Empowering AI and Smart Manufacturing


*Note: This is a translation by Jeffrey Ding and a ChinAI contributor who wishes to remain anonymous -- all credit for the original goes to the authors and the original text linked below in the notes section of this slide. Jeff is a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, PhD candidate in International Relations, Researcher at GovAI/Future of Humanity Institute, and Research Fellow at the Center for Security and Emerging Technology. These are informal translations and all credit for the original work goes to the authors. Others are welcome to share excerpts from these translations as long as this original translation is cited. Commenters should be aware that the Google Doc is also publicly shareable by link. These translations are part of the ChinAI newsletter - weekly-updated library of translations from Chinese thinkers on AI-related issues: https://chinai.substack.com/

Context: In July a 100-slide PPT about 5G went viral on the Chinese web. On August 22 Huawei’s founder Ren Zhengfei issued an email to all employees, recommending that they read this slide deck, which inspired another wave of coverage about this PPT.

Author: Dr. Wang Xiwen, member of the central science and technology commission of the Jiusan Society (a political party whose membership mostly consists of high- and medium-level intellectuals in fields of science, technology, education, culture, and medicine). He previously authored the first monograph on “Industry 4.0” in China. This slide deck was used in his lecture to local government officials and entrepreneurs.

Full text in Chinese: http://www.sohu.com/a/325357899_560178

5G is Arriving Now

5G Main System Framework

5G Accelerator of AI

Table of Contents

5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

5G is Arriving Now

(1)Why is it called 5G?

5G is Arriving Now

The Development and Evolution of Mobile Telecommunications

5G is Arriving Now

Re: the car phone -- it was a mobile radio telephone designed for and fitted into an automobile, originated with the Bell System

Re: the shoulder phone - it weighed about 7 pounds, first released by Japan’s Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT)

(2)What Use Cases will 5G Enable?

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5G is Arriving Now

mMTC supports a very large number of devices in a small area: the 100万/km^2 refers (I think) to 1 million devices per square kilometer

Internet of Things, Big Data, and Artificial Intelligence

5G is Arriving Now

Intelligent Upgrading of Traditional Industries

5G Characteristics

Big Data

Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

“Landing” Applications

Enhanced Mobile Broadband

HD image data (streaming 4K/8K videos)

Image recognition algorithms

Predictive maintenance of technological processes

Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications

Large amounts of data collected by IoT sensors

Machine learning, complex event processing, social network service analysis

Smart business services; precision sales and marketing

Massive Machine Type Communications

Driving data

Machine learning

Smart transportation

5G is Arriving Now

(3)How much value can 5G generate?

Direct Output

Based on 5G’s formal commercialization figures, it is expected that the direct output will be about 484 billion RMB in 2020, and will increase to 3.3 trillion RMB and 6.3 trillion RMB in 2025 and 2030, respectively. The compound growth rate is 29%.

5G will bring 1.2 trillion, 6.3 trillion, and 10.6 trillion (all in RMB) in value in 2020, 2025, and 2030, respectively. The average annual compound growth rate is 24%.

Indirect Output

5G is Arriving Now

5G Industrial Chain


(Terminals and Industry Applications)

Terminal Equipment

  • Smartphones
  • Smart homes
  • Intelligent Internet-Connected Cars

Industry Applications

  • Networked cars
  • Industrial Internet
  • Smart medicine
  • Smart education


(Construction of Fundamental Infrastructure)

Base Station Systems

  • Antennas
  • Micro base station
  • RF (radio frequency) modules

Network Construction

  • Core Network
  • Bearer network
  • Transmission network

Network planning and maintenance


(Carrier Services)

China Mobile

China Unicom

China Telecom

China Broadcasting

5G is Arriving Now

From the View of Output Structure, the Driving Forces for Output Growth Follow the Deepening and Successive Conversions of 5G Commercial Processes

End-user spending and telecom services spending from users and other industries continued to grow. It is estimated that by 2025, these two expenditures will be 1.4 trillion and 0.7 trillion RMB respectively, accounting for 64% of (5G’s) total direct economic output.

Operators will carry out network construction on a large scale, and equipment manufacturers' revenue from 5G network equipment investment will become the main source of 5G’s direct economic output. It is estimated that in 2020, the total revenue of network equipment and terminal equipment will be approximately RMB 450 billion, accounting for 94% of the total direct economic output.

Internet companies and 5G-related information services revenues have grown significantly, becoming the main source of direct output.

It is estimated that in 2030, Internet information service revenue will reach 2.6 trillion RMB, accounting for 42% of (5G’s) direct economic output.




5G Initial Commercial Use

5G is Arriving Now

5G Mid-stage Commercial Use

5G Mid-Late Stage Commercial Use

5G Main System Architecture

(1)The Core is Network Deployment

Frequency expansion

Nodes get more dense

Increase in peak speeds

800M-900M 2.3G-2.6G



Current spectrum

6G – 100G


5G spectrum

Massive MIMO(large arrays of atennas)


Distance between nodes


Distance between nodes

Ultra Dense Network

Spectrum at High Frequency

二、5G Main System Architecture

China Telecommunications Operators 5G Bands

二、5G Main System Architecture

China Mobile

China Telecom

China Unicom

Important slide

5G Three Highlights (1):millimeter wave (mmWave)

二、5G Main System Architecture

5G Three Highlights (2):Micro-base Stations OR Small Cell OR Miniature Base Stations

二、5G Main System Architecture

Ultra Dense Network (超密集组网)

二、5G Main System Architecture

5G Three Highlights (3):Multiple Antennas

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二、5G Main System Architecture

Massive MIMO(大规模天线)

  • Full consideration of future compatibility
  • Flexible, configurable system implementation
  • Unified design for high and low frequencies

Design standards

Pre 5G



As the number of antennas increases, noise and interference trends toward zero

64 Antennas

8 Antennas


二、5G Main System Architecture

(2)Enabled by edge computing

Mobile edge computing (MEC)

  • provides IT service environment and cloud capabilities in close proximity to the mobile user's location;
  • pushes content close to the user's side (e.g. to a base station);
  • applications, services and content are all deployed in highly distributed environments;
  • able to better support low latency and high bandwidth service requirements in 5G networks.

二、5G Main System Architecture

Application-Specific Network Slicing

Network function

Network function instance

Shared network function





slice B instance #1



slice A instance #2

4 3

slice A instance #1

Network Slice Template Repository



slice template A








slice template B

Network as a service

Application layer


Mobile Edge Computing

Connected car


Different application scenarios require different combinations of network functions to produce different network slices.

High-bandwidth, low-latency services require services to be terminated at the edge of the network to generate edge network slices.

二、5G Main System Architecture

Flexible and adaptable network structure——different task scenarios are handled by different network slices

同时支持各种 支持面向客户 差异化场景 的业务模式

支持业务快速 支持更高性能 建立和修改





(3)Industry application is the main game

二、5G Main System Architecture

二、5G Main System Architecture

5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

AI is already everywhere

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

Defining AI

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

AI trends through time

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

Deep Learning has brought about genuine “intelligentization”

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning and deep learning comparison

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

Could AI write a script?

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

Can AI look after the elderly?

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

AI’s technological core: algorithms

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

AI’s base requirements: computing and data (cloud computing and big data)

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

How did AlphaGo do it?


AI has Once Again Received Attention from all Societal Domains


To think through with Elsa: is this a reference to a bunch of national projects happening under the surface?

In July 2017, the State Council released the “New Generation Artificial Intelligence Plan”


Six key tasks

Key tasks

Construct an open, collaborative AI tech innovation system

Build an extensive, safe and highly-efficient intelligent infrastructure system

Strengthen military-civilian integration in AI fields

Plan a new generation of major AI projects


Cultivate a high-end, highly efficient smart economy

Build a safe and convenient smart society

Developing a smart economy(1)

Smart software and hardware

Smart delivery tools

Smart robots

Basic IoT devices


VR and AR

Smart terminals

Smart service robots: from sorting and handling, to delivery

Anhui Post’s “little yellow men” were Anhui’s first automatic robotic sorting system


Smart drones: Amazon applies AI to logistics


VR device applications


IoT sensors: aircraft engine


Accelerate industrial intelligent upgrade

Developing a smart economy(2)


Fig 1-27

Smart agriculture


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Smart agriculture machinery


Smart breeding


Smart logistics


Smart finance

Smart finance

Front office

Smart customer service and payments

Middle office

Smart risk control, investment advice and research

Back office

Smart data


Facial recognition 4.0


Machine identification











Intelligent recognition

The facial recognition process






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The 4 stages of intelligent risk management

  • Network behavior data
  • Cooperating third-party data
  • Public data
  • Authorisation data
  • User transaction data
  • User preference data
  • Other data

Data collection

Behavioral modeling

User profile

Risk verification

  • Application model
  • Behavior monitoring model
  • Fraud model
  • Default model
  • Debt collection model
  • Text mining
  • Machine learning
  • Cluster analysis
  • Natural language processing
  • Predictive algorithms
  • Basic information
  • Purchasing power
  • Consumption habits
  • Propensity to consume
  • Social network
  • Behavioral characteristics


Developing a smart economy(3)

Develop smart enterprises

Promote the application of smart factories

Accelerate the cultivation of industry-leading AI enterprises

Promote the intelligent upgrade of enterprises on a large scale


Developing a smart economy(4)

Establish national AI hackerspaces

Establish national AI industrial parks

Pilot demonstration for applying AI innovation


Build a smart society (1)

Smart education

Smart medical treatment

Smart health and aged care


AI will have a prominent place in the classroom in the next 15 years

Stanford University’s “Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030” Report

——AI will have a prominent place in the classroom in the next 15 years


Smart education: lecturer for a sea of knowledge


Smart aged care: housework where no task is too small or tedious


Intensification of Population Aging


Encourage AI-based large-scale R&D and new drug development in genome identification, proteomics, metabolomics etc, promoting the intelligentization of medical management

Intelligent diagnosis and treatment

Surgical robots

Smart hospitals

Smart pharma-


Intelligent medical research

Smart monitoring and prevention

Intelligent image recognition

Surgical robots: doctors who aren’t affected by their mood


Case study:the Da-Vinci surgical robot

Intuitive Surgical, Inc(NASDAQ:ISRG)

Founded in 1995 and publically listed in 2000 at US$10 a stock; now worth US$435 a stock with a total market capitalisation of US$49.3 billion. Revenue exceeded US$2.7 billion in 2016, with net profit of US$740 million. Has completed more than 3.5 million surgeries over the past 15 years, with this number increasing by more than 700,000 every year.


New drug by Japan’s Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co and America’s Proteus Digital Health


In November 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the world's first chip-based "digital drug", saving the US nearly $300 billion annually.


New drug R&D


Building a smart society(2)

Smart governance

Smart courts

Smart cities

Smart traffic

Smart environmental protection

Advance the intelligentization of social governance


Analysis of factors driving smart courts


Application of AI in legal fields


The benefits of smart courts


Smart cities


City 3.0


Smart transport

Fig 2-18


Smart transport: cars that never collide


Intelligent and Connected Vehicle


Vehicle networking divided into three levels


Smart environmental protection


Building a Smart Society(3)

Advance the deepening of AI applications in the field of public safety. Promote the construction of public safety and intelligent monitoring and early warning and control systems. Research and develop a variety of detection sensor technology, video image information analysis and identification technology, biometric identification technology, intelligent security and police products. Establish intelligent monitoring platform for comprehensive community management, new criminal investigations, anti-terrorism, and other urgent needs. Strengthen the upgrading and intelligentization of security equipment for key public areas. Support carrying out public security regional demonstrations based on AI according to the conditions of the community or the city. Strengthen the use of AI for food safety protection, food classification, warning level, food safety risks and assessment, and the establishment of intelligent food safety early warning system. Strengthen the effective monitoring of natural disasters, natural disasters, around the earthquake disaster, geological disasters, meteorological disasters, floods and disasters and marine disasters and other major natural disasters, to build an intelligent monitoring and early warning and comprehensive response platform.

Use AI to enhance public safety and security capabilities

3. 5G-accelerated Artificial Intelligence

These are snippets from the New Generation AI Plan. I pulled the corresponding sections in Webster, Creemers, Triolo, and Kania’s translation for New America’s DigiChina: https://www.newamerica.org/cybersecurity-initiative/digichina/blog/full-translation-chinas-new-generation-artificial-intelligence-development-plan-2017/

Building a Smart Society(4)

Give full play to the role of AI technology in enhancing social interaction and promoting credible communication. Strengthen the next generation of social network research and development, accelerate innovation in augmented reality, virtual reality, and other technologies to promote the integrative use of virtual environments and physical environments to meet personal perception, analysis, judgment and decision-making real-time information needs, and to achieve the smooth transition of different scenes of work, study, life, and entertainment. In order to improve the interpersonal communication needs, develop intelligent assistant products with the ability to accurately understand the needs of emotional interaction. Promote the integration of blockchain technology and AI, establish a new social credit system, and minimize the cost and risks of interpersonal communication.


These are snippets from the New Generation AI Plan. I pulled the corresponding sections in Webster, Creemers, Triolo, and Kania’s translation for New America’s DigiChina: https://www.newamerica.org/cybersecurity-initiative/digichina/blog/full-translation-chinas-new-generation-artificial-intelligence-development-plan-2017/

Society 5.0 Intelligent Society


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5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing





4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

Future theme of manufacturing development :Promote innovation and development in manufacturing

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

“Three step” strategy to building a manufacturing power in 30 years

Strive to use this decade to enter the ranks of manufacturing powers.

By 2035, China's overall manufacturing industry will have reached the mid-level of the camp of world manufacturing powers

100 year since the founding of the PRC, its status as a major manufacturing power will be further strengthened and its comprehensive strength will enter the front ranks of the world’s manufacturing powers.

First decade

Second decade

Third decade

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

9 Major Tasks

  • Increase the innovative capabilities of the country’s manufacturing industry
  • Push forward the deep integration of information technology and industrialization
  • Strengthen the fundamental capabilities of industry
  • Strengthen the construction of quality brands
  • Comprehensively push forward green manufacturing
  • Make a big effort to emphasize breakthrough developments in various domains
  • Deepen and push forward adjustments to the structure of the manufacturing industry
  • Actively develop service-oriented manufacturing and production services
  • Increase the international development experience of the manufacturing industry

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

10 Major Domains of Emphasis

A new generation information and communication technology industry

Aerospace equipment

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

Advanced rail transit equipment

Electric equipment

New materials

High-end CNC machine tools and robots

Marine engineering equipment and high-tech ships

Energy efficient and new energy vehicles

Agricultural machinery and equipment

Biomedical and high performance medical devices

CNC = numerically controlled

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

Main Direction: Advance Smart Manufacturing

By 2020, intelligent level in major manufacturing areas will significantly increase. The operating cost of pilot demonstration projects will decrease by 30%. Production cycles will decrease by 30% and faulty product rates will decrease by 30%. By 2025, major manufacturing areas will become fully digitalized. Operation costs of pilot demonstration projects will decrease by 50%. Production cycle will decrease by 50% and faulty product rates will decrease by 50%. 0%。

Focus on key links in major manufacturing areas to carry out integrated innovation and industry applications of next generation IT and manufacturing equipment.

Support collaborative research and industrialization of smart products and equipment.

Rely on strong enterprises to focus on key technologies, such as replacing people with robots in key positions, intelligent process control in production, supply chain optimization, and intelligent plants.

Classify and make pilot demonstrations to promote manufacturing technology, discrete manufacturing, intelligent equipment and products, new formats and models, intelligent management, and intelligent services.

Build intelligent manufacturing standard system and information security system and set up an intelligent manufacturing network system platform.


Language from this English translation of Made in China 2025: http://www.cittadellascienza.it/cina/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/IoT-ONE-Made-in-China-2025.pdf

The Composition of Smart Manufacturing Technology

  • The essence is to create a "smart factory" based on 5G to achieve "information physical integration"
  • The core is based on 5G to achieve intelligent configuration of production methods
  • The key is the next generation of information technology applications such as 5G

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

(1)The essence is to use 5G to realize “data-physical integration” and build the “Industrial Internet”



CPS (cyber-physical system)


System communications

Data calculations

Physical control


Cyber-physical system

physical system

Cyber system

Operational control

Data and sensors

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing



4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing



计算(Computing, cloud computing, etc)

社群(Community, coordinated collaboration)


(Customization, personalization)

控 制 (Control, sensors, actuators, etc


5G and other wireless communications

内容(Content, semantic analysis)

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

Industrial Internet

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

Strengthen Competitiveness

Increase flexibility (text in circle)

Achieve mass customization to meet market demand in uncertain situations and improve production scheduling management

Improve Productivity (text in circle)

This is the root of strengthening competitiveness. It includes improving energy and resource efficiency, etc.

Shorten time-to-market for products (text in circle)

Shorten the innovation cycle, address product complexity, and leverage the mining and analysis of big data

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

(2)The core achieving intelligent configurations of production methods based on 5G

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

Changes in automobile production lines

The BMW Car Case:The Factory of the Future ——Robots Control Everything

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing

(3) The key is the application of next-generation information technology such as 5G



Product development

Buyer interactions

Logistics transactions


Value chain coordinates





Product-services coordinates




Seller interactions


Data Exchange

4. 5G Boost for Smart Manufacturing



5G Empowering AI and Smart Manufacturing ENGLISH TRANSLATION - Google Slides