Just Say Know: Cocaine

Presented by

Students for Sensible Drug Policy

[YOUR SCHOOL NAME HERE]

2016

DISCLAIMERS

YOU TELL US:

What would you like to get out of this program?

GROUND RULES

Compare with...

INSERT: Rates of use amongst campus (ask campus health services for this information).

Compare with...

Percent of students reporting use of cocaine and crack cocaine in the past year

Compare with...

Percent of adults reporting use of cocaine in the past year

Compare with...

Percent of adults reporting use of crack cocaine in the past year

YOU TELL US:

Why do you think people use this drug?

Positive Effects

  • Mood lift, euphoria
  • Mental and physical stimulation
  • Sexual thoughts and sensations
  • Increased sociability, talkativeness
  • Reduced altitude sickness
  • Reduced physical fatigue
  • Powerful euphoric rush (smoked / IV)

Learn more at Erowid Cocaine Vault

Neutral Effects

  • Local anaesthesia, numbness
    • Medical value
  • Increased heart rate, blood pressure & body temperature
  • Dilated pupils
  • General change in consciousness
  • Appetite suppression

Learn more at Erowid Cocaine Vault

YOU TELL US:

What kinds of harms can be caused by drugs?

Negative Effects

  • Desire to do more cocaine
  • Nasal and back of throat drip, numbness when snorted
  • Dry mouth
  • Sensation of throat closing up when snorted
  • Tolerance, habituation, psychological addiction
  • Insomnia
  • Emotional lability, rapid changes in mood
  • Anxiety, panic
  • Annoyance, agitation, anger
  • Paranoia, fear
  • Tachycardia, feeling over stimulated
  • Shaking

Learn more at Erowid Cocaine Vault

EMERGENCY

What does a cocaine emergency/overdose look like?

Agitation, hostility, hallucinations, convulsions, high body temperature (hyperthermia), heart arrhythmias, stroke, heart attack

What should you do?

Dose conservatively

Drink water

Use a personal & clean item for snorting

Call 911

Long Term Effects

  • Restlessness
  • Anxiety
  • Hyperexcitability
  • Paranoia
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Weight loss
  • When snorted
    • Damage the cartilage and mucosa in the nose
    • Lead to holes in the septum
  • When injected
    • Spread of infections and diseases

Harm Reduction

Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies and ideas aimed at reducing negative consequences associated with drug use.

Harm Reduction is also a movement for social justice built on a belief in, and respect for, the rights of people who use drugs.

INSERT LOGO OF LOCAL HARM REDUCTION ORGANIZATION HERE

Source: http://harmreduction.org/about-us/principles-of-harm-reduction/

Principles of Harm Reduction

Accepts, for better and or worse, that licit and illicit drug use is part of our world and chooses to work to minimize its harmful effects rather than simply ignore or condemn them.

Understands drug use as a complex, multi-faceted phenomenon that encompasses a continuum of behaviors from severe abuse to total abstinence, and acknowledges that some ways of using drugs are clearly safer than others.

Does not attempt to minimize or ignore the real and tragic harm and danger associated with licit and illicit drug use.

Establishes quality of individual and community life and well-being–not necessarily cessation of all drug use–as the criteria for successful interventions and policies.

Source: http://harmreduction.org/about-us/principles-of-harm-reduction/

Principles of Harm Reduction

Calls for the non-judgmental, non-coercive provision of services and resources to people who use drugs and the communities in which they live in order to assist them in reducing attendant harm.

Ensures that drug users and those with a history of drug use routinely have a real voice in the creation of programs and policies designed to serve them.

Affirms drugs users themselves as the primary agents of reducing the harms of their drug use, and seeks to empower users to share information and support each other in strategies which meet their actual conditions of use.

Recognizes that the realities of poverty, class, racism, social isolation, past trauma, sex-based discrimination and other social inequalities affect both people’s vulnerability to and capacity for effectively dealing with drug-related harm.

Source: http://harmreduction.org/about-us/principles-of-harm-reduction/

YOU TELL US:

What are some ways to reduce harm?

DRUG, SET, & SETTING

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Know what you are taking.

Consider the source. Same dealer? Unknown dealer? Pharmaceutical?

Dose conservatively.

Consider the route of administration.

Consider the drug’s timeline.

Use your own equipment/try to keep your own supplies on hand.

Consider addiction, tolerance and withdrawal potential.

Learn about drug combinations.

Reagent Testing: Cocaine

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sO3NQfWS4qw

How to check for adulterants in cocaine

  • Cocaine is known to be highly adulterated!
  • Drug checking kits available from bunkpolice.com or dancesafe.org can help
  • The Mandelin Test Kit is used to check for cocaine
    • Actual cocaine will react quickly, and turns a bright, deep orange color
  • The Marquis Test Kit can be used to check for adulterants found in cocaine that are not detected with the Mandelin kit
    • This checking kit can identify common cocaine adulterants, such as methamphetamine, which has commonly been found in cocaine samples.
    • Additionally, Marquis can check for amphetamine and cathinones (“bath salts”), among others that cannot be detected with the Mandelin kit alone
    • Actual cocaine will be clear when checked with Marquis. If it is not clear, there’s something else in your sample.

http://bunkpolice.com/advanced-testing-information/

Common adulterants found in “cocaine”

Just Say Know: Cocaine

Cocaine hydrochloride

AKA

Coke, Blow, Snow, White, Nose Candy, Crack

Drug Class: Euphoric Stimulant

History and Origin

  • 3000 BC - Coca leaves are chewed throughout South America
  • 1859 - Cocaine extracted as active ingredient in coca plants
  • 1862 - Merck produces ¼ pound of cocaine
  • 1906 - Pure Food and Drug Act is passed, regulating the labelling of products containing Alcohol, Opiates, Cocaine, and Cannabis, among others
  • 1916 - The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act is passed, regulating and imposing a tax upon the sale of Opium, Heroin and Cocaine
    • Wrongly categorizes cocaine as a narcotic

History and Origin

  • 1970 - Cocaine classified as Schedule II drug in the Controlled Substances Act
    • Schedule II: High potential for abuse, some medical value with restrictions on medical uses
  • 1976 - Freebase cocaine first developed
  • 1985 - The NY Times becomes first major media outlet to use the term “crack cocaine,” fueling the label of an “epidemic”
  • 1986 & 1988 - Anti-Drug Abuse Acts determined a crack to powder cocaine ratio of 100:1 to trigger a mandatory minimum sentence
  • 2010 - Fair Sentencing Act reduces sentencing disparity from 100:1 to 18:1
  • 2011 - U.S. Sentencing Commission allows FSA Guidelines to be applied to those sentenced before law was enacted

Comparing Cocaine & Crack Cocaine

Cocaine vs. Crack cocaine

  • The actual chemical effects of crack vs. powder cocaine are not different.
    • However, the chemical makeup of the substances differs slightly
  • The onset and peak effects occur faster when the substance is inhaled (smoked) as one does when using crack.
    • Thus, the user gets a more intense “high” than if the same amount of cocaine were snorted
  • Powder cocaine can also be injected, which would result in a similarly quick onset/peak/duration as if using crack.
  • The results inhalation and injection is a quick and intense high that wears off quickly, and is thus very reinforcing.
    • Leads users to repeat doses, or binge in order to repeat the high.
    • This pattern of use makes users that inhale or inject more vulnerable to the addictive potential of the drug

http://www.attn.com/stories/2643/crack-vs-cocaine

Cocaine

Form: Cocaine is the active ingredient in the coca plant, in hydrochloride salt form (cocaine HCL) extracted and processed into a powder for snorting

  • As a salt, it is soluble in water, and thus can be dissolved or melted for injection

Color: Pure cocaine is a white, pearlescent color, but is often cut with adulterants that mimic this color

Strength: Cocaine produces its stimulant effect within minutes, and lasts for 15-30 minutes. Because it is short acting, tolerance builds quickly and often leads to high doses being used at one sitting.

  • Injecting cocaine produces a quicker and more intense high, due to the drug getting right into the bloodstream.

http://www.attn.com/stories/2643/crack-vs-cocaine

Crack Cocaine

Form: Crack cocaine is a crystal rock form of cocaine. Cocaine is cooked with other chemicals to create freebase cocaine that can be smoked.

  • It is powder cocaine that has been processed with a base, such as baking soda, to remove the HCL (salt).
  • In its “free base” form cocaine is more lipophilic-- meaning it’s able to be more rapidly absorbed when smoked.

Color: Crack cocaine chunks are usually white like cocaine powder

Strength: Smoking crack cocaine produces its effects within seconds and lasts for about 5-15 minutes. It has a shorter duration than powder cocaine but it produces stronger effects or “rush”.

http://www.attn.com/stories/2643/crack-vs-cocaine

Dr. Carl Hart on Crack vs. Cocaine

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iED6XLT6Yos

How It Works

How It Works

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Know what you are taking.

Consider the source. Same dealer? Unknown dealer? Pharmaceutical?

Dose conservatively.

Consider the route of administration.

Consider the drug’s timeline.

Use your own equipment/try to keep your own supplies on hand.

Consider addiction, tolerance and withdrawal potential.

Learn about drug combinations.

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Dose conservatively.

  • Typical dose is a small line ranging between 30mg to 70mg

Consider the route of administration.

  • Cocaine: Snorted
  • Crack Cocaine: Smoked

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Know what you are taking.

Consider the source. Same dealer? Unknown dealer? Pharmaceutical?

Dose conservatively.

Consider the route of administration.

Consider the drug’s timeline.

Use your own equipment/try to keep your own supplies on hand.

Consider addiction, tolerance and withdrawal potential.

Learn about drug combinations.

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Consider the drug’s timeline.

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Know what you are taking.

Consider the source. Same dealer? Unknown dealer? Pharmaceutical?

Dose conservatively.

Consider the route of administration.

Consider the drug’s timeline.

Use your own equipment/try to keep your own supplies on hand.

Consider addiction, tolerance and withdrawal potential.

Learn about drug combinations.

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Consider dependence potential for cocaine and crack cocaine.

  • Because effects are short lived, it can lead to using too much or too often
  • After the effects wear off, the subsequent crash leaves some users with a desire to use more
  • Many become compulsive when using cocaine, which can create physical and psychological dependence
  • The more frequent or higher doses used results in more extreme highs and lows
  • Because the effects are more intense and shorter lived with crack cocaine, this desire is often stronger

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG

Know what you are taking.

Consider the source. Same dealer? Unknown dealer? Pharmaceutical?

Dose conservatively.

Consider the route of administration.

Consider the drug’s timeline.

Use your own equipment/try to keep your own supplies on hand.

Consider addiction, tolerance and withdrawal potential.

Learn about drug combinations.

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG(s)

+

=

Different drug combinations have different effects.

Cocaine + Alcohol

Combining the two substantially increases the risk of heart and liver damage

Increased dehydration

Reduced inhibitions

Cocaine + Other Stimulants

Includes caffeine, nicotine, MDMA, amphetamines

Increases sleep deprivation and insomnia

Increases risk of heart issues

Cocaine + Psychedelics

Includes LSD, psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, and psychedelic derivitives or research chemicals

Increased anxiety levels

Cocaine + Opiates

Stimulants increase respiratory function

Opiates decrease respiratory function

Leads to someone using higher doses of the opiate, which can cause respiratory arrest when the stimulant effects wear off

Harm reduction as it relates to the DRUG(s)

Different drug combinations have different effects.

For further combo details to include in your presentation, please visit: http://combo.tripsit.me

SET

Know your state of mind.

Take your physical health into account.

Know your tolerance/limits.

Take care of yourself.

SETTING

Consider your immediate setting.

Who are you with?

Where are you?

SETTING

Consider the legal setting.

Harm reduction as it relates to the SETTING

Consider the national legal setting.

  • Cocaine is Schedule II under the Controlled Substances Act
    • High potential for abuse
    • Accepted medical use with severe restrictions
    • Abuse of the drug may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
  • INSERT: State Policy
  • INSERT: Campus Policy

HISTORY

Consider your own personal history.

Consider your family’s history.

Consider the historical context.

Consider the historical context.

  • The War on Drugs affects all demographics, but harms different people differently, depending on the identity/ies they hold.
    • What is your sex/gender?
    • What is your race?
    • What is your socioeconomic status?

  • This is why drug policy reform is integral to reducing drug related harm!
    • SSDP DARE seeks to educate our network on the variety of social justice issues related to the War on Drugs.

Learn more!

  • Students for Sensible Drug Policy
  • Erowid
  • This Week in Drugs
  • MAPS
  • Tripsit
  • TheDrugClassroom.com

Thank you!

Questions?

Please fill out the evaluation at http://tinyurl.com/JSK2017

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SSDP JSK Cocaine Powerpoint Template - Google Slides