods & tools

Origin

Several training courses since 2003

Content

Course syllabus + material + online web site

Dissem.

> 400 trainees. Web access. Partly open.

Science

  • Teaching to intervene on participation
  • Teaching to groups as groups
  • Course workshops as experiments

Pros

Large set – Repeated – practical – Attractive

Cons / missing

Under-structured – Unstabilized – long sessions – missing material

refs / URL

http://tana.watagame.info

https://sites.google.com/site/mseau2013/

https://sites.google.com/site/waghistory/wag-courses

From 10 to 15 sessions per year

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COOPLAAGE

QUESTIONS ???

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COOPLAAGE

cooplaage-public_2015 - Google Slides