Day 1- March 26/27

Unit 4 Project

  • What is a psychological disorder?

What is stress?

  • “The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events (stressors) that we appraise as threatening or challenging”

Negative v. Positive Stress

  • Eustress: positive
    • Can increase sharpness and motivation
    • Keep people alert and involved
  • Distress: negative
    • Intense pressure or anxiety can cause severe psychological and physical effects

What is stressful in your life?

  • Fill out chart
  • Prioritize
  • Compare

Sources of Stress

  • Stressor: event or situation that produces stress


  • Frustration
    • Most common
  • Daily Hassles
    • Everyday annoyances
  • Life Changes
    • Less frequent, big changes that can be from worse to better


  • Approach-approach
    • Least stressful
    • Choices are positive
  • Avoidance-avoidance
    • More stressful
    • “Lesser of two evils”
  • Approach-avoidance
    • Choices are both good and bad at the same time

  • Multiple approach-avoidance conflict
    • Most complex form
    • Each of alternatives has advantages and disadvantages
    • High levels of stress

Ellis’s Ten Doorways

Tuesday’s with Morrie


Day 2- March 28/29

Quiz #17

  • 1. Name one defensive coping method.
  • 2. Self-_________ Expectations are the beliefs people have that they can accomplish goals.
  • 3. How does predictability allow us to reduce stress?
  • BONUS:
  • 4. What is eustress?


  • What are different stressors we talked about?
  • Ellis’s Doorways to Distress
    • How we THINK about events can cause us stress
    • Irrational beliefs can lead to stress and depression

How do you respond to stress?

  • What are physical reactions?
  • Psychological reactions?
  • What makes something more stressful than other things?

Depends on what the event means to the person involved

  • Those who are more relaxed are less likely to become sick when experiencing prolonged stress.


  • Inherit tendency to develop stress-related health issues


  • These influence the effects of stress:
    • Self-efficacy expectations
    • Psychological hardiness
    • Sense of humor
    • Predictability
    • Social support

Self-Efficacy Expectations

  • Beliefs people have that they can accomplish goals
    • “I think I can, I think I can”

    • Related to self-confidence
      • Higher self-confidence will experience less panic and nervousness

Psychological Hardiness

  • Helps people endure stress

  • The 3 “C”s
    • Commitment
      • Stress is a motivation
    • Challenge
      • Change is interesting
    • Control
      • Did not feel helpless

Sense of Humor

  • Humor lightens burdens of life
  • Laughing can ease physical pain


  • Ability to predict a stressor reduces amount of stress it will cause
  • Brace yourself for the stressor and plan on how to deal with it

Social Support

  • Other people help in coping with stress
  • People who are alone have a higher chance of getting sick under stressful situations
  • How can you provide this support?

Ways to Support

  • Express concern
    • Listen , sympathize, understand
  • Provide physical relief
    • Material support, financial assistance, food
  • Offer information
    • Advice
  • Provide feedback
    • Help them understand situation
  • Socialize
    • Help them feel less isolated


  • What are some experiences you’ve had with this?
    • Exercise/conditioning programs?
    • Diets?
    • Depression?
    • Support groups?
    • Moving to different area?

Coping with Stress

  • Defensive coping: one way to reduce the immediate effects of a stressor (but it’s NOT the most desirable way)
    • Does not get rid of the stressor
    • In the long run, these are more harmful

Substance Abuse

  • Alcohol
  • Tranquilizers
  • Attempt to decrease awareness of the stressor


  • Violence
  • Never provides a solution
  • Can make stressor worse sometimes


  • Remove self from the stressful situation because they are scared, feel helpless
  • Can be emotional (turn away from friends/family) or physical (moving)


  • Ultimate form of withdrawal
  • Believe that there is no way out
  • Does not solve or reduce problems- increases them for those left behind

Defense Mechanisms

  • Protect ego from anxiety

Active Coping

  • Involves changing the environment or situation to remove stressors OR changing response to stress so that those stressors aren’t harmful

Stressful Thoughts

  • “I feel like I’m losing control”
  • “This will never end”
  • “How can I go out there?”
  • “There’s nothing I can do.”
  • “It doesn’t matter how hard I try.”
  • “Things will never get better.”

  • STOP! These increase the amount of stress you have!

Recognize and Change

  • Relax
    • Meditation
    • Biofeedback
    • Progressive Relaxation!

  • Exercise!
Psych- Stress Day 1 - Google Slides