HTAV

Unit 2: Global Empires

Ashley Keith Pratt

All resources avilable at: ashleypratt.net/history-education/

Introductions

Study Design

Key inquiry questions

Challenges of Empires

  • How did indigenous peoples resist colonisation?
  • To what extent did settler societies obey the mother country?
  • How did colonial interests clash?
  • How had global power relations changed by the end of the Early Modern era?

Key knowledge

  • Methods of colonial control of indigenous people and direct and indirect resistance by indigenous people and the consequences of such resistance
  • Differing concepts of identity within settler societies, such as tensions between loyalists and those seeking autonomy or independence, and tensions between indigenous people and ways to respond to colonisation
  • The financial challenges faced by empires in maintaining colonies such as the cost of maintaining defence, resistance to taxation and ‘illegal’ trade
  • The causes and consequences of conflicts over colonial interests, such as the Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604), the Dutch-Portuguese War (1602-63), territorial disputes over New France and New Spain, and tensions between East India companies

Key knowledge

  • The effectiveness of global empires in maintaining colonial societies, resources and conflicts
  • The relative standing of the major European empires before and after the Seven Years’ War (1756-63) and the international significance of the 1763 Treaty of Paris
  • The emergence by c. 1775 of ideas that came to characterise the modern era, such as reason, liberalism, the social contract, challenges to absolutism and capitalism
  • Key terms and concepts: indigenous resistance, alliances, settler society, identity, loyalism, independence, imperial rivalry, Seven Years’ War and revolutions

Key skills (Historical Thinking)

  • Ask historical questions to inform an inquiry about colonial challenges faced by a global empire
  • Explain the historical significance of ideas that emerged by the end of the period
  • Analyse the causes and consequences of hostilities between global empires
  • Analyse the challenges faced by empires and the effectiveness of methods of colonial control
  • Compare the perspectives of a range of people from the period on colonial identity
  • Explain the beliefs, values and attitudes [ethical dimensions] of people in colonial societies and of the European colonisers
  • Compare historical interpretations of the conflicts over colonial interests
  • Construct arguments about Early Modern imperialism using primary sources and historical interpretations as evidence.
  • [Identify continuity and change]

Classroom Activities

Historical thinking activities

Key Knowledge: Methods of colonial control of indigenous people and direct and indirect resistance by indigenous people and the consequences of such resistance

Key Skill: Compare historical interpretations of the conflicts over colonial interests

Comparing Historical Perspectives

Initially, white colonists viewed Native Americans as helpful and friendly. They welcomed the Natives into their settlements, and the colonists willingly engaged in trade with them. They hoped to transform the tribes people into civilized Christians through their daily contacts. The Native Americans resented and resisted the colonists' attempts to change them. Their refusal to conform to European culture angered the colonists and hostilities soon broke out between the two groups. The violence of their confrontations with the Native Americans resulted in a shift of English attitudes towards other races. Colonists blames their failure to assimilate the Native Americans into their culture on racial differences and began to associate all people of color with negative characteristics.

From "White Man to Redskin" (1982) by Alden T. Vaughan

Comparing Historical Perspectives

Some Native American tribes embraced the English and their culture because doing so brought them prestige , wealth, and a strong military ally. They participated in English society by adopting their traditional skills to meet the military needs of the colonists. At the same time, many tribes became dependent on their white allies to maintain power over their tribal enemies. The two groups maintained peaceful relations as long as the Native Americans conformed to English social and religious practices. King Philip's War marked a turning point in the colonists' acceptance of Native Americans; they appreciated the success of their Native allies, but they also feared it. Their distrust of the "friendly" tribes resulted in policies of segregation and discriminatory laws.

From "The Search for a Usable Indian" (1977) by Richard R. Johnson

Fur traders in Canada, trading with Indians (1777).

William Faden [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Student Activity

Source analysis

Historical thinking activities

Key Knowledge: Differing concepts of identity within settler societies, such as tensions between loyalists and those seeking autonomy or independence, and tensions between indigenous people and ways to respond to colonisation

Key Skill: Compare historical interpretations of the conflicts over colonial interests

Comparing Historical Perspectives

The colonists were losing their English identity by the eve of the American Revolution. Decades of domestic conflict and neglect by the British government forced the colonists to develop strategies for self government. The long distances and lack of communication between the colonies contributed to the development of separate identities. The uniqueness of the American frontier also encouraged the the development of an independent spirit; men and women wanted to be free of English regulations so they could devote more time to the improvement of their farms and businesses. Finally, the arrival of increasing numbers of immigrants from Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and Germany helped reduce the influence of the British government on the colonies just prior to the war.

From The First American Revolution: The American Colonies on the Eve of the Revolution (1953) by Clinton Rossiter

Comparing Historical Perspectives

On the eve of the American Revolution, a majority of the colonists considered themselves to be English. In fact, the colonists accepted and used English laws, followed the forms and procedures of the British government when creating their own local legislatures, and shared the same religious beliefs and social practices as their English counterparts. Although the American frontier offered new experiences and challenges to those people living in the colonies, there was a basic unity that linked the English and the Americans.

From The Coming of the Revolution, 1763-1775 (1954) by Lawrence Henry Gipson

Student Activity

Source analysis

Historical thinking activities

Key Knowledge: The relative standing of the major European empires before and after the Seven Years’ War (1756-63) and the international significance of the 1763 Treaty of Paris

The causes and consequences of conflicts over colonial interests, such as the Anglo-Spanish War (1585-1604), the Dutch-Portuguese War (1602-63), territorial disputes over New France and New Spain, and tensions between East India companies

Key Skill: Compare historical interpretations of the conflicts over colonial interests

Comparing Historical Perspectives

At mid-century, when it came to be realized that North American colonists were purchasing vast quantities of British manufactured goods and that the trade fostered a large shipping traffic, influential members of the public began to think that these colonies of settlement ought to be allowed to expand. The French possessions to the north and west of them should not, therefore, be allowed to stand in the way of their growth.

Daniel A Baugh, The Global Seven Years War 1754-1763, 2014 p. 4

Comparing Historical Perspectives

While it would appear that Great Britain was the chief victor of the conflict [the Seven Years War], the war’s costs would have a more lasting impact than its victories… The cost of war and the garrisoning of the newly won colonies caused Britain significant financial problems, and the British government alienated the 13 North American colonies when it closed the lands newly gained by the Treaty of Paris to colonial settlers. The colonies felt they had a right to settle in these areas, and were further annoyed when the British government stipulated that the colonies pay for part of the protection that was now necessary in the region.

Daniel Marston, The Seven Years’ War, 2001 p. 91

Student Activity

Source analysis

Historical thinking activities

Key Knowledge: The causes and consequences of conflicts over colonial interests...

Key Skill: Analyse the causes and consequences of hostilities between global empires

Student Activity

The Seven Years’ War - Cause and Consequence

Historical thinking activities

Key Knowledge: The relative standing of the major European empires before and after the Seven Years’ War (1756-63) and the international significance of the 1763 Treaty of Paris

Key Skill: Explain the historical significance of ideas that emerged by the end of the period

Student Activity

Summary activity - Historical significance

Resources

Resources

Resources

Virtual Reality Resources

What you need:

  • Smartphone
  • Google Cardboard
  • Google Street View App (search for ‘Jamestown, VA’)

Assessment

Assessment

Assessment tasks over Units 1 and 2 should include the following:

  • A historical inquiry
  • An analysis of primary sources
  • An analysis of historical interpretations
  • An essay

Q&A

Global Empires Unit 2 AOS 2 - Google Slides