French and Indian War

a.k.a Seven Years War

Who is at War?

French and Native Americans vs. British Colonists and Britain

France and Great Britain rivals in the New World – at dispute, the land in the Ohio River Valley

French Colonists in New World

  • Fur Traders

  • Priests

  • Single men/not permanent settlers/no families

  • On friendly terms with natives because they

helped them with finding animals

What is the issue?

As French empire grows it collides with British – the dispute comes over what is now modern-day Pittsburgh

French build Fort Duquense at same spot where British granted land to wealthy planters

The VA government sends citizens, led by 22 year old George Washington to evict the French – the French refuse to leave

Quick overview of War

Washington builds Fort Necessity, 40 miles from Fort Duquense

May 1754 – Washington attacks French soldiers, French counterattack (and by July, Washington surrenders)

France has many early victories until 1759 when the tide of the war is turned. William Pitt took over the British army and they began winning battles. When it looks like the British are going to win, the Native Americans switch allegiances and join the British.

British victory at Quebec wins the war

Result of War

Treaty of Paris 1763

- Great Britain claimed all land east of Mississippi River

- Spain received French lands west of the Mississippi River

- France kept control of a few islands

- Britain faces new problems with Native Americans:

Pontiac attempts a rebellion

British send smallpox infected blankets to 2 tribes which completely wipe them out.

Proclamation of 1763

In order to prevent further conflicts with Native Americans, England draws a line that the colonists cannot cross

England cannot afford another war and wants to keep peace with the Native Americans

England and Colonies Grow Apart

  • Because of the previous policy of salutary neglect, the colonists already felt less loyalty to Great Britain than they had in the past

  • Proclamation upset colonists – they felt the British did not care about their needs

  • French and Indian War left Britain in a lot of debt:
    • To pay off debt, they taxed the colonists (Sugar Tax)
    • Idea was that they had to pay for the British army to defend the colonists’ land

  • British began cracking down on smuggling

French and Indian War Overview - Google Slides