England Explores and Colonizes

Chapter 7

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John Cabot

Born as Giovanni Caboto, John Cabot was Portuguese born. He was an ambitious man looking for adventure. He moved his family to Bristol, England where he petitioned Henry VII to explore for a north passage.

After five weeks of travel, Cabot finds “new found land” or the east coast of Canada. Today we know it as Newfoundland.

Why was the Northwest Passage such an important goal for exploration?

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Cabot continued.

He looked for the Northwest passage and allowed England to lay claim to North America.

He did not bring back spices but brought back baskets of fish - cod. His discovery began the fishing industry off of the North American coast.

On his second trip, he took five ships but was never heard from again.

The cod was a huge industry for the New England coast.

Cabot

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NWP Today

2007 was the first time that ships were able to use the Northwest Passage without an ice breaker in 2007.

Sir Francis Drake

Hero or villain?

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Sir Francis Drake

As a young man, Drake’s ship was attacked and robbed by Spanish sailors. This experience shaped his whole life.

Drake became a pirate (or privateer) and crisscrossed the Atlantic Ocean looting (robbing) Spanish and Portuguese ships.

In 1577, Drake sets out to circumnavigate the globe. He uses the knowledge of a navigator that he captured in a raid. The trip lasts 3 years.

Known as:

  • sea captain,
  • privateer,
  • slave trader,
  • naval officer,
  • and explorer

John Hawkins, Drake’s second cousin is the model of the pirate image and slave trader. Supposedly the first Englishman to make money off of the slave trade.

Draw what you picture a pirate might look like.

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Draw what you picture a privateer might look like.

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European expansion over the centuries

European expansion over the centuries

European expansion over the centuries

European expansion over the centuries

Why was colonization such a big deal to Europe?

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British Empire

The Genius of Queen Elizabeth I

Spain and Portugal put pressure on Queen Elizabeth to return Drakes plunder and hang him.

Queen Elizabeth responds by knighting Drake. She tell the French that she will marry the French King’s brother.

This way she has France as an ally

She uses Drake’s plunder to increase England’s Empire

AGAINST

The sun never set on the English Empire

Write what does the expression, “The sun never set on the English Empire” mean? You have three minutes to answer.

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Elizabeth and the Spanish Armada

Spanish

Armada

Spain is determined to bring England to its knees. Spain believed England was rightfully Spanish through the marriage of Mary I and King Phillip of Spain.

Spain also wanted revenge for Queen Elizabeth’s support of Drake.

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What were some English battle tactics against the Spanish Armada.

Fire Boats

Smaller, faster boats

Chains

Wind and Weather

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