MLA 8 Works Cited

  • Author(s): who created the source?
  • Title of Source: what did the author(s) name the source?
  • Title of Container: what is the name of the larger source that hosts the source?
  • Other Contributors: who helped the author(s) create the source, and what was their role?
  • Version: if the source was released multiple times, which version is this?
  • Number: if the source is part of a sequence, which number is this?
  • Publisher: what organization is responsible for publishing the source?
  • Publication Date: when was the source published?
  • Location: what is the specific address for the source (such as page numbers or a URL)?

ANOTHER CONTAINER?

Sometimes a source is nested within more than one container. For example, an article in a journal (Container 1) accessed through a database (Container 2), or an episode in a TV series (Container 1) accessed through a streaming service such as Netflix (Container 2). End the first container with a period, then go through steps 3-9 again, adding any available information about the second container:

NOW WHAT?

Once you gather the information above, list the core elements as shown below to create a works cited entry. The following pages of this handout will help you to format each core element correctly and create a Works Cited list/page.

Author(s). Title of Source. Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location. Title of Container 2, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.

For each source referenced in academic writing, you need to create a detailed works cited entry including as many as nine core elements required by the Modern Language Association (MLA guidelines). For an accessible version, view this text document: http://bit.ly/mla8workscited2.

Article

Journal

Database

Source

Container 1

Container 2

Episode

TV Series

Streaming Service

Source

Container 1

Container 2

=

=

=

=

=

=

Graphics provided by Emma Mitchell, Martin, UNiCORN, Guru, Hea Poh Lin,

Jenie Tomboc, Aybige, Gregor Cresnar, and Adrien Coquet from the Noun Project.

1 AUTHOR(S)

who created the source?

2 TITLE OF SOURCE

what did the author(s)

name the source?

3 TITLE OF CONTAINER

where did the author(s)

post it?

One: Doe, Jane.

Two: Doe, Jane, and John Smith.

Three or more: Doe, Jane, et al.

No individuals?

Look for a possible corporate author: United Nations.

Look for an editor (didn’t write the content, but assembled it): Doe, Jane, editor.

Minor title, like an article, web page, or chapter in a book: “How Things Work.” (Notice how the period goes inside of the quotation marks).

Major title, like a book, website, or movie: How Things Work.

If you are citing a chapter of a book, the book is its container: MLA Handbook, (*use italics for these titles)

If you are citing a web page, the website is its container: Modern Language Association,

If you are citing a journal article, the journal is its container: The Journal of Higher Education,

.

.

,

4 OTHER CONTRIBUTORS

who helped the

author(s) create it?

5 VERSION

is the source released in more than one form?

6 NUMBER

is the source part of

a sequence?

translated by Joe Blow,

edited by Sarah Lee, (*for multiple, format similar to authors)

created by James Brown, performance by Ray Thomas,

7th ed.,

expanded ed.,

revised ed.,

director’s cut,

Authorized King James Version,

Volume: vol. 2,

Issue: no. 17,

(*use commas if there are multiple)

season 4, episode 10, or

vol. 2, no. 17,

,

,

,

7 PUBLISHER

what organization published the source?

8 PUBLICATION DATE

when was the source published?

9 LOCATION

what is the address for the source?

If you’ve already listed the publisher as the author, delete the author and name the publisher here.

Book: Oxford University Press,

Book: Penguin Press,

Movie: Twentieth Century Fox,

Website: Scientific American Blogs,

If you can find the year: 2016,

If you can find the year, month, and day: 10 Aug. 2016,

Other: Spring 2012,

If there is no publication date, list an access date after #9.

One page: p. 12.

Page range: pp. 12-37.

Website URL: www.npr.org. (*REQUIRED when available)

DVD disc number: disc 3.

(*use commas if there are multiple)

If you need to include the access date after #9: Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

,

,

.

How should the core elements be formatted?

3 TITLE OF CONTAINER

where did the author(s)

post it?

4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

9 LOCATION

what is the address for the source?

An article in a journal (Container 1) accessed through a database (Container 2): ProQuest,

An episode in a TV series (Container 1) accessed through a streaming service (Container 2): Netflix,

For second containers, these core elements are uncommon, but sometimes present. Use the formatting guidelines on the previous page, if needed. Separate elements with commas.

One page: p. 12.

Page range: pp. 12-37.

Website URL: www.npr.org. (*REQUIRED when available)

DVD disc number: disc 3.

(*use commas if there are multiple)

If you need to include the access date after #9: Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.

,

, , , , ,

.

Another container?

IMPORTANT TIPS OVERALL:


Lighten up, and leave it blank!
If information does not exist for one of the core elements, that’s okay; maybe the source doesn't have an author, for example. Move on to the next core element, gathering as much information as possible.


Don’t be a broken record!!
If information for two core elements is the same (for example, author and publisher), don’t repeat yourself! Decide which core element fits best. For example, YouTube doesn’t really publish videos as much as it contains them- go with #3 (Container)!


Get creative!
The MLA 8 handbook says that this style “focuses on the writer’s decision making” and that “principles might vary according to context.” In other words, gather everything you can about the source that is easy to find, and then search for the “luxurious details” in order to further understand the quality of your own sources and convey that quality to readers.

MAKE YOUR OWN CITATION:

Works Cited

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. The New Press, 2012.

Bucic, Tania, et al. "Ethical Consumers among the Millennials: A Cross-National Study." Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 110, no. 1, 2012, pp. 113-131. ProQuest, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1151-z.

Cain, Susan. “The Power of Introverts.” TED Talks, TED Conferences, LLC, Feb. 2012, www.ted.com/talks/susan_cain_the_power_of_introverts?language=en?utm_source=tedcomshare&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=tedspread.

“Charity Organization List.” Aid for Africa, 2017, www.aidforafrica.org/member-charities/all-members/.

Ed Wood. Directed by Tim Burton, performances by Johnny Depp, Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Patricia Arquette. 1994.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Complete Fourth Season, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, episode 10, WB Television Network, 2003, disc 3.

More, Hannah. “The Black Slave Trade: A Poem.” British Women Poets of the Romantic Era, edited by Paula R. Feldman, John Hopkins UP, 1997, pp. 472-82.

More, Hannah. The Fatal Falsehood: A Tragedy. 1799. Project Gutenberg, 29 May 2011, http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/36257#download.

Plummer, Laura and Michael Nelson. “‘Girls Can Take Care of Themselves’: Gender and Storytelling in Washington Irving’s ‘The Legend of Sleepy Hollow’.” Studies in Short Fiction, vol. 30, no. 2, 1993, pp. 175-184. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=90&site=ehost-live.

List sources alphabetically

Use a

hanging indentation

SAMPLE

1” margins

double-spaced

Times New Roman, 12 point font

Two sources by the same author

MLA 8 Works Cited Worksheet - Google Slides